The Douay Catechism of 1649
by Henry Tuberville, D.D.

AN
ABRIDGMENT
OF THE
CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE:
WITH PROOFS OF SCRIPTURE ON
POINTS CONTROVERTED
BY WAY OF QUESTION AND ANSWER. COMPOSED IN 1649,
BY REV. HENRY TUBERVILLE, D.D.,
OF THE ENGLISH COLLEGE OF DOUAY:
NOW APPROVED AND RECOMMENDED FOR HIS DIOCESE, BY
THE RIGHT REV. BENEDICT
BISHOP OF BOSTON.
"This is the way, walk ye in it." - Isaiah xxx. 21

 NEW YORK:
P. J. KENEDY,
EXCELSIOR CATHOLIC PUBLISHING HOUSE,
5 BARCLAY STREET  

THE AUTHOR TO THE READER

   THE principle part of the Catechism is an Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine; defended and cleared by proofs of scripture, in points controverted between Catholics and Sectaries; and explained by the familiar way of question and answer.

    To this, in the former impressions, was only adjoined a necessary exposition of the Mass, our Lady's Office, and the festival days of the year, but to this last edition is added, an Explanation of certain ceremonies of the Church, which now renders it more complete for instructing the ignorant, in the whole doctrine and discipline of the Catholic Church. Besides I have corrected some false citations, and other errata, which by the printer's negligence, occurred in the former impressions.

    Peruse it, good reader, with such charity as I have penned it, and if by it perusal thou shalt become more knowing in the law of Christ, and in practice more dutiful to God, and thy neighbour, it will abundantly recompense the labour of Thy well-wishing friend and servant in CHRIST.

- H T

APPROBATIO

 CUM Liber inscriptus, An Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine, &c. authore viro docto H. T. mihi probe note, intertia Editione, quam non indiligenter perlegi, nihil contineat contra sanam Doctrinam vel bonos Mores; multa vero partim scitu necessaria, partim valde utilia, dilucide & succincte, in Fide Catholica instituen dis proponat, dignum censeo qui ob publicam utilitatem Typis evulgetur.

Datum Duaci, Martii 11, 1649.
Gulielmus Hydeus, S. T. D., ac professor,
Colligii Anglorum Duacensis Præses
& Librorum Censor.

APPROBATION.

 WE feel pleasure in recommending to the faithful of our Diocese this edition of "An Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine, with proofs of Scripture on points controverted," as we have found it essentially conformable to the Dublin edition of 1820, of the correctness of which we entertain no doubt.

+ BENEDICT, Bp Bn.
Boston, April 24th, 1833

CONTENTS BY CHAPTERS

1. What a Christian is: and of the blessed Trinity
2. Faith explained
3. The Creed expounded in twelve Articles
4. Hope and Prayer explained
5. The Pater Noster, or our Lord's Prayer expounded
6. The Hail Mary, or Angelical Salutation expounded
7. Charity expounded
8. Of the Commandments in general,

    The first Commandment expounded,
 
    The second Commandment expounded,
 
    The third Commandment expounded,
 
    The fourth Commandment expounded,
 
    The fifth Commandment expounded,
 
    The sixth Commandment expounded,
 
    The seventh Commandment expounded,
 
    The eighth Commandment expounded,
 
    The ninth and tenth Commandments expounded,
 
9. The Precepts of the Church expounded,
10. The Counsels of Christ and his Church expounded,
11. Of the Sacraments in general,
 
    Baptism expounded,
 
    Confirmation expounded,
 
    The Eucharist expounded,
 
    Penance expounded,
 
    Extreme Unction expounded,
 
    Holy Order expounded,
 
    Matrimony expounded,


12. The Cardinal virtues expounded,
13. The Gifts of the Holy Ghost expounded,
14. The twelve fruits of the Holy Ghost expounded,
15. The Works of Mercy, (Corporal and Spiritual) expounded,
16. The eight Beatitudes,
17. The Kinds of Sin expounded,
18. The seven Deadly Sins expounded,
19. The Sins against the Holy Ghost expounded,
20. The Sins that cry to Heaven for Vengeance expounded,
21. The four last things expounded,
22. The substance of Essence, and Ceremonies of the Mass expounded,
23. The Primer, or Office of our blessed Lady expounded,
24. The Solemnities of Christ our Lord, and the Sundays of the Year expounded,
25. Some Ceremonies of the Church expounded

CHAPTER 1.

What a Christian is: And of the Blessed Trinity.

    Question: CHILD, what religion are you of?
    Answer: Sir, by the benefit and grace of God, I am Christian.
    Q. Whom understand you by a Christian?
    A. Him that inwardly believes and outwardly professes the law of Christ.
    Q. When are we obliged to make an external profession of it?
    A. As often as God's honour, our own, or neighbour's good requires it.
    Q. How prove you that we are bound outwardly to profess our faith?
    A. Out of St. Matt. x. 32, where Christ saith, Every one, therefore, that shall confess me before men, I will confess him before my Father who is in heaven. But he that shall deny me before men, I also will deny him before my Father who is in heaven.
    Q. Are we bound also to venture the ruin of our estates, the loss of our friends, and to lay down our very lives for the profession and defence of our faith?
    A. Doubtless we are: seeing the reward we expect in heaven, infinitely exceeds all the pleasures and punishments of this life. And because Christ the Son of the living God, has suffered far greater things for us, even to a disgraceful death on the cross? and therefore, it were base ingratitude in us, not to be ready to give our lives for him as often as his honour shall require it. Luke, xiv. 26, 33.
    Q. In what doth the faith and law of Christ chiefly consist?
    A. In two principle mysteries, namely, the unity and trinity of God, and the incarnation and death of our Saviour.
    Q. What means the unity and trinity of God?
    A. It means, that in God there is but one only divine nature or essence, and that in the same one and divine nature there are three persons, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost.
    Q. How show you that?
    A. Out of John, v. 7. There are three that give testimony in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these three are one.
    Q. Why are there but three Persons only?
    A. Because the Father had no beginning, nor proceeds from any other person; the Son proceeds from the Father, and Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son.
    Q. What means the incarnation and death of our Saviour?
    A. It means that the second person of the blessed Trinity was made man, and died on the cross to save us.
    Q. In what are these two mysteries signified?
    A. In the sign of the cross, as it is made by Catholics, for when we put our right hand to our head, saying, In the name we signify Unity; and when we make the sign of the cross saying, Of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, we signify Trinity.
    Q. How doth the sign of the cross represent the incarnation and death of our Saviour?
    A. By putting us in mind that he was made man and died upon the cross for us.

CHAPTER II.

Faith Explained

    Q. WHAT is faith?
    A. It is a gift of God or a supernatural quality, infused by God into the soul, by which we firmly believe all those things which he hath any way revealed to us.
    Q. Is faith necessary to salvation?
    A. It is; St. Paul assuring that without faith it is impossible to please God. Heb. xi. 6. and St. Mark, xvi. 16, saying, He that believeth not shall be condemned.
    Q. Why must we firmly believe matters of faith?
    A. Because God hath revealed them, who can neither deceive, nor be deceived.
    A second reason is, because not only all points of faith, but also the rule, or necessary and infallible means whereby to know them, to wit, the church's oral and universal tradition, are absolutely certain, and cannot lead us into error in faith; else we can never sufficiently be assured what is faith, or what is not.
    Q. If a man should deny, or obstinately doubt of some one point of faith, would he be thereby lose his whole faith?
    A. Yes, he would; because true faith must always be entire, and he that fails in one, is made guilty of all, by discrediting the authority of God revealing it.
    Q. Is it not enough to believe all that is written in the Bible?
    A. No, it is not: For we must also believe all apostolic tradition.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of 2 Thess. ii. 15. Therefore brethren (saith St. Paul) stand and hold ye the traditions which ye have learned, whether by word, or by our Epistle.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. The apostle's Creed, which all are bound to believe, although it be not in Scripture.
    Q. Is faith only, as excluding good works, sufficient to salvation?
    A. No: it is not: St. James, ii. 24, saying, Do you see how that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only? And St. Paul, saying, 1 Cor. xiii. 2. If I should have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and not have charity, I am nothing. And if I should distribute all my goods to feed the poor, and if I should deliver by body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing.
    Q. What faith will suffice to justify?
    A. Faith working by charity in Jesus Christ.
    Q. What vice is opposite to faith?
    A. Heresy.
    Q. What is Heresy?
    A. Is it an obstinate error in things that are of faith.
    Q. Is it a grievous sin?
    A. A very grievous one, because it wholly divides a man from God, and leads to atheism, Christ saying, if he will not hear the church let him be to thee as an heathen and a publican, Matt. xviii. 17.

CHAPTER III.

The Creed Expounded

    Q. WHAT is the creed?
    A. It is the sum of belief.
    Q. Who made it?
    A. The twelve apostles.
    Q. At what time did they make it?
    A. Before they divided themselves into the several countries of the world to preach the gospel.
    Q. For what end did they make it?
    A. That so they might be able to teach one and the same doctrine in all places.
    Q. What doth the creed contain?
    A. All those chief things which we are bound to believe, concerning God and his church.
    Q. What is the first article of the creed?
    A. I believe in God the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth.
    Q. What signifies I believe?
    A. It signifies as much as I most firmly and undoubtedly hold.
    Q. What means, I believe in God?
    A. It means that not only that I firmly believe there is a God, but also that I am piously affected to him, as to say chiefest good and last end, with confidence in him, or otherwise that I move unto him by faith, hope, and charity.
    Q. What signifies the word Father?
    A. It signifies the first person of the most blessed Trinity, who by nature is the Father of his own only begotten Son, the second Person of the blessed Trinity; by adoption is the Father of all good Christians; and by creations is the Father of all creatures.
    Q. What means the word Almighty?
    A. It means that God is able to do all things as he pleaseth; that he sees all things, knows all things, and governs all things.
    Q. Why is he called Almighty in this place?
    A. That we might doubt of nothing which follows.
    Q. What signify the words, Creator of heaven and earth?
    A. They signify that God made heaven and earth, and all creatures in them, of nothing, by his sole word, Gen. i.
    Q. What moved God to make them?
    A. His own mere goodness, that so he might communicate himself to angels, and to men, for whom he made all other creatures.
    Q. When did God create the angels?
    A. On the first day when he created heaven and earth, Gen. i. where Moses implies the creation of angels in the word heaven, and makes no other mention of it. The Nicene creed, interpreting the Apostles' Creed, says, that the words Creator of heaven and earth, mean all things visible and invisible.
    Q. For what end did God create them?
    A. To be partakers of his glory, and our guardians.
    Q. How prove you by Scripture, that they be our guardians?
    A. Out of St. Matt. xviii. 10, where Christ saith 'See that you despise not one of these little ones: For I day unto you, their angels in heaven always see the face of my Father who is in heaven.'
    Q. Do the angels know our necessities, and hear our prayers?
    A. Doubtless they do, since God has deputed them to be our guardians; which is also proved out of Zach. i 12. where an angel prays for two whole cities; the words are 'Then the angel of the Lord answered and said, O Lord of hosts, how long wilt thou not have mercy on the cities of Juda and Jerusalem, against which thou hast been angry these seventy years?'
    Q. What Scripture have you for praying to angels?
    A. Gen. xlviii. 16, where Jacob on his death bed prayed to an angel for Ephraim and Manasses, saying, 'The angel of the Lord that delivered me from all evils, bless these children.'
    This place is cited for prayer to the angels in the notes of the Rhemish Testament upon it, and is confirmed to signify a created angel by St. Basil, lib. 3. cont. Dunon. sub initio: And St. Chrysosthom. 7. in laudem Sancti Pauli.
    Q. How did Lucifer and his fellow angels fall from their dignity in heaven?
    A. By a rebellious sin of pride.
    Q. With what shall their ruins be repaired?
    A. Will holy men.
    Q. When and to what likeness did God create man?
    A. On the sixth day, and to his own likeness: Gen. i. 27.
    Q. In what doth the similitude consist?
    A. In this, that man is in his soul an incorporeal, intellectual and immortal spirit, as God is. And in this, that as in God there is but one most divine nature or essence, and yet three distinct Persons; so in man there is but one indivisible soul, and yet in that soul three distinct powers, will, memory, and understanding.
    Q. How do you prove the soul to be immortal?
    A. Out of Matt. x. 28, where Christ saith, 'Fear not them that kill the body, and cannot kill the soul.'
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of Eccles. xii. 7. At our death the dust returns to the earth from whence it was, and the spirit to God that gave it.
    Q. In what state did God create man?
    A. In the state of original justice, and perfection of all natural gifts.
    Q. Do we owe much to God for our creation?
    A. Very much, seeing he made us in such perfect state, creating us for himself, and all things else for us.
    Q. How did we lose original justice?
    A. By Adam's disobedience to God, in eating the forbidden fruit.
    Q. In what state are we now born?
    A. In the state of original sin, and prone to actual sin, subject to death.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Rom. v. 12. 'By one man sin entered into the world, and by sin death; and so unto all men death did pass, in whom all have sinned.'
    Q. Had man ever died, if he had never sinned?
    A. No, he had not, but had been converted by the tree of life, and been translated alive into the fellowship of the angels.

The Second Article

    Q. SAY the second article.
    A. And in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord.
    Q. Of what treats this article?
    A. Of the second person of the blessed Trinity, in whom we also believe and put our trust.
    Q. What is the second Person?
    A. He is true God, and true Man, in one Person.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of St. John's Gospel, chap. i. 1. 'In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, &c. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us.'
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of Phil. ii. 6, 7, where St. Paul saith, 'That Christ when he was in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God, but he hath lessened himself, taking the form of a servant, made unto the likeness of men; and found in habit as a man.
    Q. Why should God be man man?
    A. To redeem and save lost man.
    Q. Was his incarnation necessary for that end?
    A. In the manner it was; because our offences against God were in some sort infinite; as being against his infinite goodness; and therefore required an infinite satisfaction; which no one could make but God and therefore he was made man.
    Q. What other proof have you for the necessity of the Incarnation?
    A. Because God is in himself so spiritual, sublime, and abstract a thing, that if he had not in his mercy adapted his own inscrutable greatness to the littleness of our sensible capacity, by being made man, scarce on of a thousand would ever have been able to know anything to the purpose of him; or consequently to love and serve him as they ought, (which is the necessary means of our salvation) since nothing is efficaciously willed which is not first well understood.
    Q. What benefit have we by the knowledge of God made man?
    A. It much inflames us with the love of God, who could not more have dignified men's nature, or shown more love to the world, then to send down his only Son to redeem it in our flesh.
    Q. What signifies the name of Jesus?
    A. It signifies a Saviour, St. Matt. i. 21.
    Q. Is any special honour due to that name?
    A. There is, because it is the highest title of God made man.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Phil. ii. 8, 9, 10, where we read, 'God hath given unto Christ because he hath humbled himself unto the death of the cross, a name which is above all names, the name of Jesus.'
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Because there is no other name under heaven given to man, in which we must be saved. Acts iv. 12.
    Q. How prove you that we must bow at this name?
    A. Out of Phil. ii. 10. That in the name of Jesus every knee should bow of those that are in heaven, on earth and in hell.
    Q. What signifies the name Christ?
    A. It signifies anointed.
    Q. Why was he called anointed?
    A. Because he was a priest, a prophet, and a king to all which unction pertains.
    Q. With what was Christ anointed?
    A. With all the plenitude of divine grace.
    Q. What mean the words, his only Son our Lord?
    A. They mean that Jesus Christ is the only Son of God the Father, begotten, as he is God, and of the same Father from all eternity, without a mother; and therefore is coequal and consubstantial to his Father; and consequently infinite, omnipotent Creator, and so Lord of us and all things, as the Father is.

  The Third Article

    Q. WHAT is the third article?
    A. Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary.
    Q. What means, who was conceived by the Holy Ghost?
    A. It means that the second Person of the blessed Trinity took flesh of the Virgin Mary, not by a human generation, but by the work of the Holy Ghost.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of St. Luke i. 31, 35. Behold (saith the angel) thou shalt conceive and bear a Son, &c. the Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the virtue of the Highest shall overshadow thee.
    Q. What understand you by the words, born of the Virgin Mary?
    A. I understand that Christ was born of her at midnight, in a poor stable at Bethlehem, between an ox and an ass.
    Q. Why at midnight?
    A. To signify that he came to take away the darkness of our sins.
    Q. Why in Bethlehem?
    A. Because it was the head city of David's family, and Christ was of David's race.
    Q. Why in a poor stable?
    A. To teach us to love poverty and contempt of this world.
    Q. Why between an ox and an ass?
    A. To fulfil that of the prophet, Thou shalt be known, O Lord, between two beasts, Habacuc xii. juxta Sept.
    Q. What doth the birth of Christ avail us?
    A. It perfecteth in us faith, hope, and charity.
    Q. What signifies, "born of the Virgin Mary?"
    A. It signifies that Our Lady was a virgin not only before, but also in, and after childbirth.

  The Fourth Article.

    Q. WHAT is the fourth article?
    A. Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified dead and buried.
    Q. What understand you by suffering under Pontius Pilate?
    A. I understand that Christ, after a painful life of thirty-three years, suffered most bitter torments under the wicked president Pontius Pilate.
    Q. Where did he begin those sufferings?
    A. In the garden of Gethsemani; that as sin began in the garden by the first Adam, so might grace also, by the second.
    Q. What are those torments?
    A. His bloody sweat, his whipping at the pillar, his purple garment, his crown of thorns, his Sceptre of a reed, his carrying the cross, and many others.
    Q. What understand you by the words, was crucified?
    A. I understand, he was nailed to a disgraceful cross between two thieves, for our offences, and to save us.
    Q. Is is lawful to honour the cross?
    A. Yes, with a relative honour it is, because it is a special memorial of our Saviour's passion, and is called the sign of the Son of man, St. Matt. xxiv. 30.
    Q. What other reason have you?
    A. Because the cross was the sacred altar, on which Christ offered his bloody sacrifice.
    Q. What scripture have you for it?
    A. Gal. vi. 14. 'God forbid, (saith St. Paul,) that I should glory, but in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ.'
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of Phil. iii. 18. Many walk (saith St. Paul) of whom I have often told you, and now again weeping, I tell you that they are enemies to the cross of Christ, &c. whose end is perdition. And out of Ezek. ix. 4, where we read, That such as were signed with the sign Tau, (which was a picture and figure of the cross,) were saved from the exterminating angel, and only such.
    Q. What signifies the word dead?
    A. It signifies that Christ suffered a true and real death.
    Q. Why was it requisite he should die?
    A. To free us from the death of sin.
    Q. Why died he, crying with a loud voice?
    A. To show he had power of his own life; and he freely gave it up for us, being strong and vigorous.
    Q. Why died he bowing down his head?
    A. To signify his obedience to his Father, in the acceptance of his disgraceful death.
    Q. What means buried?
    A. It means, that his body was laid in a new sepulchre, and buried with honour, as the prophet had foretold, Isa. xi. 10.

The Fifth Article

    Q. WHAT is the fifth article?
    A. He descended into hell, the third day he arose again from the dead.
    Q. What means, he descended into Hell?
    A. It means, that as soon as Christ was dead, he descended into Limbo, to free the holy fathers who were there.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Acts ii. 24, 27. 'Christ being slain, God raised him up loosing the sorrows of hell, as it was foretold by the prophet,' Psalm xv. 10. 'Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, nor wilt thou give thy Holy One to see corruption.'
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Ephes. iv. 8, 9. 'He ascending on high, hath led captivity captive; he gave gifts to men; and that he ascended,' what is it but because he descended into the lower parts of the earth?
    Q. Did he not descend to purgatory to free such as were there?
    A. It is most probable he did according to 1 Pet. iii. 19, 20. 'Christ being dead, came in spirit; and preached to them also that were in prison, who had been incredulous in the days of Noah, when the ark was building.'
    Q. What understand you by, on the third day he rose again from the dead?
    A. I understand, when Christ had been dead part of three days, on the third day, which was Sunday, he raised up his blessed body from the dead.
    Q. Why did he not raise it again sooner?
    A. To testify that he was truly dead, and to fulfil the prophecies.
    Q. Did he reassume all the parts of his body?
    A. He did, even to the last drop of his vital blood, and the very scattered hairs of his head.
    Q. Why did he retain the stigmas and marks of the sacred wounds?
    A. To confound the incredulity of men, and to present them often to his Father, as a propitiation of our sins.
    Q. What benefit have we by the resurrection?
    A. It confirms our faith and hope, that we shall rise again from death: 'For he who raised up Jesus will raise us also with Jesus.' 2 Cor. iv. 14.

The Sixth Article

    Q. WHAT is the sixth article?
    A. He ascended into heaven, sits on the right hand of God the Father Almighty.
    Q. What means, He ascended into heaven?
    A. It means that when Christ had conversed forty days on earth with his disciples, after his resurrection, teaching them heavenly things, then he ascended triumphant into heaven, by his own power.
    Q. From what place did he ascend?
    A. From the top of the Mount of Olivet, where the print of his blessed feet are seen to this day.
    Q. Why from thence?
    A. That were he began to be humbled by his passion, there he might also begin to be exalted.
    Q. Before whom did he ascend?
    A. Before his mother, apostles and disciples, Acts 1. 9, &c.
    Q. In what manner did he ascend?
    A. Lifting up his hands, and blessing them.
    Q. Why is it added, Into Heaven?
    A. To draw our hearts to heaven after Him; 'If ye have risen with Christ, seek ye the things which are above.' Col. iii. 1.
    Q. What understand you by, Sits at the right hand of God?
    A. I do not understand, that God the Father hath any hands, for he is incorporated, and a spirit: but that Christ is equal to his Father in power and majesty, as he is God; and that as man he is the highest created glory.

The Seventh Article

    Q. WHAT is the seventh article?
    A. From thence he will come to judge the living and the dead.
    Q. What understand you by this article?
    A. I understand Christ will come at the last day from heaven, to judge all men according to their work.
    Q. Does every man receive a particular judgment at his death?
    A. He doth, but in the general judgment we shall be judged not only in our souls, as at our death, but also in our bodies.
    Q. Why is that necessary?
    A. That as Christ was openly rejected, so he may there be openly acknowledged to the great joy and glory of his friends, as also to the confusion of his enemies.
    Q. How prove you that in the judgment all men shall receive according to their works?
    A. Out of 2 Cor. v. 10. 'We must all be manifested (saith St. Paul) before the judgment seat of Christ, that every one may receive the proper things of the body according as he hath done, whether good or evil.' And out of St. Matt. xvi. 27. 'The Son of man (saith out Lord) shall come in the glory of his Father, with his angels, and then he will render to every one according to his works.'
    Q. Is there any merit in our good works?
    A. There is, according to Apoc. xxii. 12. Behold I come quickly (saith the Lord) and my reward is with me; to render to every man according to his works.'
    Q. In what place shall this judgment be made?
    A. In the Valley of Jehosaphat, as many suppose between Jerusalem and Mount of Olivet.
    Q. How prove you this?
    A. By its conformity to that of the prophet. I will gather together all nations, I will send them into the Valley of Jehosaphat, and there will I plead with them upon my people, and my inheritance Israel,' Joel iii.
    Q. What signs shall go before it?
    A. The sun and moon shall lose their lights, there shall be wars, plagues, famines, and earthquakes, in many places.
    Q. In what manner will Christ come unto it?
    A. In great power and majesty, attended with legions of angels.
    Q. Who are they that shall be judged?
    A. The whole race and progeny of man.
    Q. What are the things that shall be judged?
    A. Our thoughts, words, and works, even to the secrets of our souls.
    Q. Who will accuse us?
    A. The Devils, and our own guilty consciences: in which all our thoughts, words and deeds shall presently appear, and be laid open to the whole world.
    Q. How shall the just and reprobate be placed?
    A. The just shall be on the right; the reprobate on the left hand of the Judge.
    Q. What shall be the sentence of the just?
    A. 'Come, O ye blessed of my Father, and receive ye the kingdom which is prepared for you, for I was hungry and ye gave me to eat, I was thirsty, and ye gave me to drink,' &c St. Matt. xxv. 35, 36.
    Q. What shall be the sentence of the reprobate?
    A. 'Go ye cursed into eternal fire, which hath been prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was hungry, and ye gave me not to eat,' &c. the same chap. v. 41, 42. You see of what weight good works will be at that day.
    Q. Why is it added, the living and the dead?
    A. To signify that Christ shall judge, not only such as are living at the time of his coming, but likewise all such as have been dead, from the creation of the world; as also by the living, are understood angels and saints, by the dead, devils and damned souls.

The Eighth Article

    Q. WHAT is the eight article?
    A. I believe in the Holy Ghost.
    Q. Of what treats this article?
    A. Of the third Person of the blessed Trinity, in whom we also believe and put our trust, who proceeds from the Father and the Son, and is the self-same God with them, distinct in nothing but in person.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of 1 John v. 7. 'There are three that give testimony in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these three are one.'
    Q. Why is the name of the Holy Ghost appropriated to the third Person, since angels are all spirits and holy?
    A. Because he is such by excellency and essence, they only by participation.
    Q. At least why should it not be common to the other two persons?
    A. Because they are known by the proper names of Father and Son, but we have not any proper name for the Holy Ghost.
    Q. In what forms has the Holy Ghost appeared unto man?
    A. In the form of a dove, to signify the purity and innocence which he caused in our souls; and in the form of a bright cloud, and fiery tongue, to signify the fire of charity, which he produced in our hearts, as also the gift of tongues; and hence it is, he is painted in these forms.

The Ninth Article

    Q. WHAT is the ninth article?
    A. I believe in the holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints.
    Q. What understand you by this?
    A. I understand that Christ hath a church upon earth which he established in his own blood, and that he hath commanded us to believe that church, in all things appertaining to faith, and morals, Matt. xviii. 17.
    Q. What kind of faith must we believe her with?
    A. With the same faith that we believe her Spouse the Son of God, that is, with divine faith, but with this difference among other, that we believe in God; but though we believe the church, yet we do not properly believe in the church.
    Q. What is the church?
    A. It is the congregation of all the faithful under Jesus Christ, their invisible head, and his vicar upon earth, the Pope.
    Q. What are the essential parts of the church?
    A. A Pope or supreme head, bishops, pastors, and laity.
    Q. How prove you that bishops are of divine institution?
    A. Out of Acts xx. 28. Take heed unto yourselves, and to the whole flock, wherein the Holy Ghost hath placed you bishops, to rule the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.
    Q. How believe you St. Peter, and the Pope his successor, to be the visible head of the church?
    A. First out of St. John xxi. 16, 17, and 18, where Christ gave St. Peter (for a reward of his special faith and love) absolute power to feed and govern his whole flock, saying, Feed my Lambs, feed my lambs, feed my sheep; therefore the rest of the apostles were his sheep, and he their head or pastor.
    Secondly, out of St. Matt. xvi. 18, where Christ saith, Thou art Peter, and upon this Rock will I build my church. Therefore the rest of the apostles were built on him; and hence also it is, that in Scripture, St. Peter is still named first.
    Q. What are the marks of the true church?
    A. Unity, sanctity, universality, and to be apostolical.
    Q. What mean you by the church's unity?
    A. That all her members live under one evangelical law, obey the same supreme head, and his magistrates profess the same faith, even to the last article, and use the same sacraments and sacrifices.
    Q. How prove you out of Scripture that the church is one?
    A. 1 Cor. x. 17. Being many (saith St. Paul) we are one bread, one body, all who participate of one bread.
    Q. Why may not a well-meaning person be saved in any religion?
    A. Because there is but one Lord, one faith, one baptism, Ephes. iv. 5, and without (that one) faith, it is impossible to please God. Heb. xi. 6.
    Q. What other reason have you for it?
    A. Because, as in a natural body, that part which has not a due connection to the heart or root, presently dies for want of continuity; so in the church (the mystical body of Christ) that man who has not a due subordination and connection to the head and common councils thereof, (that is, the Pope and general councils from whence under Christ we have our spiritual life and motion, as we are Christians,) must needs be dead, nor indeed can he be accounted a member of that mystical body.
    Q. Who, I beseech you, are those who are not to be accounted members of the Church?
    A. All such as are not in the unity of the church, by a most firm belief of her doctrine, and due obedience to her pastors; as Jews, Turks, Heretics, &c.
    Q. Why may not Heretics and Schismatics justly claim to be in the Unity of the Church and Members of Christ's body?
    A. Because Catholics can show to each sect of Heretics and Schismatics the time they began; the date of their separation from the Church: the name of the person or persons of their sect who first separated themselves, and the cause of their condemnation; whilst the Catholic Church always was from the beginning.
    Q. What if a Protestant should tell you, that the difference between them and us, are not differences in fundamentals, or in faith, but in opinion only, and therefore do not exclude them out of unity of the Catholic Church?
    A. I should answer, they contradict themselves; for they accuse us of robbing God of his honour, in holding priestly absolutions from sins; in adoring Christ's body and blood, as really present in the eucharist, and holding the Pope's supremacy in things belonging to the spiritual government of the Church, also the infallibility of the Church and general councils, in delivering and defining points of faith, which are no matters of indifference, but high fundamentals.
    Q. How do you prove all obstinate Innovators to be Heretics?
    A. Because they wilfully stand out against the definitive sentence of the Church of God, and submit not to any tribunal appointed by Christ to decide religious controversies; but follow their own interpretation of the dead letter of the scriptures.
    Q. And is not this the reason also why Protestants and all other sectarians are so divided in religious matters?
    A. Yes, it is; for how is it possible that people who imagine that there is no person or tribunal, or even the Church of God, infallible, for expounding the bible; people, who expound it each according to his respective fancy; people, who have no control over the erroneous interpretation of each other; how it is possible that such people would have the unity of faith, in the bond of peace; or that they be not tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine?
    Q. Why may not the letter of the Scripture be a decisive judge of controversies?
    A. Because it has never been able from it[s] first publication, to decide any one dispute; as the whole world knows from experience: all heretics equally pretend to scripture authority in defence of their errors and heresies.
    Q. How then can we ascertain the truth amidst conflicting opinions?
    A. By the infallible authority, definition, and proposition of the Catholic Church.
    Q. For what end, then, was the Scripture written, if not to be a decider of controversies?
    A. The writing of the Holy Scriptures was for the purpose of the better preserving the revealed will of God, and that by a sensible and common reading of it, without any critical or controversial disputes of words, we might be able to know that God is, and what he is, and also that there is a heaven and a hell, rewards for virtue and punishment for vice, with examples of both, all which we find in the letter of the Scripture, by a plain and ordinary reading.
    Q. Is the church we speak of visible?
    A. She is and must be visible at all times, as consisting of a hierarchy of pastors, governing, teaching, administering sacraments to the world's end, and of other people governed, taught and receiving sacraments at their hands, all publicly professing the same faith, all which things are visible.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. First, out of Eph. iv. 1, and 12. 'Christ gave some apostles, some evangelists, some doctors, some pastors, to the consummation of the saints, to the edifying of the body of Christ, and to the work of the ministry, until we all meet in the unity of faith.'
    Secondly, out of St. Matt. v. 14, where Christ saith of his church, "You are the light of the world, a city seated on a high mountain cannot be hid."
    Q. Why then would the Protestants have the church to be invisible?
    A. Because we have convinced them, that there were no Protestants to be seen or heard of in the world before Martin Luther.
    Q. Why is the church said to be holy, or to have sanctity?
    A. Because she hath a holy faith, a holy law, holy sacraments, and is guided by the Holy Ghost, to all truth and holiness.
    Q. How else prove you her sanctity?
    A. Because Christ gave himself for his church that he might sanctify her, cleansing her by the laver of water in the world, that he might present her to himself a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle, but that she might be holy and unspotted. Eph. v. 26, 27.
    Q. Notwithstanding the sanctity of the Catholic Church, are not some Catholics as wicked as Protestants?
    A. Yes, verily, and more wicked, for where sanctity is less, their sacrilege cannot be so great. No man could damn his own posterity, but he that had original justice to lose: nor any man to betray Christ, but he that had eaten at his table. Protestants have not a holy faith, such sacraments, nor a holy church to abuse, as Catholics have, and therefore no wonder, if some Catholics be worse than any Protestants; yet Catholics have some saints, but Protestants have none.
    Q. Is the church infallible?
    A. She is, and therefore to be believed, and all men may rest securely on her judgment.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. First, because she is the pillar and ground of truth 1 Tim. iii. 15.
    Secondly, out of St. Matt. xvi. 18, where Christ saith, "Upon this Rock will I build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against her."
    Thirdly, out of St. John, xiv. 26. But the Paraclete, (saith he,) the Holy Ghost, shall teach you all things whatsoever I shall say to you. And xvi. 13. But when the Spirit of truth cometh, he shall teach you all truth.
    Q. How declare you that the definitions of a council perfectly ecumenical, that is, a general council approved by the Pope, are infallible in matters of faith?
    A. Because such a council is the church representative, and has the same infallibility that the church spread over the world hath.
    Q. What other reason have you?
    A. Because of the definitions of such a council are the dictates of the Holy Ghost, according to that of the apostles, deciding in council, it hath seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, Acts xv. 28.
    Q. What think you then of such as accuse the church of errors in faith and idolatry?
    A. Truly I think them to be Heretics or Infidels, for our Lord saith, He that will not hear the church let him be unto thee as a heathen and a publican, St. Matt. xviii. 17.
    Q. Is not the church at least too severe in its censures and excommunications against sectaries?
    A. No, she is very reasonable and charitable in them for vicious, passionate, and self-interested men some times are brought to reason for fear of punishment and are forced to their own good, when no authority ordained by Christ is able to persuade them to it.
    Q. What understood you by the word catholic, or by the universality of the church?
    A. I understand the church is universal, both for time and place.
    Q. How for time?
    A. Because she hath been from Christ to this time, and shall be from thence to the end of the world.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of St. Matt. xxviii. 20. Going therefore (saith our Lord) teach ye all nations, &c. and behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world.
    Q. What mean you by the universality of place?
    A. First, out of St. Matt. above cited, Teach all nations.
    Secondly out of Psalm lxxxv. 9. All Nations, whatsoever thou hast made, shall come and adore before thee, O Lord.
    Thirdly, out of Apoc. vii. 9, where we read, that the church shall be gathered out of all nations, people, tribes, and tongues.
    Q. Why do we call the church the Roman Church?
    A. Because, since the transition of St. Peter's chair from Antioch to Rome, the particular Roman Church has been head of all the churches, and to her the primacy has been affixed.
    Q. What is the rule by which the church preserves entire the deposit of Faith and confounds all sectaries?
    A. Apostolical traditions, or receipt of doctrine by hand to hand from Christ and his apostles.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Rom. vi. 17. "Therefore I beseech you, brethren (saith St. Paul) mark them which make dissensions and scandals, contrary to the doctrine which you have learned, and avoid them, for such do not serve Christ our Lord."
    Q. What other proofs have you?
    A. Out of St. Paul, saying, "But although we or an angel from heaven evangelize to you, besides that which we have evangelized to you, be he anathema, or besides, what you have received be he anathema." Gal. i. 8, 9.
    Q. Can the church err in faith, standing to this rule, and admitting nothing for faith, but what is consented by the whole church to have been so received?
    A. She cannot, otherwise the whole church must there conspire in a notorious lie, to damn herself and her posterity, or else she must be ignorant what hath been taught for her faith by the church of the precedent age, which are both natural impossibilities.
    Q. How prove you these to be impossibilities by nature?
    A. By the constancy and immutability of contingent causes, whose particulars may be defective, but the universals cannot.
    Q. Explain that a little.
    A. Because one man or two or three may be born but with one arm, or one eye only, through defect of their particular causes; but that all nature should fail at once, and all men be so born, is totally impossible in nature; in like manner, one man or two may conspire in palpable lies to damn themselves and their posterity, or be deceived in what hath been taught them for faith, from their very cradles; but that the whole church should so far break with the nature of man (which is reason) to conspire in such a lie, or to be so mistaken, is as impossible in nature, as it is for men to be no men.
    Q. May some errors have been received for faith, and crept insensibly over the whole church, no man perceiving or taking notice of them?
    A. No, that is as impossible as that the plague or burning fever should infect or spread itself over a whole kingdom for many years, no man perceiving it, or seeking to prevent it; for nothing causes greater notice to be taken, than any public or notorious change in matters of religion.
    Q. May not the power of temporal princes, or the over prevalency of human wit and reason, have introduced errors into the church?
    A. Neither is that possible, seeing we are not regulated in things which are of faith, either by power, or any strength of reason, but by the rule of apostolical tradition, and by inquiring of the whole church of every age, what hath been taught by our forefathers, from Christ and his apostles.
    Q. Was not the Millenary heresy an apostolical tradition?
    A. No, it was not; for there is no assurance or consent among those who write of it, that it was ever preached or delivered by the apostles.
    Q. Did not St. Austin and Innocentius, with their councils, hold the communion of children a thing necessary to their salvation?
    A. They speak not of sacramental communion, as is evident to all who have read their works, but of the effect of it, that is, of their incorporation into the mystical body of Christ, which is made in baptism, and this only they affirmed to be necessary to their salvation.
    Q. At least do not heretics say and aver, that the church hath apostatized and erred in faith?
    A. They do indeed, but it will not serve their turn barely to say it, unless they were also able to prove it, (which they neither are or will be) by evident and undeniable proofs.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. First, because that presumption and possession of her integrity and infallibility is on the church's side; and therefore ought not to be yielded up, without clear evidence of her prevarication.
    Secondly, because he that accuses his neighbour's wife of adultery, without convincing proof thereof, is not to be hearkened unto, but to be hated by all good men, as a most infamous slanderer; much more ought they who shall accuse the church, the spouse of Christ, of errors and apostasy, unless their proofs be evident and undeniable, to be detested as blasphemous heretics.
    Thirdly, because if less than manifest and convincing evidence be sufficient to prove matters of this high nature, it is not impossible but every false tongue shall set dissensions between man and wife, and stir up the most faithful subjects in the world to a rebellion against their princes, both spiritual and temporal.
    Q. What other reason have you yet, why the church and law of Christ may not fail and be utterly extinguished?
    A. Because the causes of religion (to wit, the hope of good, and fear of evil from God) are universal and necessary, always knocking at men's hearts, and putting them in mind of some good or other, and therefore must needs have perpetual and necessary effects, which in such as are convinced that Christ is God, can be no other than the faith, hope and love of Christ, and the observance of his law, and that for ever, speaking of the whole church, although particular men may err and fall away.
    Q. What is it for the church to be apostolical?
    A. To have been begun and propagated by the apostles, and to have a succession of pastors, and doctrines from them.
    Q. What means the communion of saints?
    A. It means first that the faithful do all communicate in the same faith and sacraments, in the same sacrifice, and also in the merits of one another.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of 1 Cor. xii. 26. And if one member suffer any thing, all the members suffer with it; or if one member do glory, all the members rejoice with it, you are the body of Christ, and members of a member.
    Secondly, It means that the faithful on earth communicate with the angels and the saints in heaven; we by praising and praying to them, they by praying for us.
    Q. How do you prove this communion?
    A. Out of Luke xv. 10. There is joy before the angels of God upon one sinner that doth penance. And out of 1 John i. 3, That you also may have fellowship with us, and our fellowship may be with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ.
    Q. How prove you that the saints have any power to do us good?
    A. Out of Apoc. ii. 26, 27, where Christ hath promised them power over us: to him, said he, that shall overcome, and keep my works to the end, to him will I give power over nations, and he shall rule them with an iron rod.
    Q. How prove you that it is lawful to pray to angels?
    A. Out of Apoc. i. 4, where St. John did it: Grace (saith he) to you, and peace from him that is, that was, and that shall come, and from the seven spirits that are in the sight of his throne.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of Apoc. viii. 4, where we read, that they present the church's prayers to God. The smoke of the incense of the prayers of the saints ascend from the hand of the angel before God.
    Q. How prove you that we may pray to saints?
    A. Out of Gen. xlvii, 16, where Jacob taught his children to do it, saying, And let my name be invocated upon them, the names also of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac.
    Q. How prove you that they pray for us?
    A. Out of Apoc. v. 8. The twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one harps, and vials full of odours, which are the prayers of the saints.
    Q. Is it no dishonour to God, for us to pray to saints to pray for us?
    A. No, it is not, nor yet to beg it of men; for St. Paul did it: We hope (saith he) that God will deliver us, you also helping in prayer for us. 2 Cor. i. 11.

The Tenth Article.

    Q. WHAT is the tenth article?
    A. The forgiveness of sins.
    Q. What do you understand by this?
    A. I understand that God is both able and willing to forgive our sins, if we be heartily sorry for them, and confess them; and have given power to his church to remit them by baptism and penance.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Matt. ix. 8, where it is recorded by the Holy Ghost, that the multitude glorified God, who hath given such power unto man, as to forgive sins, (Christ having before proved the said power by a miracle) ver. 6, 7.
    Q. Is any sin so great that God cannot forgive it?
    A. No there is not; for his mercy is far above our malice.
    Q. Can any one mortal sin be remitted without the rest?
    A. It cannot, because the remission of mortal sin is a renewing of friendship with God by his grace, which can never be effected, so long as there remains in us any mortal sin.
    Q. Can we have absolute certainty, that our sins are forgiven us?
    A. Without special revelation we cannot: I am not guilty in conscience (saith St. Paul) of any thing, but herein I am not justified. 1 Cor. iv. 4.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Because a man knows not whether he be worthy of love or hatred. Eccl. i. 9.
    Q. Can we be certain of our final perseverance?
    A. Not without special revelation, and therefore St. Paul said, I chastise my body and bring it into subjection, lest when I preach to others I myself become a reprobate, 1 Cor. ix. 27, and Phil. ii. 12. He exhorts, saying, with fear and trembling, work out your salvation.
    Q. How then shall we have peace of conscience?
    A. Because we may have moral certainty and a most lively hope, that our sins are forgiven by us by the due use of the sacraments, which is enough for our peace.

The Eleventh Article.

    Q. WHAT is the eleventh article?
    A. The resurrection of the flesh.
    Q. What means this article?
    A. It means that these very bodies in which we now live, shall at the day of judgment be all raised up from death to life.
    Q. By what means shall this be done?
    A. By the omnipotent command of God, and the ministry of angels.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of 1 Thess. iv. 16. For our Lord in commandment, and in the voice of an archangel, and in the trumpet of God, will descend from heaven, and the dead that are in Christ shall rise again.
    Q. Shall the same bodies rise again?
    A. The same in substance, though different in qualities.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Job xix. 25, 26, 27. For I know that my Redeemer liveth, and in the last day I shall rise out of the earth, and shall be compassed again with my skin, and in my flesh I shall see God, whom I myself shall see, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another.
    Q. What shall be the qualities or doweries of a glorified body?
    A. Impassability, agility, clarity, subtility.
    Q. How do you prove its impassability, or incorruptibility?
    A. Out of 1 Cor. xv. 53. For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.
    Q. How prove you its agility?
    A. Out of the same chapter, ver. 43, 44. It is sown in infirmity, it shall rise in power; it is sown a natural body, but it shall rise in a spiritual body, (that is, in motion, and some operations equal to a spirit;) which also proves its subtility.
    Q. How prove you it clarity?
    A. Out of the same chapter, ver. 24 "For star (said he) differs from star in glory, so also the resurrection of the dead." And ver. 43. "It is sown in dishonour, it shall rise in glory."
    Q. In what space of time shall the dead rise, and the elect be thus changed?
    A. "In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye," 1 Cor. xv, 52.
    Q. At what age and stature shall men rise?
    A. At a perfect age, which is thirty-three, and in that stature which they should have had at a perfect age, without deformity by defect or excess.
    Q. How prove you this?
    A. Out of Ephes. iv. 13. "The church shall last until we all meet into a perfect may, into the measure of the age of the fulness of Christ."
    Q. What example have you in nature for the resurrection?
    A. A grain of corn, which first rots in the earth and then springs up and lives again.
    Q. What benefit have we by the knowledge of the resurrection?
    A. It emboldens us to suffer persecution and death itself, in hope of future glory, according to that of St. Paul: "For sufferings of these times are not comparable to that of future glory, which be revealed in us:" Rom. viii. 18.

The Twelfth Article.

    Q. WHAT is the twelfth article?
    A. And life everlasting.
    Q. Why is this the last article?
    A. Because everlasting life is the last end of man, and the last reward we expect by faith.
    Q. What understand you by this article?
    A. I understand that such as keep the commandments, and die in the state of grace, shall live with God in bliss forever.
    Q. How prove you that keeping the commandments is of necessity for obtaining it?
    A. Out of Matt. xix. 17, where Christ said to the young man, asking what he should do to obtain it, "If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments."
    Q. Is everlasting life given as a reward of our good works?
    A. It is, according to Rom. ii. 6, 7. "God will render to every one according to his works, to them truly, that according to patience in good works, seek glory and honour, and incorruption life everlasting" &c.
    Q. Were all men created for everlasting life?
    A. They were, for God "would have all men to be saved," 1 Tim. ii. 4. "He willeth not the death of any sinner, but rather that he be converted and live." Ezek. xxxiii. 11.
    Q. Why then are many damned?
    A. By reason of their own wilful transgression of God's law, and final impenitence.
    Q. How prove you that man is the free cause of his own sin and damnation?
    A. First out of Job xi. 23. "God (saith he) hath given him place for penance, but he abuseth it unto pride."
    Secondly, out of Hos. xiii. 9. "The perdition is from thyself, O Israel; in me only is thy aid."
    Thirdly, out of Rom. ii. 4. "The benignity of God calls thee to repentance, but thou heapest to thyself wrath and indignation, according to thy own impenitent heart."
    Q. In what consists everlasting life?
    A. In the clear vision and fruition of God, according to that of our Saviour, in John xvii. 3. "This is the life everlasting, that they know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent."
    Q. Shall we see nothing in Heaven but God?
    A. Yes, all the attributes and perfections of God, and in him also, as in a mirror or looking glass, the nature and perfections of all creatures; for he contains all things in himself in the most eminent manner.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of the apostle, saying, "from whom all things by whom all things, and in whom all things." Rom xi. 36.
    Q. What effect will follow out the clear vision and fruition of God?
    A. A divine love, steadfast possession and ineffable joy; and out of that praise, jubilation, and thanksgiving for ever.
    Q. What means the word Amen?
    A. It means that the whole creed is divine truth, and therefore we most heartily assent to it.


 

CHAPTER IV.

Hope and Prayer Explained.

    Q. WHAT is Hope?
    A. It is a virtue infused by God into the soul, by which we have a confident expectation of glory to be obtained by the grace and merits of Christ, and our own merits proceeding from his grace.
    Q. On what is the confidence chiefly grounded?
    A. On the merits and promises of Christ, who hath promised glory to such as hope in him, and do his works, as also grace whereby to do them.
    Q. Are our good works then meritorious of a reward of glory?
    A. As proceeding from the grace of Christ, and built upon his promises, they are.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. First, out of Mark ix. 14. "For whosoever shall give you to drink a cup of water in my name because you are Christ's, Amen, I say to you, he shall not lose his reward."
    Secondly, out of 1 Cor. iii. 8. "And every one shall receive his own reward, according to his own labour, for we are God's coadjutors."
    Thirdly, out of Matt. v. 11. "Blessed are ye (saith our Lord) when they shall revile and persecute you; for very great is your reward in heaven."
    Q. Is it lawful for us to do good works in the hope of a reward?
    A. Not only lawful but laudable, according to that, I "have inclined by heart, to do thy justifications for ever, for a reward." Psalm cxviii. 12.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of 1 John iii. 22. "Whatsoever (saith he) we shall ask of God, we shall receive of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those things that are pleasing before him."
    Q. How declare you the necessity of hope?
    A. Because it produces in us obedience to the law of God, as also a willingness to suffer for his sake, and final perseverance.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Job xiii. 15. "Although he kill me, yet will I hope in him." And Psalm lv. 5. "In God have I hoped, I will not fear what flesh can do unto me."
It is according to the Psalmist, "Him that hopeth in our Lord, merely shall encompass." Psalm xxxi. 10. And, "Our Lord is well pleased in them that hope in his mercy." Psalm cxlvi. 11.
    Q. What other good doth Hope?
    A. It moves us to devout and humble prayer.
    Q. What is prayer?
    A. It is the lifting up of the mind to God, by which we beg for good things and to be free from evils, or by which we bless and praise God.
    Q. What are the conditions of good prayer?
    A. That it may be made with reverence, attention, humility, and perseverance.
    Q. What vices are opposite to hope?
    A. Despair and presumption.
    Q. What is despair?
    A. It is a diffidence in the mercy of God, and merits of Christ, even to death.
    Q. What is presumption?
    A. It is a foolish and desperate confidence of salvation, without endeavouring to live well or keep the commandments.
    Q. How is the despair the cause of sin?
    A. Because despairing men are wont to say, if I shall be damned, I shall be damned, and so use no endeavour to do good or avoid evil.
    Q. How is presumption the cause of sin?
    A. Because presumptuous men used to say, God is merciful and will forgive our sins, how great soever, and at what time soever, we do penance; and out of this take liberty to sin.
    Q. How must our hope be balanced between these two extremes?
    A. By a filial fear, and an humble distrust of our own works, as they are ours.
    Q. Is prayer good against both these?
    A. It is, according to that of Luke xxii. 40, "pray ye that so ye may not fall into temptation."
    Q. For what else availeth prayer?
    A. For the avoiding of evils and the obtaining all benefits.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of John xv 23. "Whatsoever (saith our Saviour) ye shall ask my Father in my name, he will give it you." And Luke xi. 9. "Ask and it shall be given you," &c.
    Q. Is it lawful to pray in an unknown tongue?
    A. It is, "for he that speaks in a tongue (unknown) speaks not to men but to God." 1 Cor. xiv. 2. And a petition has the same force if it be understood by him that is petitioned, whether the petitioner understood it or not.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of the same chap. ver. 16, 17, where Paul saith, "but if thou bless in spirit, (that is in a tongue not known) he that supplieth the place of the vulgar, how shall he say Amen, &c. thou indeed givest thanks well, but the other is not edified." You see in itself the thing is good, for he gives thanks well.
    Q. What means the apostle, when he exhorts us to pray always? Thess. v. 17.
    A. He means we should daily spend some time to prayer, according to James v. 16. "Pray for one another that you may be saved, for the continual prayer of a just man availeth much."
    Q. Is it possible to pray always?
    A. In some sense it is: namely, by offering up all our actions to God's honour.
    Q. In what place is prayer best?
    A. In churches: because these are places consecrated and devoted to prayer, and there our prayers are elevated by the peculiar presence of God, and his special assistance besought by the Church's pastors in the consecration of those places.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Matt. xviii. 20. "Where there are two or three gathered together in my name (saith the Lord) there I am in the midst of them."
    Q. How prove you that material churches are of God's appointment?
    A. First, Because God commanded Solomon to build him a temple, and dedicate it to his service. 2 Paral vii. 12.
    Secondly, out of Luke xix. 46, where Christ calls the material temple his house, casing the buyers and sellers out of it. "My house, (saith he) is the house of prayer, but you have made it a den of thieves."
    Thirdly, out of Luke xviii. 10, where the publican "ascended to the temple to pray, and descended into his house justified."
    Q. How do you prove it lawful to dedicate of consecrate material temples?
    A. Out of Paralip. above cited, chap. 7, and out of John x. 22, where it is recorded that Christ
himself kept the dedication of the temple in Jerusalem, instituted by Judas Maccabæus, 1 Mac. iv. 56, 59.
    Q. How do you prove it lawful to adorn the churches with tapestry, pictures, and the like?
    A. Out of Mark, xiv. 15, where Christ commanded his last supper to be prepared in a great chamber adorned.
    Q. What proof have you for the order and number of the canonical hours?
    A. For Matins, Lauds, and Prime, that of Psalm v. 4 "Early in the morning will I stand up to thee, early in the morning wilt thou hear my voice."
    Q. What for the third, sixth and ninth hours?
    A. For the third out of Acts ii. 16. "At the third hour the Holy Ghost descended on the Apostles." For the sixth, out of Acts x. 9. "Peter and John went up into the higher part to pray about the sixth hour:" and for the ninth, out of Acts iii. 1. "And at the ninth hour Peter and John went up into the temple to pray."
    Q. What for the Even-song and Complin?
    A. That of the Psalmist, "Morning and evening, will I declare the works of our Lord," Psalm liv. 18. and again, "lifting up of my hands is as an evening sacrifice," cxli 2.
    Q. Is it good to use outward ceremonies in a time of prayer, as kneeling, knocking the breast, and such like?
    A. It is, for they declare the inward reverence and devotion of the heart; and Christ himself prostrated, when he prayed in the garden, Matt. xxvi. 39. And the poor publican beat his breast, and cast down his eyes in that prayer by which he merited to descend justified, Luke xviii. 13, 14.
    Q. Why is the morning so fit a time for prayer?
    A. To open the windows of the soul to the light of divine grace and offer up the works of the whole day to God's honour.
    Q. Why is the evening also?
    A. To shut the windows of the soul against the darkness of sin, and the illusions of the devil; as also to render thanks for all the benefits of the day past.
    Q. What things ought we to pray for?
    A. For all good things both spiritual and temporal, and to be freed from evil; for so our Lord bath taught us by his prayer.

 

CHAPTER V.

The Lord's Prayer Expounded

    Q. WHAT is the Pater Noster?
    A. It is the most holy prayer, that ever was.
    Q. Who made it?
    A. Christ our Lord, the eternal wisdom of his Father, Matt. vi. 9.
    Q. Why did he make it?
    A. To teach us a set form of prayer, and how we ought to pray.
    Q. Why did he make it in so short and plain a manner?
    A. That all persons might be able to understand and practise it.
    Q. What doth it contain?
    A. All those chief things which we can ask or hope for of God.
    Q. How many petitions does it contain?
    A. Seven.
    Q. What understand you by these words, which are prefixed to the petition, Our Father who art in Heaven?
    A. I understand that God is our Father, both by creation and by adoption: and if we be in the state of grace, we may confidently come to him, and beg all blessings of him.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of 1 John iii. 1. "See what manner of charity the Father hath given us, that we should be named, and be the sons of God."
    Q. Why do you say, our Father, and not my Father?
    A. Because God is the common Father of all, and all good Christians must pray for one another,
according to the article in the Creed. "I believe in the communion of saints."
    Q. What understand you by the words, Who art in heaven?
    A. I understand that God who fills heaven and earth, and is in all things, times, and places, is in heaven in a peculiar manner, declaring and manifesting his glory to the blessed; and therefore when we pray, we must lift up our minds to him, and keep them fixed upon heavenly things.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Jer. xlviii. 10. "Cursed be he that doth the word of God negligently."

The First Petition.

    Q. WHAT is the first petition?
    A. Hallowed be thy name.
    Q. What do we beg by this?
    A. That God may be known by the whole world, and that he may be worthily praised, served, and honoured by all his creatures, which cannot be effected but by his grace.
    Q. Who are these that say this petition ill?
    A. Such as dishonour the name of God by blaspheming, swearing, lying, cursing, and scurrilous disclosures.

The Second Petition.

    Q. WHAT is the second petition?
    A. Thy kingdom come.
    Q. What do we beg of God by this petition?
    A. We beg, that our miseries and afflictions in this life may be such, as that we may be made partakers of his joyful and heavenly kingdom hereafter.
    Q. What else do we beg?
    A. That Christ may reign in us in this life by grace, and in the next by glory, presenting us a kingdom to his Father.
    Q. Who say this petition ill?
    A. Such as are willing slaves to sin, and to the devil.

The Third Petition.

    Q. WHAT is the third petition?
    A. Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.
    Q. What do we beg by this?
    A. That God would enable us by his holy grace to keep his commandments, and obey his will in all things.
    Q. What mean you by the words, on earth as it is in heaven?
    A. We beg by those, that we may be as ready and willing to do the will of God on earth, as the blessed saints and angels are in heaven.

The Fourth Petition.

    Q. WHAT is the fourth petition?
    A. Give us this day our daily bread.
    Q. What do we beg by this?
    A. All food and nourishment for our souls and bodies.
    Q. What is the food of the soul?
    A. The word of God, the holy sacraments, especially the blessed Eucharist, and divine grace.
    Q. How prove you, that by this petition Christ intended the blessed bread of the Eucharist?
    A. Because in Matt. vi. 11, we read "our supersubstantial bread."
    Q. Why is the Eucharist called our daily bread?
    A. Because it is daily offered for our sins on the altar, and we ought daily to receive it, at least in spirit and desire.
    Q. Who say this petition ill?
    A. Such as are cold and careless in coming to the sacraments, and in hearing divine service, or exhortations; and such as ascribe their temporal goods and blessings to their own industry and providence, and not to any special bounty or gift of God.

  The Fifth Petition.

    Q. WHAT is the fifth petition?
    A. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.
    Q. What do we beg by this petition?
    A. That God would pardon us the sins of our life past, as also the punishments which are due unto them.
    Q. Why are sins, and the penalties of sin, called debts?
    A. Because they make us debtors to the justice of God, whom by sin we rob of his due honour.
    Q. Why is it added, As we forgive our debtors?
    A. To signify that God will not forgive us, unless we also forgive our brethren; "If you will not forgive men, neither will your Father forgive you your offences." Matt. vi. 15.
    Q. Who say this petition ill?
    A. Such as bear malice against their neighbour, and seek revenge.

The Sixth Petition.

    Q. WHAT is the sixth petition?
    A. And lead us not into temptation.
    Q. What do we beg by this?
    A. That God would not permit us to be tempted above our strength.
    Q. Doth God tempt any man to sin?
    A. No, "God is not a tempter of evils, he tempts no man." James i. 13.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of Ps. v. 7 "Thou art not a God willing iniquity." And out of Rom. ix. 14. "Is there iniquity with God? No, God forbid."
    Q. By whom then are we tempted?
    A. By the devil, and our own concupiscence.
    Q. Can a man live in this world, and be free from all temptations?
    A. Morally speaking he cannot: "for the whole life of man on earth is a warfare." Job vii. 1.
    Q. Why then do we pray to be delivered from temptation?
    A. That we may not be overcome, or vanquished by them.
    Q. Is temptation of itself a sin?
    A. No, not without consent on our part; nay, it is a great occasion of merit, if we resist it as we ought.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. First, out of Apoc. ii. 10, 11. "Be thou faithful unto death (saith our Lord) and I will give thee the crown of life: he that overcometh, shall not be hurt by the second death."
    Secondly, because Christ himself, who never sinned, would be tempted, "and the tempter came unto him." &c. Matt. iv. 3.
    Q. Are we never overcome by by our own default?
    A. Never, according to that answer which was given to St. Paul, desiring to be freed from a temptation "My grace is sufficient for thee."
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of James iv. 7. "Resist the devil, and he will flee from you."
    Q. Who are they that say this petition ill?
    A. Such as seek after occasion of sin, and wilfully expose themselves unto temptations.
    Q. What are the best remedies against temptations?
    A. To have recourse by humble prayer to God and to his saints, and to such especially as have undergone temptations of the same kind; to resist them valiantly at the first entrance, and to remember often the four last things, death, judgment, hell, and heaven.

The Seventh Petition.

    Q. WHAT is the seventh petition?
    A. But deliver us from evil.
    Q. What do we beg by this petition?
    A. That God would deliver us from all our evils both spiritual and temporal, especially from the evils of sin past, present, and to come.
    Q. Who is the author of the evil sin?
    A. The devil; for "Sin in God there is none." 1 John iii. 5.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of Wisdom xiv. 9. "Hateful to God is the impious man and his impiety."
    Q. Who say this petition ill?
    A. They who commit their evils before God, and multiply their sins without remorse.

 

CHAPTER VI.

The Hail Mary, or Angelical Salutation.

    Q. WHAT is the Hail Mary?
    A. It is a most honourable salutation to the blessed Virgin Mary, and prayer to her.
    Q. How do your prove it lawful to honour her?
    A. Out of Luke i. 48, where (by inspirations from God; she prophesied, saying, "All generations shall call me blessed."
    Q. How may parts hath the Hail Mary?
    A. It hath three parts.
    Q. What is the first part?
    A. Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee.
    Q. Who made this part?
    A. The Holy Ghost, though it was delivered by the angel Gabriel, Luke i. 28.
    Q. What signifies the word Hail?
    A. It signifies, Rejoice or be glad, O Mother of God.
    Q. Why do we invite her by this prayer to rejoice?
    A. Because it renews the memory of her blessed Son's conception, which is an infinite cause of joy to her and the whole court of heaven.
    Q. What signifies the word Mary?
    A. It signifies star of the sea.
    Q. Why is she properly called the star of the sea?
    A. Because she shines on us by her exemplary virtue in this sea of miseries, like a most glorious star.
    Q. What mean you by the words, full of grace?
    A. I mean that the Blessed Virgin hath a special fulness and prerogative of grace for the conception of her Son.
    Q. What means, The Lord is with thee?
    A. It means that the whole Trinity was with her at the time in a particular manner.
    Q. How declare you that?
    A. Because the Father was with her, as with his Spouse, the Son as with his Mother, the Holy Ghost was with her, as with his choicest tabernacle.
    Q. Are they also now with her?
    A. They are in glory, and will be so for all eternity.

The Second Part of the Hail Mary.

    Q. WHAT is the second part of it?
    A. Blessed art thou among women, blessed is the fruit of thy womb, JESUS.
    Q. Who made this part?
    A. These words, Blessed art thou among women, were first delivered by the angel; and after with the rest, uttered by St. Elizabeth, being inspired by the Holy Ghost. Luke i. 28, 42.
    Q. What understand you by Blessed art thou among women?
    A. I understand, she alone was chosen out amongst all women to be the Mother of God, and therefore ought to be blessed and praised by all women.
    Q. Why by married women?
    A. Because their children are made the sons of God by the nativity and merits of her Son, of whom she daily also begs blessings for them.
    Q. Why by virgins?
    A. Because she is their queen and chiefest patroness, and obtains for them of her Son Jesus, the gift of chastity.
    Q. Why by widows?
    A. Because she is their best example, and advocate to their Spouse, her Son.
    Q. What means, Blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus?
    A. It means, that Jesus is her true and natural Son, and in him she is the author of all our blessings, and to be blessed both by men and angels.
    Q. Why are Catholics such great honourers of the name Jesus.
    A. Because it is a name above all names, as you have heard in the creed; and as St. Paul exhorts, saying "all whatsoever you do in word or work, do all in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, giving thanks to God the Father by him." Colos. iii. 17.

The Third Part of the Hail Mary.

    Q. WHAT is the third part of the Hail Mary?
    A. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now, and in the hour of our death. Amen.
    Q. Who made this part?
    A. The holy Catholic Church in the Council of Ephesus, the year of our Lord 431, (Pope Celestine presiding,) against Nestorius, the heretic, who denied our blessed Lady to be the Mother of God, and would only have her called the Mother of Christ. See Baronius, tom. 5. An. 4. 31.
    Q. What means, Pray for us sinners now?
    A. It means, that we need divine assistance every moment.
    Q. What means, And at the hour of our death?
    A. It meaneth that we then especially shall need the aid of the blessed Mary, and her Son Jesus, and therefore do daily beg it. The word Amen, signifies, let it be done, or be it so.

 

CHAPTER VII.

Charity Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is Charity?
    A. It is the gift of God, or a supernatural quality infused by God into the soul of man, by which we love God above all things, and our neighbours as ourselves, for God's sake.
    Q. Why is it called supernatural?
    A. Because it is not in the power of nature to obtain it, but by the special grace and gift of God.
    Q. Is charity imputed as protestants would have it, or is it a quality truly inherent in the soul.
    A. It is truly inherent in the soul, as wisdom is inherent in a soul that is wise, and love in a soul that loves.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. First out of Rom. v. 5. "The charity of God which is poured forth in our hearts, by the Holy Ghost, which is given us."
    Secondly, out of Dan. vi, 22, "Before him (i.e. God) justice have been found in me."
    Thirdly, out of Ephes. iii. 17, 18, where St. Paul prays for his brethren, "That Christ may dwell by faith in your hearts: that, being rooted and founded in charity, you may be able to comprehend, with all the saints, what is the breadth, and length, and height, and depth."
    Q. What is it to love God above all things?
    A. To be willing to lose all things, rather than the grace or love of God by mortal sin.
    Q. Who has this love?
    A. They who keep the commandments of God, according to that, "This is the charity of God, that we keep his commandments; and his commandments are not heavy." 1 John v. 3.
    Q. Hath not he charity then, that breaks any of the commandments?
    A. He hath not; for "he that saith, he knoweth God, and doth not keep his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him." 1 John ii. 4.
    Q. What is it to love our neighbours as ourselves?
    A. To wish him as much good as we wish ourselves, and to do him no wrong.
    Q. Who is our neighbour?
    A. All men, women, and children, even those who injure us, or differ from us in religion, but especially Catholics.
    Q. Why so?
    A. Because they are the images of God, and redeemed with the blood of Christ.
    Q. Why especially Catholics?
    A. Because they are all members of the mystical body of Christ, which is the church.
    Q. Whence ariseth the obligations of loving our neighbour?
    A. Because God hath commanded it: and 'if one shall say I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a liar.' 1 John, iv. 20.
    Q. Are we not also bound to love our enemies?
    A. We are, according to that, "It was said of old, Thou shalt not kill: but I say unto you, Love your enemies." Matt. v. 43, 44.
    Q. What kind of love are we bound to show to our enemies?
    A. We are bound to use a civil behaviour towards them, to pray for them in general, and to be disposed to do any charitable office for them when their necessity require it.
    Q. What is the highest act of charity?
    A. To give our life for God's honour, and the salvation of our neighbour.
    Q. Why is charity the greatest and most excellent of virtues?
    A. Because it is the life of all the rest. "Faith without charity is dead." James ii. 26.
    Q. What state of life do we conceive to be of greatest perfection.
    A. That which of its own nature and proper institution obligeth to the highest and greatest charity, for charity is perfection, and such is the state not only of bishops, but also, as many probably think, of pastors who have the charge of souls.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of 1 John xv. 13; "Greater charity than this no man hath, that a man yield his life for his friends," which is the proper obligation of every parish priest, according to that, "The good pastor giveth his life for his sheep." John x. 12.
    Q. How prove you the necessity of charity?
    A. Out of John iv. 16. "He that remains in charity, remains in God, and God in him," and chap. iii. ver 14, "He that loves not, remains in death."
    Q. What are the effects of charity?
    A. It destroys sin. "Charity covers a multitude of sins," James v. 20, and gives spiritual life to the soul. "In this we know that we are translated from death to life, because we love the brethren." 1 John iii. 14.


 

CHAPTER VIII.

Of the Commandments in general.  

    Q. WHAT is the principal aim or end of the commandments?
    A. To teach us the will and pleasure of the eternal God, or the love of God, and our neighbour. "He that loveth his neighbour hath fulfilled the law." Rom. xiii. 8.
    Q. Why are the commandments (excepting the determination of the sabbath day) called the commandments of the law of nature?
    A. Because God wrote them in the heart of men at the creation, being the very dictates of natural reason.
    Q. When did he renew them in the written law?
    A. When he gave them to Moses on mount Sinai, in thunder and lightening, written in two tables of stone Exod. xx.
    Q. Why in thunder and lightening?
    A. To move us to a careful observance of them.
    Q. Are all men bound to know the commandments?
    A. For the substance of them they are, because they are the rule of our whole life and actions.
    Q. How do you prove them to be only ten?
    A. Out of Deut. iv. 13, "He shewed his covenant which he commanded you to do, and the ten words which be wrote in two tables of stone."
    Q. By what kind of sins are the commandments broken?
    A. By mortal sins only; for venial sins are not strictly speaking contrary to the end of the commandments, which is charity.
    Q. How declare you that?
    A. Because a venial sin, for example, a vain word, an officious or jesting lie, which hurts nobody, the theft of a pin or an apple, is not of weight enough to break charity between man and man, much less between God and man.
    Q. Is it possible for us to keep all the commandments?
    A. Not only possible, but necessary and easy, by the assistance of God's grace.
    Q. How do you prove that?
    A. Because God is not a tyrant to command impossibilities under pain of eternal damnation, as he doth the keeping his commandments.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. First out of Exod. xx. and Deut. xxviii. 15. where he often commands them to be kept, threatening grievous punishments to such as break them.
    Secondly, out of Matt. v. 19. "Whosoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven."
    Thirdly, out of Matt. xi. 29, 30. "Take up my yoke upon you (saith the Lord) for my yoke is sweet, and my burden light." And again, 1 John v. 3. "His commandments are not heavy."
    Q. Hath God ever promised to enable man to keep them?
    A. He hath, and also actually to make them keep and do them.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Ezek. xxxvi. 27. "I will put my spirit in the middle of you, (said our Lord) and I will make ye walk in my precepts, and keep my judgments and do them."
    And again, chap. xxxvii. 23, 24. "They shall be my people, and I will be their God, there shall be one pastor of them all, and they shall walk in my judgments and keep my commandments and do them.
    Q. How do you prove that any have kept them?
    A. Out of Luke i. 6. "Zachary and Elizabeth were both just before God: walking in all the commandments and justifications of our Lord without reproof.
    Q. How prove you the keeping of them to be necessary to salvation?
    A. First, out of Matt. xix. 17. "If thou wilt enter into life (saith our Lord) keep the commandments."
    Secondly, out of Luke x. 25, 28, where the lawyer had asked, what he should do to possess everlasting life, and had repeated the sum of the commandments: Christ answered him saying, "Do this, and thou shalt live."
    Thirdly, out of Rom. ii. 13, "Not hearers of the law are just with God, but the doers of the law shall be justified."


 

OF THE COMMANDMENTS IN PARTICULAR.

The First Commandment Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the first commandment?
    A. I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, and out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt not have strange gods before me. Thou shalt not make to thyself a graven thing, nor the likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or in the earth below, or of those things that are in the waters under the earth. Thou shalt not adore nor worship them; I am the Lord thy God, mighty, jealous, visiting the sins of the fathers upon their children, to the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and showing mercy to thousands of those that love me, and keep my commandments. Exod. xx.
    Q. What are we commanded by this precept?
    A. To serve, love, adore, and worship one only, true, living, and eternal God, and no more.
    Q. What are we forbidden by this precept?
    A. Not to worship any creature for a God, or give to it the honour which is due to God.
    Q. What is the honour due to God?
    A. A supreme and sovereign honour, which is called by divines Latria; by which we honour him as the great master of life and death, as our creator, redeemer, preserver, and last end.
    Q. How do men sin against this commandment?
    A. By worshipping idols and false gods, by erring or doubting in faith, by superstition and witchcraft.
    Q. How else?
    A. By communicating with infidels or heretics, by believing dreams, &c.
    Q. How do you prove it a great sin to go to church with heretics?
    A. Because by so doing we outwardly deny our faith, and profess their false faith.
    Q. What scripture have you against it?
    A. Out of Luke xvii. 23, 24, where Christ forbids it, saying, "And they shall say unto you, Lo! here is Christ, Lo, there Christ; go ye not, neither do you follow them."
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of Tit. iii. 10, 11. "A man that is a heretic, after the first and second admonition, avoid, knowing that he that is such an one is subverted and sinneth."
    Q. How do you prove it unlawful to go to witches and fortune-tellers?
    A. Out of Deut. xviii. 10, 11. "There shall not be found among you any one that shall expiate his son or daughter making them to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or any observer of times, or enchanter, or witch, or a charmer, or a wizard, or necromancer, &c. For all these things our Lord abhorreth."
    Q. What understand you by these words. Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven thing, &c. Thou shalt not adore them, &c.
    A. I understand that we must not make idols or images, nor any graven thing whatsoever, to adore it as a god, or with God's honour.
    Q. Why are not these words expressed at length in many of our short catechisms?
    A. Because they are sufficiently included in the preceding words, "Thou shalt not have strange (or other) gods before me."
    Q. How declare you that?
    A. Because if we must have no other but the only true God, who created heaven and earth, then it is clear to the reason of every child, that we must not have many gods, or any graven things for gods, or adore any other things for God.
    Q. Why do Protestants of those of new religions, instead of graven things, translate graven images?
    A. Because they have a will to corrupt the text, in hope by so doing to persuade ignorant people, that Catholics are idolaters, and break the first commandment by making and worshipping images.
    Q. How do you prove they corrupt the text?
    A. Because the Hebrew word is Pesel, which signifies a graven thing, the Greek  is Idolon, and the Latin is Sculptile, a graven thing; therefore the word Image is a mere corruption.
    Q. Is it lawful then to give any honour to the images of Christ and his saints?
    A. Yes, an inferior or relative honour, as much as they represent unto us heavenly things, but not God's honour, nor yet the honour due the saints.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Exod. xxv. 18, 19, 22, where God himself commanded "two cherubims to be made of beaten gold, and to be set on both sides of the ark (before which the people were to pray) and promised that he would speak unto them from the middle of the cherubims;" therefore it is lawful to make images and pray before them.
    Q. Do not Catholics pray to images and relics?
    A. By no means; we pray before them, indeed, to excite our devotion, and to keep our thoughts collected upon heavenly subjects; but we do not, at all, pray to them; for we know well they can neither see, nor hear, nor help us.
    Q. What other proof have you for the lawful use of images?
    A. First, out of John iii. 14, where Christ approves the making and exalting the brazen serpent, by which the Israelites were healed in the desert, and owns it to be an image or figure of himself, exalted on the cross.
    Secondly, because we read in Baronius, that the famous church historian, in the year of Christ, 31, that Christ himself sent his own image to king Abdagar,  and made it also by the miracle on the handkerchief of St. Veronica, and on his own shroud.
    Add to this, the second Nicene council, Actio 4, anathematizes image-breakers, that is such as shall break them in contempt or scorn, and all such as allege the places in scripture, which are against idols, are against the sacred images; and also those who say that Catholics honour images as God, with sovereign honour.
    Q. How could you further satisfy a Protestant, that should charge you with idolatry, in giving sovereign honour to pictures and images?
    A. I would for satisfaction herein, if necessary, break a crucifix, or tear a picture of Jesus Christ in pieces, and throw the pieces into the fire; and would show him the council of Trent, Sess. 25, which teaches thus, "Images are not to be venerated for any virtue of divinity that is believed to be in them, or for any trust or confidence that is to be put in them, as the Gentiles did of old, who reposed their hope and trust in their idols; but because the honour that is exhibited to them, is referred to the prototypes represented by them" &c.
    Q. What benefits do we receive by images?
    A. Very great, because they movingly represent to us the mysteries of our Saviour's passion, as also by martyrdoms and examples of his saints.
    Q. Is there not some danger of Idolatry in the frequent use of idols?
    A. Truely none at all; for it is not possible that any rational man, who is instructed in Christianity, would conceive or think a piece of painted wood or marble, is that God and man, Jesus Christ, who was born of the Virgin Mary, died on the cross, arose from the dead, ascended into heaven, and sits now on the right hand of God.
    Q. But how, if such inconveniences happen, at least by accident?
    A. Let the abuse be mended, and not the good institution taken away or blamed; For man's nature is subject to hurt itself, even in the best things, which must not therefore be given over.
    Q. How do you prove it lawful to paint God the Father like an old man, seeing he is pure spirit, and hath no body?
    A. Because he appeared to the prophet Daniel in the shape of an old man, Dan. 7, but this is to be understood, that the pictures we make, are not the proper images of God the Father, but the shape wherein he appeared to Daniel. And the like is to be understood of the pictures of angels, to wit, that they are not proper images of them, according to their spiritual substance, but of the shape they appear in to men.
    Q. What utility doth accrue to us by our honouring and canonizing Saints?
    A. Very great, seeing it much conduceth to the imitation of their virtues, and the love of God, making us know that it is possible even for ourselves, to come to the like reward.
    Q. How declare you that?
    A. Because the higher esteem we have of the saints, and the excellency of their state, the more ardent must needs be our desire, and the stronger our courage, to do and undertake what they did and practised.
    Q. Is it lawful to honour the angels and saints?
    A. It is with Dulia, an inferior honour, proportioned to their excellency, which they have from God; it is God we honour in them.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. First, out of Josue v. 14, where the angel of the Lord said to Josue, "I am the prince of the host of our Lord." Josue fell on his face to the ground; and worshipping said, "What saith my Lord to his servant?'
    Secondly, out of Apoc. xxii. 8, where John (though the angel had already forbidden him so to do, because of his apostolical dignity, chap xix. 10.) "fell down to adore before the feet of the angel, who shewed him these things."
    Q. Is it lawful to honour the relics of saints?
    A. With a relative honour it is, referring it to God's honour.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. First, because a dead man was raised from death to life by touching the bones of Eliseus the prophet, 4 Kings xiii. 21.
    Secondly, out of Matt. ix. 20, 21, where we read the woman was healed of her bloody flux, but by the touching the hem of our Saviour's garment, and believing it would heal her.
    Thirdly, out of Acts xviii. 19. "The handkerchiefs and aprons which had but touched the body of St. Paul, cast out devils, and cured all diseases."
    Q. How prove you that dead and inanimate things, (for example, medals, crosses, churches, bread, water and the like) are capable of sanctity and honour?
    A. First, out of Joshua iv. 16, and Exod. iii. 5, where the Angel saith to Moses and Joshua, "Loose thy shoes from 'thy feet, for the ground whereon thou standest is holy ground."
    Secondly, out of Matt. xxiii. 17, 18, where we read, that the temple sanctifieth the gold, and the altar the gift. "Ye fools and blind, (saith our Lord,) whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift?
    Thirdly, out of Tim. iv. 4, 5. "Every creature of God is sanctified by the word of God and prayer," and out of 2 Peter i. 18, where he calls the mountain Tabor a holy hill, because Christ was transfigured upon it.
    Q. How prove you that pilgrimages to holy places, as to mount Calvary, mount Tabor, and the sepulchre of Christ, are laudable and pious practices?
    A. First, out of Deut. xvi. 16, where God himself commanded, that thrice a year all the people should come up into Jerusalem, to adore and make their offerings to him."
    Secondly, the example of Christ himself, our blessed Lady, and St. Joseph, "who went up to Jerusalem, the solemn day of the Pasch." Luke ii. 41, 42.
    Thirdly, out of Acts viii. where the Ethiopian eunuch, going on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, was in his return converted and baptized by St. Philip, so pleasing was his pilgrimage to God.
    Finally, because it was foretold by the prophets that these places which Christ sanctified by his passion should be of great pilgrimage and adoration, "We will adore (saith David) in the place where his feet stood," Psalm cxxxi. 7. And in Isa. xi. 10, we read, "To him shall the Gentiles pray, and his sepulchre shall be glorious."
    Q. How do you prove it lawful to go on pilgrimages to the shrines of Saints?
    A. Because, as you have read already, their relics are holy and venerable things, and God is pleased to work great cures and miracles by them for such as are devout honourers of them.
    Q. If there any power now in the church to do miracles?
    A. There is according to that unlimited promise of Christ. "And these signs shall follow them that believe: In my name they shall cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues: they shall lay their hands upon the sick, and they shall recover." Mark xvi. 17.
    Q. Have these things been done in latter ages?
    A. They have, and are, as you may see in the unquestioned histories and records of all Catholic countries; where many great miracles wrought by the servants of God, especially at pilgrimages and shrines of Saints, are yearly registered under the depositions of eye-witnesses, men above all exceptions, which cannot be denied unless we deny all history.
    Q. Why do the pretended reformers say miracles are ceased?
    A. Because they have never yet been able to do any in confirmation of their errors.
    Q. Why are so few done here in our days?
    A. By reason of incredulity of many bad Christians. Matt. xiii. 58.
    Q. What necessity is there for the belief of miracles?
    A. Doubtless very great; because the belief of miracles well grounded, make men extremely apprehensive of the presence of God, and his immediate government of human affairs; so that he who absolutely denies miracles, is to be suspected of not believing particular providence, which is the main string on which all Christianity depends.


 

The Second Commandment Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the second commandment?
    A. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord by God in vain.
    Q. What is forbidden by this precept.
    A. All false, rash, and unnecessary oaths.
    Q. What kind of sins are false and rash oaths?
    A. Mortal sins, if they be voluntary and deliberate, because by such oaths, we call God to witness a lie; or at least to that which is uncertain.
    Q. What are the necessary conditions of a lawful oath?
    A. Truth, that we hurt not God's honour; justice that we wrong not our neighbour; and judgment, that we swear not vainly.
    Q. What is the just cause of an oath?
    A. God's honour, our own, or our neighbour's good and defence.
    Q. If a man swears to do that which is evil, is he bound to keep his oath?
    A. No, he is not bound to keep it; for an oath is no bond of iniquity.
    Q. How prove you a vain or jesting oath to be a sin?
    A. Out of Matt. v. 33. "It was said of old (saith our Lord) Thou shalt not commit perjury; but I say unto you, not to swear at all," that is without just cause.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of James  v. 12. "But above all things, my brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, nor by earth, nor by any other oath. But let your speech be: Yea, yea: no, no: that you fall not under judgment."
    Q. What else is prohibited by this precept?
    A. All cursing and blaspheming.
    Q. How else do men sin against this precept?
    A. By breaking lawful vows, and by making or keeping unlawful ones.
    Q. What is a lawful vow?
    A. It is a deliberate and voluntary promise made to God, of some better good.
    Q. How do you prove it lawful to make vows?
    A. Out of Isa.  xix. 21. "They shall make vows unto the Lord, and shall pay them."
    Q. What is commanded by this precept?
    A. To speak always with reverence of God, and his saints.


 

  The Third Commandment Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the third commandment?
    A. Remember that thou keepest holy the sabbath day.
    Q. When did the Sabbath begin to be kept?
    A. From the very creation of the world; for then God blessed the seventh day, and rested on it from all His works. Gen. ii. 2.
    Q. When was this commandment renewed?
    A. In the Old Law; when God gave the commandments to Moses on mount Sinai, written with His own finger in two tables of stone, Exod. xx. 1, &c. xxxi. 18.
    Q. Why was the Jewish Sabbath changed into the Sunday?
    A. Because Christ was born upon a Sunday, arose from the dead upon a Sunday, and sent down the Holy Ghost on a Sunday: works not inferior to the creation of the world.
    Q. By whom was it changed?
    A. By the Governors of the Church, the Apostles, who also kept it; for St. John was in spirit on the Lord's day (which was Sunday.) Apoc. i. 10.
    Q. How prove you that the Church hath power to command feasts and holydays?
    A. By the very act of changing the sabbath into Sunday, which Protestants allow of; and therefore they fondly contradict themselves, by keeping Sunday strictly, and breaking most other feasts commanded by the same Church.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Because by keeping Sunday, they acknowledge the Church's power to ordain feasts, and to command them under sin; and by not keeping the rest by her commanded, they again deny, in fact, the same power.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of John x. 22, where we read that Christ himself was present, and kept the Dedication of the temple in Jerusalem, a feast ordained by Judas Maccabæus, 1 Macc. iv. 59.
    And out of Acts ii. 1, 4, where the Apostles, keeping the feast of Pentecost, "were all filled with the Holy Ghost." Neither do Protestants as yet differ from this, though some have lately prohibited and profaned both it and the holy feast of the Resurrection, and all the other feasts of the Church.
    Q. What commandment have you from God for obedience to the Church in things of this nature?
    A. Out of Acts xv. 41, where we read that "St. Paul went about confirming the Churches, and commanding them to keep the precepts of the Apostles and the ancients." And out of Luke x. 16, "He that heareth you, heareth me; and he that despiseth you (the Church) despiseth me."
    Q. May temporal princes and the laity make a holy day?
    A. With consent and approbation of the Church, they may, otherwise not; because this is an act of spiritual jurisdiction.
    Q. For what end doth the Church ordain holydays?
    A. For the increase of piety, and the memory of special benefits received from God.
    Q. If keeping the Sunday be a church precept, why is it numbered in the decalogue, which are the Commandments of God, and the Law of Nature?
    A. Because the substance or chief part of it, namely Divine Right, and the Law of Nature; though the determinating this particular day, Sunday rather than Saturday, be a Church ordinance and precept.
    Q. Did not Christ, when he confirmed the rest, confirm also this commandment?
    A. In as much as it belongeth to the law of nature, he did: but not as it belonged to the ceremonial law of the Jews, and was affixed to Saturday, therefore, now we are not bound to keep Saturday.
    Q. Why so, I pray you?
    A. Because that particular day was a command of the ceremonial law of the Jews, which was abrogated, and ceased to oblige after the death of Christ.
    Q. To what are we obliged by this precept?
    A. To spend Sunday in prayer and divine service.
    Q. What is the best means to sanctify the Sunday?
    A. By hearing mass, confessing our sins, communicating, hearing sermons, and reading good books.
    Q. What is forbidden by this precept?
    A. All profane employments, and servile labours, excepting such as are of necessity, as dressing meat, serving cattle, &c. or such as appertain to piety and works of mercy.
    Q. Who break this commandment?
    A. Such as without necessity spend any considerable part of the Sunday in servile labours.
    Q. How else is the Sunday profaned?
    A. By spending all the morning slothfully in bed, or vainly dressing ourselves; by missing divine service when we may hear it, or spending a part of the day in drinking, gaming, dancing, or the like.
    Q. Is there any thing now in this first table of the law impossible to be observed?
    A. No certainly; for nothing can be more easy and delightful to the true servant of God, than the things that are here commanded.
    Q. Why do you now divide the table of Moral law into three and seven, whereas anciently some Fathers assigned four to the first table, and six to the last?
    A. Concerning the manner of limiting the number of commandments to each table, the scripture says nothing, not so much as which is the third, which is the fourth commandment, and therefore it is in itself indifferent: St. Jerome divides them into four and six, which is no where condemned, St. Augustine into three and seven, who is more generally followed; but indeed the matter is of no great importance how we reckon them so we retain them in our books, and keep them in our lives.
    Q. But what reason can justify the omission of so great a part of the text, when we transcribe the commandments into our catechisms?
    A. Such books being composed principally for the unlearned, are by the pastors of the church abridged into the shortest and easiest method they can, prudently condescending to the weak memories and low capacities of the people: nor can the church be accused of the least shadow of corrupting or omitting any part of the commandments, or of God's word; since in no Catholic Bible is there one syllable left out; and whether the first commandment, after this account, be divided, and the two last united, or contrawise the last divided and the first united, is not at all material, the whole ten commandments being entirely contained in both, or either way.


 

THE SECOND TABLE OF THE LAW.

The Fourth Commandment Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the fourth commandment?
    A. Honour thy father and mother.
    Q. What are we commanded by this precept.
    A. To love, reverence, obey, and relieve our parents in their wants.
    Q. Why to love them?
    A. Because, under God they are the chief causes of our very life and being; and do not only bring us up with much love, labour, and solicitude.
    Q. How are we bound to reverence them?
    A. Not only inwardly in our heart, but also outwardly in our carriage and comportment.
    Q. Why to obey them?
    A. Because they are God's vicegerents, and have received power from him (from whom is all paternity in heaven and earth) both to direct us, instruct us, and correct us.
    Q. In what things are we bound to obey our parents?
    A. In all that is not sin, according to that, "Children obey your parents in all things, for that is pleasing unto God." Col. iii. 20.
    Q. What is prohibited by the precept?
    A. All sourness, stubborness, and disobedience to parents.
    Q. What is the reward of dutiful children?
    A. Long and happy life; "The blessing of heaven comes upon them, and remains to the end of their days." Eccl. iii. 10.
    Q. What is the reward of undutiful children?
    A. A short and sinful life, accompanied with an untimely death witness the example of Absalom,
2 Kings viii. 14.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. That of Prov. xxx. 17. "The eye that mocketh at his father, and that despiseth the travail of his mother in bearing him, let the ravens of the torrent pick it out and the young of the eagle eat it."
    Q. What signifies the word Father?
    A. It signifies not only our corporal parents, but also our Ghostly Father, and all lawful superiors.
    Q. What owe we to the Ghostly Father?
    A. Love, reverence, obedience, and maintenance.
    Q. Why love?
    A. Because they are the fathers and feeders of our souls, and under God and his saints, the instrumental causes of our spiritual good: "For in Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the gospel," (saith St. Paul) 1 Cor. iv. 15.
    Q. Why reverence?
    A. Because they are God's anointed, and represent the person of Christ.
    Q. Why obedience?
    A. Because God hath appointed them to be our spiritual pastors, guides, and governors.
    Q. In what are we bound to obey them?
    A. In all things belonging to faith, doctrine, and the government of our souls.
    Q. Is any great honour due to priests and ghostly fathers?
    A. There is, according to that of St. Paul. "Let the priests who rule well be esteemed worthy of double honour; especially they who labour in the word and doctrine." 1 Tim. v. 17.
    Q. Have you any other place?
    A. Yes, Eccle. vii. 13, 32, 33, "With all thy soul fear our Lord and reverence his priests, with all thy strength, love them that made thee and forsake not his master, honour God with all thy soul, and honour the priests." And the reason is, for if we owe love, honour, and obedience to our carnal parents, much more to our spiritual, by how much the soul surpasseth the body. Again, as there is none greater than priests, who are empowered to shut and open the gates of heaven, as also to convert the substance of bread and wine, into the most precious body and blood of our blessed Saviour: to no person is greater honour due, than to them who personate Christ himself, so that he who despiseth them despiseth Christ himself, and the disregard of them is the origin of impiety.
    Q. How may we sin against priests and ghostly fathers?
    A. By disobeying or detracting them, or believing slanderous reports against them, upon mere hearsay, or the testimony of insufficient witnesses, or without witnesses.
    Q. What testimony is sufficient against a priest?
    A. I will tell you out of St. Paul's mouth: "Against a priest (saith he to Timothy the bishop of Ephesus) receive not an accusation under two or three witnesses." 1 Tim. v. 19, and 21, "I charge thee before God, and Christ Jesus, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things without prejudice, doing nothing by declining to either side."
    Q. Is it convenient to ask a blessing of priests?
    A. It is, because they give it in the name and person of Christ.
    Q. What warrant have you for it?
    A. First out of Mark 14, 16, where "Christ laying his hands upon the children, blessed them."
    Secondly, the example of Melchisedech blessing Abraham; upon which St. Paul saith, "without all contradiction, that which is less, is blessed of the better." Heb. vii. 7.
    Q. What scripture have you for obedience to priests?
    A. Heb.  xiii. 17. "Obey your prelates, and be subject to them; for they watch, as being to render an account for your souls." And in the old law, disobedience to the priests was punished with death,
Deut. xvii. 12.
    Q. In what are we bound under sin to obey princes and temporal magistrates?
    A. In all things (which are not sin) belonging to the good and peace of the commonwealth.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. First, out of Rom. xiii. 1. "Let every soul be subject to the higher powers, for there is no power but of God: he therefore that resists power, resists the ordinance of God."
    Secondly, out of 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14. "Be ye subject to every creature for God, whether to the king as excelling, or to magistrates, as sent by him to the revenge of malefactors.
    Q. What if kings or magistrates command us to do sin, or things against our conscience?
    A. Then we must answer them with the apostles, 'we must obey God, rather than men." Acts v. 29.
    Q. In what are servants bound to obey their masters?
    A. In all things that are not sin, belonging to their charge.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Coloss. iii. 22. "Servants, obey in all things your masters, according to the flesh, not serving the eye, as pleasing men, but in simplicity of heart, as pleasing God.
    Q. How do servants sin against their masters?
    A. By neglecting their commands, stealing or spoiling their goods, &c.


 

The Fifth Commandment Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the fifth commandment?
    A. Thou shalt not kill.
    Q. What is prohibited by this?
    A. All murder, unjust shedding of blood, fighting and quarreling.
    Q. Is it not lawful to kill in any cause?
    A. Yes, in a just war, or when public justice requires it: "For the magistrate beareth not the sword without cause." Rom. i. 4. As also in the blameless defence of our own, or our innocent neighbour's life, against an unjust invader.
    Q. Is it lawful to fight duels, appointing a set time and place, for private interest, or punctilios of honour?
    A. No, by no means; for the church hath forbidden it under excommunication, to be incurred ipso facto;  and such as die in duels, can be neither have Christian burial nor be prayed for the church.
    Q. How prove you all fighting and quarreling to be unlawful?
    A. Out of Matt. v. 39. "You have heard (saith Christ) it was said of old, and eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth; but I say unto you not to resist evil, but if any other strike thee on the right cheek, turn to him also the other."
    Q. What else is forbidden by this precept?
    A. To seek, wish, or desire our own, or any other man's death, out of impatience or passion, or to cause women with child to miscarry.


 

The Sixth Commandment Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the sixth commandment?
    A. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
    Q. What is prohibited by this precept?
    A. All carnal sin with another man's wife, or another woman's husband, and chiefly adultery; as also fornication and pollution.
    Q. How prove you fornication and pollution to be mortal sins?
    A. Out of Col. iii. 5, 6. "Mortify, therefore, (saith St. Paul,) your members, which are upon earth: fornication, uncleaness, lust, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is the service of idols: for which things the wrath of God cometh upon the children of unbelief."
    Q. In what case is it lawful for a man to dismiss his wife?
    A. Only in case of evident adultery.
    Q. Can he that hath so dismissed his wife, marry another during her life?
    A. He cannot; for "he that dismisseth his wife and marries another, committeth adultery." Matt. v. 32. And Luke  xvi. 18. "He that marries her, that is so dismissed, commits adultery."
    Q. Why is adultery a far greater sin than fornication?
    A. Because it is a greater injury to our innocent neighbour, as also to the sacrament of matrimony.
    Q. How prove you that a wife so dismissed from her husband, cannot marry again during her husband's life?
    A. Out of 1 Cor. vii. 10, 11. "But to them, that are married, not I, but the Lord commandeth, that the wife depart not from her husband: and if she depart, that she remain unmarried." And ver. 39. "A woman is bound to the law, so long as her husband liveth; but if her husband sleep (that is be dead) she is at liberty, let her marry whom she will."
    Q. What else is forbidden by this precept?
    A. Whoredom, incest, sacrilege, and sins against nature.
    Q. Why is lust hateful in the sight of God?
    A. Because it defiles in us the image of God, and the temple of the Holy Ghost.
    Q. What more is here prohibited?
    A. Unchaste touching of ourselves or others, with delight in lustful thoughts and kisses.
    Q. What is the heir of unlawful lust?
    A. Death and damnation; for, "neither fornicators nor adulterers, nor effeminate," (that is such as defile themselves with voluntary pollution,) "shall possess the kingdom of God." 1 Cor. vi. 9.


 

The Seventh Commandment Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the seventh commandment?
    A. Thou shalt not steal.
    Q. What is forbidden by this precept?
    A. All unjust taking away, or detaining that which is another man's.
    Q. How many kinds of theft be there?
    A. Three kinds, simple theft, which is a secret taking away that which is another man's; rapine, which is a taking away by open violence, or keeping of that which is another man's; and sacrilege, which is stealing of sacred things, or out of sacred places.
    Q. When is theft a mortal sin?
    A. When the thing stolen is of a considerable value, or causeth a considerable hurt to our neighbour.
    Q. How prove you that:
    A. Out of 1 Cor. vi. 10. "Neither thieves, nor covetous men, nor extortioners, shall possess the kingdom of God."
    Q. What doth the sin of theft oblige us to?
    A. To make restitution of the things stolen to the right owner, if we be able, else the sin will not be forgiven us.
    Q. What else is here prohibited?
    A. All usury, bribery, cozenage in gaming, or unjust gain by buying or selling.
    Q. What is usury?
    A. It is to receive, or to hope for some money or moneys' worth, as gain, above the principle, immediately out of the consideration of loan.
    Q. How prove you usury and bribery to great sins?
    A. Out of Psalm xiv. 1, 6. "O Lord, who shall dwell in thy tabernacle, or who shall rest in thy holy mountain? He that have not given his money to use, nor taken bribes upon the innocent man." And from Ezek. xxii 12. "Thou hast taken usury and increase, and hast covetously oppressed thy neighbours. I will disperse thee in the nations, and will scatter thee among the countries." Likewise from Luke vi. 35, where the Lord says, "Do good and lend, hoping for nothing thereby." See on this the Catechism of the holy council of Trent.
    Q. How are rich men soonest brought to beggary?
    A. By mingling other men's goods among their own.
    Q. How do men generally sin against this precept?
    A. Princes, by imposing unjust taxes on their subjects; subjects, by not paying their due taxes to their princes: buyers and sellers, by deceitful weight and measure, or by exceeding the just prices: masters by defrauding servants of their wages: and servants, by embezzling their master's goods. "And that no man over-reach or deceive his brother in business: because the Lord is the avenger of all such things, as we have told you before, and have testified." 1 Thess. iv. 6.


 

The Eighth Commandment Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the eighth commandment?
    A. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.
    Q. What is prohibited by this precept?
    A. All false testimonials, rash judgment, and lies.
    Q. Why is false testimony so great a sin?
    A. Because it is against the justice of God, and our neighbour.
    Q. How prove you that corrupt judgment is a great sin?
    A. Out of Isa. v. 22, 23, 24. "Wo be to you that call evil good, that justify the impious man for bribes and rob the just man of his justice; for as fire devoureth the stubble, so shall the root of these men be ashes."
    Q. Why is rash judgment a great sin?
    A. Because it robs God of his judgment, and our neighbour of his good name: "Do not ye judge, that you be not judged." Matt. vii. 1.
    Q. Why is it a sin to lie?
    A. Because "the devil is a liar, and the father of all lies." John viii. 44.
    Q. What else is prohibited by the precept?
    A. The crimes of whispering, flattery, detraction.
    Q. What is whispering?
    A. It is to break friendship between others, by speaking ill of one unto the other behind his back.
    Q. What is flattery?
    A. to attribute to another some perfection which he hath not, or to praise him for that which he deserves not.
    Q. What is detraction?
    A. Is is a secret staining and blotting another's good name.
    Q. What is calumny?
    A. It is telling a falsehood of our neighbour to his prejudice.
    Q. Are lies, backbiting, flattery, afronts, detraction, and calumny, grievous sins?
    A. They are often very grievous sins. The scriptures saith, Prov. vi. 16, 19. "Six things there are which the Lord hateth; and the seventh his soul destesteth. Haughty eyes, a lying tongue, hands that shed innocent blood, a heart that deviseth wicked plots, feet that are swift to run into mischief, a deceitful witness that uttereth lies, and him that soweth discord among the brethren.
    Q. What is he bound to, that hath hurt his neighbour in any of these kinds?
    A. To make him satisfaction, and restore him his good name.
    Q. How for example?
    A. If he have told a hurtful lie of him, he is bound to unsay it; or if he have revealed his secret sin, he is bound to speak well of the same party, and to mitigate the matter as well as he can.
    Q. Is it a sin to hearken to detraction?
    A. To do it willingly, and with delight, or so as to encourage the detractor, it is; for by so doing we cooperate with the detractor.
    Q. How them must we behave ourselves among detractors?
    A. If they be inferiors, we must reprehend them; if equals or superiors, we must show ourselves at least not pleased with that discourse.
    Q. What is rash judgment?
    A. That which is grounded on mere hearsay, jealousy, and surmises without any moral certainty, or great probability.
    Q. When is a lie a mortal sin?
    A. When it is any great dishonour to God or notable prejudice to our neighbour: otherwise, if it be merely officious, or trifling, it is but a venial sin.

 

The Ninth and Tenth Commandments Expounded.

    Q. WHAT are the ninth and tenth commandments?
    A. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's goods.
    Q. What is prohibited by these commandments?
    A. The inordinate will or desire of unlawful lust, especially adultery, and of all these.
    Q. What else?
    A. Not only deliberate desire or consent, but likewise all voluntary delight and complacency, in covetous or impure thoughts and motions of the flesh.
    Q. How prove you that unchaste desires are mortal sins?
    A. Out of Matt. v. 27, 28. "It was said of old, Thou shalt not commit adultery; but I say unto you, whosoever shall see a woman to lust after her, he hath already committed adultery in his heart."
    Q. How prove you covetous desires to be great sins?
    A. Out of 1 Tim. vi. 9. "For they who would become rich, fall into temptation, and into the snare of the devil, and into many unprofitable and hurtful desires, which drown men in destruction and perdition."
    Q. Is there any sin in those motions of concupiscence, which we feel an suffer against our wills?
    A. There is not, for nothing is sin, which is not voluntary and deliberate. Nay, if resisted they become the occasion of merit to us. To them were liable the most perfect saints, and even the apostles themselves; for Paul, 2 Cor. xii. 7, 8, 9, writes, "And lest the greatness of the revelations should puff me up, there was given me a sting of my flesh, and angel of Satan, to buffet me. For which thing I thrice besought the Lord, that it might depart from me: And he said to me: My grace is sufficient for thee: for power is made perfect in infirmity.
    Q. What think you now of this second table of the law, is there any thing that favours of impossibility?
    A. No certainly, for there is nothing commanded us, which the very law of nature and right reason doth not dictate to us; and therefore ought to be observed and done, although it were not commanded us.
    Q. Is there any thing but what every man expects and desires to have done to himself by others?
    A. There is not, therefore we must do the same to others, according to that, "All things whatsoever you will that men do unto you, do ye also to them; for this is the law and the prophets." Matt. vii. 12.
    Q. Why then do Protestants pretend and say, that the commandments are impossible to be kept?
    A. Because they are not willing to oblige themselves to the observance of them, but had rather make God the author of sin, by commanding impossibilities, (a most high blasphemy) and justify their own iniquities by saying, they cannot help it; than humbly acknowledge and confess their sins, with purpose to amend, by an acceptance of the law of God.


 

CHAPTER IX.

The Precepts of the Church Expounded.   

    Q. HOW many are the commandments of the church?
    A. There be six principle ones.
    Q. What is the first?
    A. "To hear mass on Sundays and holydays," if we have opportunity to do it, and there be no just cause to the contrary.
    Q. Why on all Sundays?
    A. In thanksgiving for the benefits of the week past, as also to sanctify the Lord's day.
    Q. For what other reason?
    A. In memory that the same Christ, who is offered upon the altar at the mass for our sins, was born, rose from the dead, and sent down the Holy Ghost on a Sunday.
    Q. Why on all holydays?
    A. Either in memory of some special benefit, or else for a commemoration of some peculiar saint, so to move ourselves to imitate his example.
    Q. How prove you that the church hath power to ordain and command feasts?
    A. First, by the example of the church in the apostle's time, which ordained the feast of Christmas in honour of the Nativity of Christ; Easter in honour of his resurrection; Whitsuntide, in honour of the coming of the Holy Ghost, in tongues of fire.
    Secondly, out of St. Clement, the disciple of St. Peter, in his eighth book of apostolical constitutions, where he witnesseth. "That the apostles gave order for the celebrating of St. Stephen's and some other of their fellow apostles' days after their deaths."
    Thirdly, out of 2 Thess. iii. 4. "And we have confidence concerning you in the Lord, that the things which we command, you both do, and will do." And ver. 14. "And if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and do not keep company with him, he may be ashamed."
    Fourthly, out of 1 Thess. iv. 8, where St. Paul, (speaking of the precepts he had given his brethren,) saith, "He that despiseth these things, despiseth not man, but God, who also hath given his Holy Spirit in us." See what was said before in the third commandment of God.

 

The Second Precept of the Church Expounded.

   Q. WHAT is the second commandment of the church?
   A. To fast Lent, Vigils commanded, Ember days, and with abstinence from flesh on Fridays and Saturdays.
    Q. Why Lent?
    A. In imitation of Christ our Lord, who fasted forty days and forty nights in the desert for our sins, without once eating or drinking.
    Q. Can we fast in this manner?
    A. We cannot; but we must do at least what we are able.
    Q. How prove you fasting to be a pious practice?
    A. By the example of Christ and his Saints, and out of Luke ii. 37, where we read, "That Anna the prophetess departed not from the temple serving day and night by fasting and prayer."
    Q. How prove you fasting to me meritorious?
    A. Out of Matt. vi. 16, 17, 18. "And when you fast, be not sad, like the hypocrites; but anoint thy head, and wash thy face, that thou appear not unto men to fast, but to thy Father which is in secret, and thy Father who seeth in secret, will repay thee."
    Q. How prove you abstinence from certain meats to be commendable?
    A. Because it was proscribed by an angel to St. John. "He shall be great before the Lord, wine and cider he shall not drink." Luke i. 15. And in Matt. iii. 4, we read, "That his food was locusts and wild honey."
    Q. For what is fasting available?
    A. For the remission of sins and appeasing the wrath of God, according to that, "Be ye converted unto me in your whole heart, in fasting, weeping, and mourning," Joel ii. 12.
    To mortify all the lustful desires of the flesh; and that it hath special force against the Devil: "This kind of devil (saith our Lord) can go out by nothing but by prayer and fasting," Mark ix. 29.
    Q. Why Vigils?
    A. To prepare ourselves for a devout keeping the feasts that follow.
    Q. Why Ember-days?
    A. Because on those days the church giveth Holy orders and ordained priests; and for that cause hath dedicated them to public prayers and fasting.
    Q. What ground have you for that?
    A. Out of Acts xiii. 2, 3. "And as they (the apostles) were ministering to our Lord, and fasting, the Holy Ghost said, Separate ye unto me Saul and Barnabas to the work whereto I have them. Then with fasting and praying, and imposing hand on them, they dismissed them."
    Q. Why abstinence on Fridays?
    A. In memory that Christ suffered for us upon a Friday; drinking gall and vinegar on the cross; but especially by custom, which is a good as law.
    Q. Why abstinence on Saturdays?
    A. To prepare ourselves for a devout keeping of the Sunday, as also in honour of the blessed Virgin Mary, who stood firm in faith on that day, the apostles themselves wavering.

 

The Third Precept of the Church Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the third commandment of the church?
    A. To confess our sins at least once a year.
    Q. Why was that commanded?
    A. Because otherwise, libertines would not have done it once in many years.

 

The Fourth Precept of the Church Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the fourth?
    A. To receive the blessed Sacrament at least once a year, and that at Easter, or thereabouts.
    Q. Why at Easter?
    A. Because Christ instituted the blessed Sacrament of the Eucharist at his last supper, the Thursday before Easter day.
    Q. What said it, or thereabouts?
    A. Because it will satisfy the precept, if it be done at any time between Palm Sunday and Low-Sunday.

 

The Fifth Precept of the Church Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the fifth?
    A. To pay tithes to our pastors.
    Q. Why so?
    A. Because as they feed us spiritually, it is fit we should feed them corporally.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Gal. vi. 6. Let him that is catechised in the word communicate to him that catechised him, in all his goods. And 1 Cor. ix. 13, 14. They that serve the altar participate with the altar, and so the Lord ordained that they who preach the gospel should live by the gospel.

 

The Sixth Precept of the Church Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the sixth?
    A. Not to solemnize marriage on times prohibited that is, from the first Sunday of Advent, until Twelfth day be past, nor from Ash-Wednesday, until Low-Sunday be past.
    Q. Why so?
    A. Because those are times of special piety and penance, and should not therefore be spent in feasting, or carnal pleasures.
    Q. What sin is to break any of these church commandments?
    A. A mortal sin of disobedience, according to that "He that will not hear the church, let him be unto thee as a heather and a publican." Matt. xvii. 17.


 

CHAPTER X.

The Council of Christ and his Church Expounded.

    Q. HOW many councils are there?
    A. There be three principle ones.
    Q. What is the first of them?
    A. Voluntary poverty, which is observed by willingly leaving all things to follow Christ.
    Q. How prove you that to be a work of perfection?
    A. Out of Matt. xix. 21. "If thou wilt be perfect, go, sell what thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven, and come and follow me."
    Q. How prove you this to be meritorious?
    A. Out of the same chap. ver. 27, 28, 29, "When Peter, answering, said to him: Behold, we have left all things, and have followed he: what, therefore, shall we have? And Jesus said to them: Amen I say to you, that you, who have followed me, in the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit on the seat of his majesty, you also shall sit on twelve seats judging the twelve tribes of Israel. And every one that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or lands for my name's sake, shall receive a hundred-fold and shall possess life everlasting."

The Second Counsel.

    Q. WHAT is the second counsel?
    A. Perpetual chastity; which is a voluntary abstaining from marriage, and all carnal pleasures, for the love of God.
    Q. Is this also a work of perfection?
    A. It is, for Christ himself was born of a virgin, and counselled virginity, though he commanded it not.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Matt. xix. 12. "There be eunuchs, (said he,) which have made themselves so for the kingdom of heaven; he that can take let him take."
    Q. How prove you that virginity is a more prefect state than marriage, or that it is lawful to vow virginity?
    A. Out of 1 Cor. vii. 37, 38. "He that hath determined in his heart, being settled, not having any necessity, but having power of his own will to keep his virgin, doth well; therefore he that joineth his virgin in marriage doth well, but he that joineth her not, doth better"
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of 1 Tim. v. 5. "But she that is a widow indeed, (that is, a vowed widow,) and desolate, let her hope in God, and continue in prayer and supplications night and day." And ver. 11, 12. "But the younger widows avoid, for they, when they shall be wanton in Christ, will marry, having damnation, because they have made void their first faith, that is, their vow of chastity, according to the fourth council of Carthage, Canon 104, and all the Fathers."
    Q. Who was the first that taught marriage to be better than virginity, and persuaded priests and nuns to marry?
    A. Jovinian, an old condemned Heretic, according to St. Augustin, in his book Heresies, Her. 82, and in his 2d book of Retractions, he calls him a monster for it, and saith the church stoutly resisted him, chap. 22.

The Third Counsel.

    Q. WHAT is the third counsel?
    A. Obedience, which is a voluntary submission to another's will, and in all that is not sin.
    Q. What warrant have you for that?
    A. First the example of Christ himself, who was obedient to our Lady and St. Joseph, "And he went down with them and came to Nazareth, and was subject to them." Luke ii. 51.
    Secondly, Heb. xiii. 17. "Obey your prelates, and be subject to them; for they watch, being to render an account for your souls."


 

CHAPTER XI.

Of the Sacraments in general.

    Q. HOW many Sacraments are there?
    A. Seven.
    Q. How call you them?
    A. Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Holy Order, and Matrimony. See the Council of Trent, Sess. 7. Can. 1.
    Q. Is there any cause why the number of Sacraments should be seven?
    A. Yes; a probable cause is the proportion which is between spiritual and corporal life.
    Q. In what consists this proportion?
    A. In this; that as in a corporal and nature life, there be seven principle or chief necessities, so are there likewise seven spiritual, to which the seven Sacraments correspond.
    Q. What is our first corporal necessity?
    A. To be born into this world: to this baptism corresponds, by which we are regenerated unto God, and born the heirs of God and co-heirs of Christ.
    Q. What is the second corporal necessity?
    A. To be confirmed in our strength and growth, without which we can never be made men: to this answers confirmation, by which we are made strong and perfect Christians, able to profess our faith before our enemies.
    Q. What is our third corporal necessity?
    A. That (being now made men) we have a competence of daily food and sustenance; to which the blessed Eucharist corresponds, by which our souls are fed with divine grace as often as we worthily receive it, or offer it with the priest on the altar.
    Q. What is the fourth necessity of the body?
    A. That we have physic when we are sick and wounded; to this the sacrament of penance answers; by which our maladies and sores of sin are healed.
    Q. What is our fifth necessity of the body?
    A. That we have the necessary helps against the agonizing pangs of death; to this corresponds extreme unction, by which our soul is strengthened in her last agony, against the violent assaults of the devil.
    Q. What is the sixth corporal necessity?
    A. "That we be governed by laws and magistrates, so to avoid injustice and confusion:" to this Holy Order corresponds, by which we are provided with spiritual magistrates to guide and govern us.
    Q. What is the seventh corporal necessity?
    A. That we be multiplied in a lawful manner; and to this matrimony corresponds, by which we are not only multiplied in a natural, but in a holy and sacramental way.
    Q. What is a Sacramental in general?
    A. It is a visible sign of invisible grace, divinely instituted by Christ, for our sanctification.
    Q. How prove you that Christ ordained them all?
    A. Because it is not in the power of any pure creature to give infallible virtue, causing grace, to sensible and material things, such as the sacraments are; according to the council of Trent, Sess. 7. Can. 1.
    Q. From what have the Sacraments their force and efficacy?
    A. From the blood and passion of Christ, which they apply to our souls.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Rom. vi. 3. "Know you not that all that we who are baptized in Christ Jesus, are baptized in his death?" Rom. v. 9. "Much more therefore, now being justified in his blood, shall we be saved from wrath by him."
    Q. For what end did Christ ordain the Sacraments?
    A. To be external and visible marks and professions of his holy faith, by which the faithful might be known from Infidels and Heretics; and also to be effectual means of our salvation, and certain remedies against sin.
    Q. What things are essential to a Sacrament?
    A. Matter and form.
    Q. Do all the seven Sacraments give grace?
    A. They do, according to the council of Trent, Sess. 7.
    Q. What is grace?
    A. It is a supernatural quality produced in our souls and inherent in them, by which we are made the adopted children of God, special partakers of the divine nature, and like to God, in some degree; as iron is made like to fire by heat.
    Q. How many of these Sacraments give character?
    A. Three: Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Order.
    Q. What is a sacramental character?
    A. It is a supernatural mark in the soul, whereby be are marked for God's servants, which can never be blotted out.
    Q. In what manner do the sacraments give and cause grace?
    A. As a means or instruments only; for God is always the principal cause thereof.
    Q. Who is the ordinary minister of a Sacrament?
    A. A priest; excepting Holy Orders and Confirmation, which are referred to the Bishops alone.
    Q. Why did Christ confine the administration of the Sacraments to the Heirarchy and to the priests only?
    A. "O the depth of the riches, of the wisdom and of the knowledge of God! How incomprehensible are his judgments, and how unsearchable his ways! For who hath known the mind of the Lord? Or who hath been his counsellor?" Rom. xi. And we know from St. Paul, Ephes. iv. 11, that "Christ gave indeed some to be apostles, and some prophets, and others evangelists, and others pastors and teachers. That we may not now be children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, in the wickedness of men, in craftiness by which they lie in wait to deceive." Hence, St. Paul, speaking of the Sacraments, says, 1 Cor. iv. 1. "So let them consider us as the ministers of Christ and dispensers of the mysteries of God." "And we are (2 Cor. v. 20.) therefore ambassadors of Christ: God, as it were, exhorting by us."
    Q. Is the intention of the ministers to do what Christ ordained, a condition, without which the Sacraments subsist not?
    A. It is; also the intention of the receiver to receive what Christ ordained, if he be at the years of understanding?
    Q. Why say you, If he be at the years of understanding?
    A. Because for infants in the Sacraments of baptism the intention of the Church sufficeth.


 

Baptism Expounded.

    Q. WHY is Baptism the first Sacrament?
    A. Because by it we are born again, or created anew in Christ Jesus, and therefore before it we are not capable of receiving any other.
    Q. What is Baptism?
    A. It is an exterior washing of the body, under a set form of words.
    Q. What is the necessary matter of Baptism?
    A. Natural water only; for artificial water will not suffice.
    Q. What is the form of it?
    A. I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
    Q. What if a man leave out the word, (I baptize) or any of the three persons?
    A. Then the baptism is invalid.
    Q. Where did Christ express the form of baptism and give a command to baptize?
    A. In Matt. xxvii. 29. "Go therefore, (saith he) teach ye all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."
    Q. Can a man be saved without baptism?
    A. He cannot, unless he have it either actual or in desire, with contrition, or to be baptized in his blood as the holy Innocents were, which suffered for Christ.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of John iii. 5. "Unless a man be born again of water, and the Holy Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God."
    Q. Can no man but a priest baptize?
    A. Yes, in case of necessity, any layman or woman may do it, and not otherwise.
    Q. What is a chief necessity?
    A. When a child is in danger of death, and a priest cannot be had.
    Q. What are the effects of baptism?
    A. It makes us the children of God, and remits both original and actual sin, if he that is baptized be guilty of it.
    Secondly, it infuseth justifying grace into the soul, with habits of faith, hope, and charity, and all supernatural gifts and virtues.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Gal. iii. 27. "As many of you as are baptized in Christ, have put on Christ."
    Secondly, out of 1 Cor. vi. 10,11 where speaking of fornicators, idolators, thieves, adulterers, and liars "These things, (saith St. Paul) ye were, but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in the spirit of God."
    Thirdly, out of Tit. v. 6, 7. "He hath saved us by the laver of regeneration and renovation of the Holy Ghost, whom he hath abundantly poured out upon us, by Jesus Christ our Saviour, that being justified by his grace we may be heirs, according to the hope of life everlasting."
    Q. What other effect hath baptism?
    A. It makes a spiritual mark or character in the soul, which shall remain for ever, either to our great joy in heaven, or our confusion in hell.
    Q. What sin is it to baptize a man twice?
    A. A mortal sin of sacrilege.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Heb. vi. 4, 5, 6. "It is impossible for those that have been illuminated, and made partakers of the Holy Ghost, (to wit, by baptism) and are fallen, &c. to be renewed again unto penance," &c. viz. by a second baptism.
    Q. What if a man die for the faith, before he can be baptized?
    A. He is a true martyr, and baptized in his own blood.
    Q. Why have we a Godfather and a Godmother in baptism?
    A. That if our parents should neglect it, or be prevented by death, they may instruct us in the faith of Christ, which obligation lies on them.
    Q. How many godfathers may we have?
    A. But one godfather and one godmother, since the council of Trent.
    Q. Why so few?
    A. To prevent the too great spread of spiritual affinity, which is contracted between them and their godchild, and his father and mother, which is an impediment, that makes the marriage not only unlawful, but also invalid between the parties.
    Q. How can infants be christened, which have no actual faith?
    A. In the faith of the Church, and of their godfathers and godmothers.
    Q. Who do we use so many ceremonies in baptism?
    A. To stir up reverence to the sacrament, and signify its inward effects.
    Q. What meaneth the priest's breathing on the child's face, according to the use of some rituals?
    A. It signifies, that by baptism, the evil spirit is cast out, and the spirit of God is given him.
    Q. Why is the child signed on the breast and forehead with the sign of the Cross?
    A. To signify that he is there made the servant of Christ crucified.
    Q. Why is salt put into the child's mouth?
    A. To signify, that by baptism he receives grace and gifts to preserve his soul from corruption of sin: and to warn Christians, that their actions and words ought to be seasoned with prudence and discretion signified by salt.
    Q. Why doth the priest lay spittle on his ears and nostrils?
    A. Because Christ by so doing, healed one that was both deaf and dumb; as also to signify, that by baptism his ears are opened to the word of faith, and his nostrils to the good odour of all Christian virtues.
    Q. Why doth the priest ask the child, "If he renounce the Devil, and his pomps?"
    A. To signify, that he who will be the child of God, cannot be the child of the Devil.
    Q. What means the several anointing of the child?
    A. They signify the interior anointings, or unction of divine grace, given to the soul in baptism.
    Q. What mean they in particular?
    A. He anointed on the head to signify, "that by baptism he is made partaker of the kingly dignity of Christ;" on the shoulders to signify, "he must bear his Cross courageously," on the breast, to signify, "that the heart is there strengthened with grace, to fight against the Devil."
    Q. What signifies the white garment given to the child?
    A. The purity and innocence which he there receives.
    Q. What signifies the hallowed light given to the child?
    A. The light of faith, and fire of charity with which his soul is endued by baptism; and that he is bound to hold up through life the lamp of good works, always burning, always shining before men, that they may glorify our Father who is in Heaven.


 

Confirmation Expounded

    Q. WHAT is the second Sacrament?
    A. Confirmation.
    Q. When did Christ ordain this Sacrament?
    A. The time is not certain; but divines most probably hold, it was instituted at Christ's last supper.
    Q. What is the matter of the Sacrament?
    A. Oil, mingled with balm, blessed by a bishop.
    Q. What is the form of it?
    A. I sign thee with the sign of the Cross, I confirm thee with the crism of salvation, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
    Q. What scripture have you for this Sacrament?
    A. First, 2 Cor. i. 22. "And he that confirmeth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God, who also hath sealed us (with the spiritual character) and given the pledge of the spirit in our hearts.
    Secondly, Acts viii. 14, 15, 16, where when Philip the deacon had converted the city of Samaria to the faith, the apostles who were at Jerusalem, sent to two bishops, St. Peter and St. John, to confirm them; "who when they were come (saith the text) prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost; for he was not yet come upon any of them, but they were only baptized in the name of our Lord Jesus; then did they impose their hands upon them, and they received the Holy Ghost."
    Thirdly, Acts xix. 5,6, where we read that St. Paul  baptized and confirmed about twelve of St. John's disciples: "Hearing these things, they were baptized in the name of our Lord Jesus; and when St. Paul had imposed hands on them, the Holy Ghost came upon them."
    Q. Why is oil used in this Sacrament?
    A. To signify that the principal and proper effect of it, is the interior unction of the Holy Ghost, which makes us perfect Christians, and able to profess our faith before persecuting tyrants.
    Q. Why is balm used in it?
    A. To signify the good odour of a Christian name, according to that, "We are a good odour of Christ to God." 2 Cor. ii. 15.
    Q. In what appears the effects of confirmation?
    A. In the undaunted confidence and sufferings of the apostles, martyrs, and saints of God, after they had received it.
    Q. When were the apostles confirmed?
    A. On Whitsunday, in an extraordinary manner, the Holy Ghost descended upon them in tongues of fire.
    Q. Doth confirmation give a character?
    A. It doth, according to 2 Cor. i. 22, above cited, where we read "who also has sealed us," (that is, with a character.)
    Q. Who is the minister of this Sacrament?
    A. A bishop only, as appears by Acts viii, above cited, where two bishops were sent into Samaria, to give it.
    Q. Is there any necessity for this Sacrament?
    A. There is a moral necessity for it, according to the council of Laodicea, Can. 48: "Those that have been baptized, must after baptism receive the most holy chrism, and be made partakers of the heavenly kingdom."
    Q. What authority of fathers and school divines have you for its necessity?
    A. First, the authority of St. Thomas, who in the Sacrament of confirmation, 3P. Q.72, Art. 8, ad 4, affirms that it is a dangerous thing to die without it.
    Secondly, that of St. Jerome, in his epistles against the Luciferians. "Dost thou not know also (saith he) that this is the custom of the churches, that hands should be imposed on such as they have been baptized, and so the Holy Ghost be invocated? Dost thou require to know where it is written? In the acts of the apostles, and though there were no authority of scripture for it, yet the consent of the whole world in this behalf, would be equal to a precept; for many other things also which are observed in the churches by tradition, do usurp unto themselves the authority of a written law." You see he owns it to be commanded in the scripture; and tho it were not so, yet to be equal to a precept, and have the authority of a written law, because it is an apostolical tradition, that such as have been baptized, must also be confirmed.
    Q. What authority of Popes have you for it?
    A. First, that of St. Clement, pope and martyr, in his epistle to Julius, "All must make haste, (mark the word must) without delay to be regenerated to God, and at length consigned (confirmed) by a bishop; that is, to receive the same seven-fold grace of the Holy Ghost." His reason is, first, "Because the end of every one's life is uncertain," secondly, "Because otherwise he that is baptized, cannot be a perfect Christian, nor have a seat among the perfect; if not by necessity, he shall remain and not have that confirmation, which we have received from blessed Peter, and all the rest of the apostles have taught, or Lord commanding," Secondly, that of Pope Melchiades, teaching "That baptism and confirmation can by no means be separated one from another, unless by death prevented, and that one of them cannot rightly be perfected without the other. And moreover, that as confirmation is given by greater men, so it is to be held in greater veneration than baptism," see De Cons., Dist 5, Cap. De his.
    Add to this, that without confirmation (according to all the fathers) we are not perfect Christians.
    Q. What then would you think of those, who for particular and private ends, should slight this Sacrament, and teach the laity not to receive it, when they might conveniently have it?
    A. Truly I think they would slight the mission of the Holy Ghost, (for this Sacrament is a continuance of that mission unto us) and would be great enemies of Christianity.
    Q. What sin is it not to receive it, when we may conveniently have it?
    A. Mortal sin, if it be done out of contempt, or any gross neglect, especially in a place of persecution.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Because by so doing we expose ourselves to great danger of denying the faith, against which danger, it was peculiarly ordained by Christ our Lord.
    Q. At what age is confirmation now commonly received?
    A. At seven years old.
    Q. Why not sooner?
    A. That so we may be able to prepare ourselves for it, and remember what we have received it; for it can not be twice given.
    Q. Why is a little blow given on the cheek to him that is confirmed?
    A. To signify he is there made the soldier of Christ, and must be ready to suffer stripes and buffets for his sake.
    Q. Must we have any godfathers in confirmation?
    A. Only one godfather or godmother.
    Q. Must it be received fasting?
    A. That is expedient, (for so the apostles received) but not necessary.


 

The Eucharist Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the third Sacrament?
    A. The blessed Eucharist, or the Sacrament of the body and blood of Christ.
    Q. By what was this Sacrament prefigured in the old law?
    A. By the tree of life, the burning bush, Mechisedech's bread and wine, the Paschal Lamb, and the heavenly manna.
    Q. Doth the blessed Eucharist excel all these in dignity?
    A. It doth, as far as the substantial body excels a shadow.
    Q. What signifies the name Eucharist?
    A. It signifies good grace, or thanksgiving, because it contains the author and fountain of grace, and the greatest gift of God to man.
    Q. When did Christ ordain the blessed Eucharist?
    A. At his last supper.
    Q. Why so?
    A. To leave to his church, as the last and greatest pledge of his love.
    Q. What is the blessed Eucharist?
    A. It is the body and blood of Jesus Christ, true God, and true man, under the outward forms of bread and wine.
    Q. In what manner is Christ present under these forms?
    A. By the true and real presence of his divine and human nature.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. First out of Matt. xxvi. 27, 28. Christ at his last supper, took bread and blessed it, brake it and gave it to his disciples, saying, "Take eat, this is my body. And he blessed the cup saying, This is my blood of the New Testament which shall be shed for many to the remission of sins," Mark xiv. 22, 24.
    Secondly, out of Luke xxii. 19, 20. "This is my body which is given for you, this is the chalice of the New Testament in my blood, which shall be shed for you."
    Thirdly, out of John vi. 52, 53, 54. "The bread which I give is my flesh, for the life of the world; by flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed; unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, you shall have no life in you."
    Fourthly, out of 1 Cor. xi. 23, where St. Paul tells us, "He received from our Lord," (viz. by special revelation) that at his last supper he blessed bread, saying, "Take ye and eat, this is my body which shall be delivered up for you; this chalice is the New Testament in my blood."
    Q. By what means is the body and blood of Christ made under the outward forms of bread and wine?
    A. By the real conversion or change of the whole substance of the body and blood of Christ; which conversion is wrought by the most holy and powerful words of consecration, instituted by Christ, and spoken by the priest, and is fitly called Transubstantiation, by the councils of Lateran and Trent; which signifies a passage or conversion of one substance into another.
    Q. Is there any scripture for Transubstantiation?
    A. The word Transubstantiation is not found in scripture, but for the thing signified by it, there are those places in scripture, which prove a real presence, because those words, This is my Body, spoken by Christ, after he had taken bread into his hands, and signifying that to be his body, which before was bread, cannot be true, without the change of of bread into his body; which change is (as I have said already) the thing signified or meant by Transubstantiation. Nor may the word be lawfully rejected for not being found in scripture more than other words used by the church, to explain mysteries of faith; as the word, Trinity or Consubstantiality of God the Son with God the Father, which are not found in scripture.
    Q. What mean you by these species or accidents which remain after the substance of the bread is changed?
    A. The colour, taste, and quality of bread.
    Q. Is the body of Christ divided or broken, when we divide or break the Sacrament?
    A. It is not, for "he is now immortal and impassible, he cannot die nor suffer any more." Rom.vi. 9.
    Q. What other reason have you?
    A. Because Christ is whole in the whole host, and whole in every particle thereof, if you divide or break it; seeing that wherever there would have been bread before consecration, there must needs be the whole body and blood of Christ after consecration.
    Q. What example have you for that?
    A. The Soul of Man, which is whole in the whole body, and whole in every part of the body, as learned Protestants neither do nor can deny.
    Q. How can the same thing be in many several places at once?
    A. By the omnipotent power of God, by which he himself is in all, and every one of his creatures at the same instant.
    Q. What example have you for that?
    A.  A word, which being one, yet is in many hundreds of places at once.
    Q. Out of Acts ix. 4, 5, where we read, that Christ, who is always sitting at the right hand of the Father in Heaven (as we willingly admit with the Protestants) appeared notwithstanding, and discoursed with St. Paul  on earth, saying, "Saul, Saul, why dost thou persecute me?" And when St. Paul  replied, "Who art thou, Lord? He answered, I am Jesus whom thou dost persecute." Therefore, he was then in two places at once.
    Q. What is the necessary matter of the Eucharist?
    A. Wheaten bread and wine of the grape.
    Q. What is the essential form of it?
    A. THIS IS MY BODY, THIS IS MY BLOOD.
    Q. Why is a little water mingled with the wine in the chalice?
    A. To signify the blood and water flowing from the side of Christ; as also, the union of the faithful with Christ, by virtue of the Sacrament.
    Q. What dispositions is required in him that receives the Eucharist?
    A. That he hath first confessed his sins, and be in the state of grace.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of 1 Cor. xi. 28. "Let a man prove himself and so let him eat of this bread and drink of this cup. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth an drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the body of our Lord."
    Q. What are the effects of the Eucharist?
    A. It replenisheth the soul with grace, and nourisheth it in spiritual life: "He that eateth of this bread, shall live for ever," John vi. 58.
    Q. What other benefit have we by it?
    A. It is a most moving and effectual commemoration of the incarnation, nativity, passion, resurrection, and ascension of Christ.
    Q. How do you prove it lawful for the laity, to communicate under one kind only?
    A. First, because there is no command in scripture for the laity to do it under both, though there be for priests in those words, "Drink ye all of this." Matt. xxvi. 27, which was spoken to the apostles only and by them fulfilled; for it follows in Mark xiv. 23. "And they all drank." 2. Out of John vi. 58, "He that eateth of this bread, shall live for ever," therefore, one kind sufficeth. 3. Out of Acts xx. 7, where we read, "That the faithful were assembled on the first of the sabbath to break bread," without any mention of the cup; and the two disciples in Emmaus, "knew Christ in the breaking of bread," where the cup is not mentioned. And St. Paul, 1 Cor. xi. 27. "Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, or drink the chalice of the Lord unworthily shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord."
    Q. What is the exterior visible sacrifice?
    A. It a most necessary act of religion whereby some sensible thing is offered to God by a priest, in order to acknowledge his supreme dominion over us, and our entire dependence on him. It is offered to God as an act of pure adoration, or to render him thanks for his benefits received, or to turn away his anger, or to obtain from him some new blessing, or for all those purposes together.
    Q. Is the blessed Eucharist a sacrifice?
    A. It is a clean oblation, which the prophet Malachy i. 11, foretold would be offered from the rising to the going down of the sun, in every place among the Gentiles; which was prefigured by Melchisedech, priest of the Most High (Gen. xiv. 18,) when he brought forth bread and wine; and which was, in reality, instituted at the last supper by Jesus Christ, when he took bread and wine, blessed them, and distributed them with his own hands amongst the apostles, saying, THIS IS MY BODY; THIS IS MY BLOOD. Christ Jesus is a priest for ever, according to the order of Melchisedech (Heb. v. 8,) and so he instituted, according to his order; that is to say, in bread and wine, this great sacrifice of the NEW LAW.
    All the Holy Popes, and Fathers, and Councils of the primitive ages, teach that the mass is the self same sacrifice of bread and wine that had been instituted by our Saviour; whilst the histories and annals of all countries, not excepting England herself, declare that the Holy Mass, but no other sacrifice, came down to them as a part and parcel of Christianity, from the apostolic age.
    Q. Why are the priests obliged to receive under both kinds?
    A. Because they offer sacrifice, and represent the bloody sacrifice made upon the cross, where the blood was actually divided from the body, and being offerers of the sacrifice, are bound to receive also the cup, by Christ's command expressed. Matt. xxvi. 27. "Drink ye all of this."
    Q. Did the laity ever communicate under both kinds?
    A. They did sometimes in the primitive church, and may again, if holy church shall so appoint; but now it is prohibited by the church, to prevent the great danger of shedding the cup, neither are the laity in this defrauded of any thing; for they receive whole Christ under one kind, which is incomparably more than the pretended reformers have under both, who receive only a bit of baker's bread, with a cup of common vintner's wine. See "Holy Order expounded." See also, "The Mass expounded." ch. 22.


 

Penance Expounded

    Q. WHAT is the fourth Sacrament?
    A. Penance.
    Q. What warrant have you for doing acts of penance?
    A. First, out of Apoc. ii. 4. "Thou hast left thy first charity, therefore be mindful from whence thou art fallen, and do penance?"
    Secondly, "And JESUS began to preach, and say, do ye penance; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." Matt. iv. 17.
    Q. When did Christ ordain this Sacrament?
    A. When he breathed on his disciples, saying, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins ye shall forgive, they are forgiven and whose sins ye shall retain, they are retained." John xx. 22, 23.
    Q. What is the matter of this Sacrament?
    A. The sins and confession of the penitent.
    Q. What is the form of it?
    A. I absolve thee from they sins, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
    Q. What are the effects of it?
    A. It reconciles us to God, and either restores or increases grace?
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of John xx. 23, before cited. And out of John i. 9. "If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and cleanse us from all iniquity."
    Q. How many parts hath the Sacrament of penance?
    A. It hath three parts; namely, contrition, confession, and satisfaction.
    Q. What is contrition?
    A. It is a hearty sorrow for our sins, proceeding immediately from the love of God above all things, and joined with a firm purpose of amendment.
    Q. What is attrition?
    A. It is imperfect contrition, arising from the consideration of the turpitude of sin, or fear of punishment and if it contain a detestation of sin, and hope of pardon, it is so far from being itself wicked, that though alone it justify not, yet it prepares the way to justification; and disposes it at least remotely towards obtaining God's grace in this Sacrament.
    Q. What if a dying man be in mortal sin, and cannot have a priest.
    A. Then nothing but perfect contrition will suffice, it being impossible to be saved, without the love of God.
    Q. What is a firm purpose of amendment?
    A. It is a resolution not only to shun sin, but also the occasions of it.
    Q. How long has confession been in use and practice?
    A. Ever since the Apostle's time, according to James, v. 16. "Confess therefore your sins to one another, and pray for one another, that you may be saved." And Acts xix. 18. "Many of them that believed came confessing and declaring their deeds."
    Q. What is confession?
    A. It is a full, sincere, and humble declaration of our sins to a priest, to obtain absolution.
    Q. Is there any special good or comfort to man from confession?
    A. Very great, because as to a mind laden with secret griefs, the best of comforts is to disclose her case to some faithful friend; so to a soul laded with secret sins one of the greatest comforts, and best remedies possible, is to have selected persons ordained for that end by Christ himself, men of singular piety and learning, and not questionable by any law of what they hear in confession, to whom one may confess his sins, with an assurance both of comfort, correction, and direction for the amendment of his faults.
    Q. What are the necessary conditions of a good confession?
    A. That it be short, diligent, humble, sorrowful, sincere, and entire.
    Q. How, short?
    A. By avoiding superfluous words and circumlocutions.
    Q. How, diligent?
    A. By using a competent time and care in the examining of our conscience.
    Q. How, humble?
    A. By making our confession with humble hearts.
    Q. How, sorrowful?
    A. By stirring up sorrow for our sins.
    Q. How, sincere?
    A. By confessing our sins plainly, without seeking to lessen or excuse them.
    Q. How, entire?
    A. By confessing not only in what things we have sinned mortally, but also how often, as near as we are able to remember.
    Q. What if a man do knowingly leave out any mortal sin in his confession for fear of shame?
    A. He makes his whole confession void, and commits a great sacrilege by lying to the Holy Ghost, and abusing the Sacrament.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. By the example of Ananias and his wife Saphna, who were struck dead at the feet of St. Peter, for daring to lie to the Holy Ghost. Acts v. 5, 10.
    Q. Is he that hath so done bound to confess all again?
    A. Yes, all that are mortal, together with that which he left out, and the sacrilege he committed.
    Q. What is satisfaction?
    A. The sacramental penance, enjoined us by the priest at confession, (which is considered a part of this sacrament,) besides which we may also add more, for our own sins, by our voluntary prayers, fasting, or other good works, or sufferings.
    Q. For what do we satisfy by that penance?
    A. For such temporal punishments as remain due sometimes for our sins, after they are forgiven us.
    Q. How do you prove that priests have power to impose penance?
    A. Out of 1 Cor. vi. 3, where St. Paul excommunicated the incestuous Corinthian; "I (saith he) absent in body, but present in spirit, have already judged him that hath so done, &c. to deliver such a one to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the soul may be saved." ver. 5.
    Q. How prove you that temporal punishments may remain due for our sins, after the sins themselves be forgiven us?
    A. First, because Adam, after his sin was forgiven him, was notwithstanding cast out of paradise for ever, and his whole posterity made subject unto death and many miseries, in punishment of that sin. Gen. iii. 25.
    Secondly, because David, after his sin of adultery was forgiven him, was temporally punished for it with the death of his child: "Our Lord (saith Nathan) hath taken away thy sin, nevertheless thy son shall die." 2 Kings xii. 13, 14.
    Thirdly, because "Whom our Lord loveth he chastiseth." Heb. xii. 6.
    Q. By what other means are those temporal punishments released?
    A. By indulgences.
    Q. What is an indulgence?
    A. No[t] a pardon for sins to come, or leave to commit sin, (as Protestants do falsely and slanderously teach) but a releasing only of such temporal punishments, as remain due to those sins, which have already been forgiven us by penance and confession.
    Q. How doth an indulgence release those punishments?
    A. By the superabundant merits of Christ and his saints, which it applies to our souls by the special grant of the church.
    Q. When did Christ give his church power to grant indulgences?
    A. When he said to St. Peter, "To thee will I give the keys of the kingdom of Heaven, whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, it shall be bound in Heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in Heaven." Matt. xvi. 19.
    Q. How prove you that the apostles did ever use this power?
    A. Out of 2 Cor. ii. 10, where St. Paul remitted part of the Corinthians penance. "To him that is such a one (said he) this rebuke sufficeth, &c. whom you have pardoned any thing, I also pardon."
    Q. What is required for the gaining an indulgence"
    A. That we perform the works enjoined us, and that the last part of them be done in a state of grace.
    Q. What are those works?
    A. Fasting, prayer, and alms deeds; as also confession and communion.

 

Extreme Unction Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the fifth Sacrament?
    A. Extreme unction.*

*Unction is twofold, exterior and interior; by the former is the body anointed, and the latter the soul: there is an instance of the former in James v. 14, and of the latter in the parable of the ten virgins, Matt. xxv. The exterior anointing of the body is expressive of the interior unction or invisible grace produced in the soul.Under the Old Law were the priests, prophets and kings anointed: 1 Kings ix. 16; 2 Kings ii. 4; and 3 Kings xix. 15.Our Blessed Redeemer is called the Anointed, from the Greek verb Krio which signifies to anoint, because God anointed hem with the Holy Ghost: Acts x. 38. And we are called Christians because we profess the law and doctrine of God, the Anointed; and because we are anointed with holy oil and chrism. The child is anointed at baptism, the priest in receiving Holy Orders, the king and queen at their coronation. That the Apostles anointed the sick is clear from Mark vi. 13, and that they taught the practice is clear from James v. 14. Would they teach or practise the rite if they had not commission from their Divine Master so to do? It is indeed extremely astonishing that the Protestants who pretend to be enamoured with the Bible would discard a rite so sanctioned in both Testaments and the usage of all antiquity. See Canons. Lib. i. cit. 15.

    Q. When did Christ institute it?
    A. The time is uncertain: some think it was instituted at his last supper; others that it was done between his resurrection and ascension.
    Q. By whom was this sacrament promulgated?
    A. By James, v. 13, 14, 15. "Is any man sick among you, let him bring in the priests of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil, in the name of our Lord, and the prayer of faith shall save the sick man, and our Lord will lift him up, and if he be in sin his sins shall be forgiven him."
    Q. Who is capable of this sacrament?
    A. Every true and faithful Christian who is in mortal danger of death by sickness, excepting infants, fools, and such as are always mad.
    Q. What is the matter of it?
    A. Oil blessed by a bishop.
    Q. What is the form of it?
    A. "By his own anointing, and his own most pious mercy, our Lord pardon thee, whatsoever thou hast sinned by thy seeing," &c.     And so of the other senses, repeating the same words.
    Q. What are the effects of extreme unction?
    A. It comforts the soul in her last agony against despair, it remits venial sins and removes the relics of sin and restores corporal health, if it be expedient.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Mark vi. 13, where we read, That the apostles anointed with oil many sick, and healed them. Which anointing is understood by many to have been a previous sign of extreme unction, and consequently of its effects.
    Q. Why then do so few recover after it?
    A. Either because the recovery of the body is not expedient for the soul, or because the sick deferred the sacrament too long, as too many do, or for the other indispositions in the receiver of it


 

Holy Order Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the sixth Sacrament?
    A. Holy Order.
    Q. To whom doth this appertain?
    A. To the rulers and ministers of the church, as bishops, priests, deacons, and sub-deacons.
    Q. What proof have you for bishops, priests and deacons?
    A. For bishops and deacons, out of Phil. i. 1. "To all the saints at Philippi, (saith St. Paul) with the bishops and deacons," and for the priests out of St. James above cited. "Is any man sick among you, let him bring in the priests of the church." &c.
    Q. Where did Christ ordain this Sacrament?
    A. At his last supper, where he made his Apostles priests, saying, "This is my body which is given for you; do ye this in commemoration of me." Luke xxii. 19.
    Q. What did Christ give them power to do?
    A. To offer the unbloody sacrifice of his own body and blood, which he himself had there ordained, and offered under the outward forms of bread and wine.
    Q. Why did he say, Do ye this in commemoration of me?
    A. Because the unbloody sacrifice of the Mass is a commemoration or memorial of the bloody sacrifice made on the Cross; nay more, it is a renewal of it in an unbloody manner.
    Q. What are the effects of holy order?
    A. It gives spiritual power, to ordain priests, to consecrate the body and blood of Christ, to administer the sacraments, serve the altar, and to preach.
    Q. What else?
    A. It gives also a spiritual grace, for the well-doing of these offices.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of 1 Tim. iv. 14. "Neglect not the grace which is thine by prophecy, with the imposition of the hands of the priesthood."
    Q. What is the proper office of a bishop?
    A. To give holy orders and confirmation, to preach and govern the church.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. To confirm, out of Acts viii. above cited, where we read, "Two bishops were sent to confirm the Samaritans."
    Q. How prove you that the bishops are of divine right and have authority from God to rule the church?
    A. Out of Acts xx. 28. "Take heed unto yourselves and to the whole flock, wherein the Holy Ghost hath made you bishops to rule the church of God."
    Q. How prove you that the bishops only can ordain priests?
    A. Out of Titus i. 5. "For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest order the things that were wanting, and ordain priests in every city," (he was a bishop.)
    Q. What sin is it therefore to oppose Hierarchy and Episcopacy either in the whole church, or in particular churches?
    A. It is a sin of rebellion and high treason against the peace and safety of Christ's spiritual commonwealth, the church.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Because no law can subsist without guards and officers for it. Since therefore Christ hath ordained bishops to be the guards and teachers of his law, they who strike at bishops, strike also at the whole law of Christ, and safety of the people.
    Q. Why is it requisite that bishops and pastors should have revenues?
    A. Because they bear a considerable charge and office in the commonwealth, therefore, they ought to have a competence for the performance of it. Secondly, to enable them, as good soldiers of Christ Jesus, to keep clear of worldly cares: for "no man, being a soldier to God, entangleth himself with worldly business; that he may please him to whom he hath engaged himself." 2 Tim. ii. 4.
    Q. What is the office of a priest?
    A. To offer sacrifice, and administer the rest of the sacraments, excepting holy order and confirmation.
    Q. How prove you a sacrifice in the New Law?
    A. First, because there is a priesthood, as you have heard, and an altar according to that, "We have an altar (saith St. Paul) whereof they have not power to eat, who serve in the tabernacle." Heb. xiii. 10.
    Secondly, out of Mal. i. 11, where he foretold the sacrifice in the new law, saying, "From the rising of the sun, even to the going down, great is my name among the Gentiles, and in every place there is sacrificing, and there is offered to my name a clean oblation, saith the Lord of Hosts."
    Thirdly, out of Luke xxii. 19, 20, where Christ who is high priest for ever (according to the order of Melchesedech) offered the sacrifice of his own body and blood under the form of bread and wine, saying, "This is my body which is given for you, (it is given for us, you find at his last supper) this is the chalice of the New Testament in my blood, which chalice (according to the great text) is shed for you."
    Q. Is it lawful for priests to marry?
    A. It is not; there being a precept of the church against it, descending to us by tradition from the Apostles; neither did any of the Apostles ever accompany their wives, after their calling to the apostleship; and a vow of perpetual chastity being annexed to the holy orders, in the Latin or Western church.
    Q. Why is it requisite that priests should live chaste and unmarried?
    A. Because, as by their ordination they are bound to teach and instruct the faithful, their minds should be totally disengaged from the cares and pleasures of the world, and wholly employed in the study and piety of heavenly things, which is incompatible with the marriage state. 1 Cor. vii. 32.
    Q. What are the lesser orders of the church?
    A. Acolyte, lector, exorcist, and porter, according to the fourth council of Carthage, can. 6.
    Q. Is it lawful for women to preach, or to be priests?
    A. It is not, according to 1 Cor. xiv. 34. "Let women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted to them to speak, but to the subject, as also the law saith."
    Q. It is lawful for a man to usurp and take upon him priestly power, without the ordination of the church?
    A. It is not, according to Heb. v. 1, 4. "For every high priest taken from among men, is appointed for men &c. that he may offer gifts and sacrifices for sins neither doth any man take the honour to himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of John x. 1. "Amen I say unto you, he that entereth not by the door (Holy Order) into the fold of the sheep, but climbs up another way, is a thief and a robber."
    Q. What if any man pretend an extraordinary calling?
    A. He must prove it by miracles, or else be esteemed an impostor.
    Q. What examples have you against the usurpation of the priestly power?
    A. That the king Ozeas, who was presently struck by God with a leprosy in his forehead, for usurping the priestly office of offering or burning incense in the temple. 2 Paral. xxvi. 19.
    Q. What besides?
    A. The example of Core, Dathan, and Abriam, who for usurping the office of priest, (though they were themselves true believers) were swallowed up alive by the earth, Numb. xvi. 32. and two hundred and fifty others who were offering incense with them, were consumed with fire from heaven, v. 34, with fourteen thousand and seven hundred more, which were also burnt with fire from heaven, for only joining with them, v. 49.


 

Matrimony Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the seventh Sacrament?
    A. Matrimony.
    Q. Where was matrimony first ordained?
    A. In paradise by Almighty God, when he gave Eve as wife to Adam, who presently said, "Therefore a man shall leaven his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be two in one flesh." Gen. ii. 22, 24.
    Q. Where was it made a sacrament of the new law?
    A. Where and when Christ instituted this sacrament us uncertain; some think it done, or at least insinuated at the wedding at Cana in Galilee, where Christ was present, and wrought his first miracle, "by turning water into wine." John ii.  Others, more probably, say it was done, when Christ declared the indissolubility of marriage, saying, "therefore now they are not two, but one flesh: that therefore which God hath joined together, let no man separate." Matt. xix. 6.
    Q. Why was it requisite that marriage should be made a sacrament?
    A. Because it is a contract whereon depends the chief happiness of a married life; as being ordained for the restraint of sinful concupiscence, the good of posterity, the well-ordering our domestic affairs, and the education of our children in the fear and service of God, and therefore ought to be ranked in the highest order of those actions, which Christ hath sanctioned for the use of man.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of Ephes. v. 31, 32. "They shall be two in one flesh; this is the great sacrament. But I speak in Christ, and in the church."
    Q. What is the matter of this sacrament?
    A. The mutual consent of the parties, and giving themselves to one another.
    Q. What are the effects of matrimony?
    A. It gives special grace to the married couple, to love and bear on with another, as also to bring up their children in the fear and love of God.
    Q. What is the principle end of marriage?
    A. To beget children, and bring them up in the service of God; and the next to this is, that man may have a remedy against concupiscence, and a helper in the way of salvation.
    Q. How great is the tie of marriage?
    A. So great that it can never be dissolved but by death, as you have heard out of Matt. xix.
    Q. What are the obligations of man and wife?
    A. To love, honour, and comfort one another.
    Q. What besides?
    A. Husbands are obliged to cherish and comfort their wives; wives to be subject, obey, and love their husbands.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Col. iii. 18, 19. "Women be subject to your own husbands, as behooveth in our Lord. Men, love your wives, and be not bitter towards them." And out of Ephes. iv. 22, 23. "Let women be subject to their husbands, as to the Lord, because the man is head of the woman as Christ is head of the church," v. 24. "But as the Church is subject to Christ, so also women to their husbands in all things." And again, v. 33. "Let each man love his wife as himself, and let the wife reverence her husband.
    Q. What else?
    A. To render mutually the marriage debt, and according to that, "Let the husband render his debt unto his wife, and the wife also in like manner to her husband. The women now hath no power of her own body, but the husband, and in like manner the man hath no power of his own body, but the woman." 1 Cor. vii. 3, 4.
    Q. It is lawful for children to marry without the consent of their parents?
    A. It is not; neither is it lawful for parents to force them to marry against their will.
    Q. Why are so many unhappy in their marriages?
    A. Because they never consulted with God about them, nor sought to have his blessing in them.
    Q. For what other reason?
    A. Because they were in the state of sin at their marriage, or married for inordinate love or wealth, and not for the right end of marriage.
    Q. What meaneth the blessing of the priest given in marriage?
    A. It is to beg all blessings of God for the new married couple.
    Q. Why is the ring put on the fourth finger?
    A. Because that is called the heart finger and hath (they say) a vein in it, with reacheth to the heart; so to signify the true and constant love which ought to be between man and wife.
    Q. What signifies the ring itself?
    A. It is a symbol of perfection and eternity, being equal in all parts, and round in figure, without beginning or end, to imitate the perfect and perpetual love of man and wife.
    Q. What are the spiritual means to obtain the blessing of good children?
    A. Fasting, prayer, and alms-deeds, for so St. Joachim and St. Anne obtained Blessed Virgin Mary; and so the Blessed Virgin became the mother of God.
    Q. What obligations have parents to their children?
    A. To instruct them in the faith of Christ, to bring them up in the fear of God, to give them good example, to keep them out of ill company and other occasions of sin, to feed and nourish them, to provide for them in marriage, and to correct their faults.
    Q. What are the chief and most common impediments of marriage?
    A. Consanguinity and affinity, to the fourth degree inclusively; and in the right line all degrees are prohibited by the law of nature, indispensable.
    Q. Can the church dispense in these collateral degrees?
    A. She can, excepting only the first collateral degrees of consanguinity, but always sufficient motives must be given.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. The Church having made these laws, for just reasons may dispense in them; but when such dispensations are given, those who seek them ought to consider, that they may deprive themselves of the blessings attending the marriage state, if the motives alleged be not well founded.


 

CHAPTER XII.

The Cardinal Virtues Expounded

    Q. HOW many cardinal virtues are there?
    A.  There are four: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance.
    Q. Why are they called cardinal virtues?
    A. Because they are the fountains and as it were the hinges of all good works, from the word Cardo, which signifies a hinge.
    Q. What is prudence?
    A. It is a virtue which makes us wary in all our actions, that we may neither deceive others, nor be deceived ourselves; or which (according to the rule of honesty) prescribes us what to be desired, and what to be avoided.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Eccles.  iii. 32. "A wise heart that hath understanding, will keep itself from all sin, and in the works of justice shall have success."
    Q. What is justice?
    A. It is a virtue which gives every man this own according to that, "Render to all men their due, to whom tribute, tribute; to whom custom, custom; to whom fear, fear; to whom honour, honour." Rom. xiii. 7.
    Q. What is temperance?
    A. It is a virtue which moderates our appetites and desires, that they be according to reason, and not inordinate: "He that is abstinate, (saith the wise man) shall increase in life." Eccl. xxxvii.
    Q. What is fortitude?
    A. It is a virtue, by which the labours and dangers even of death itself, that are opposite unto virtue, are courageously undertaken and patiently sustained, "The wicked fleeth (saith Soloman) when no man pursueth; but the just man, as a confident lion, shall be without fear." Prov.  xxvii. 1. And in 1 Pet. iii. 14, we read, "The fear of them fear ye not, and be not troubled, but sanctify our Lord Christ in your hearts."
    Q. Is it necessary for a Christian to be exercised in these virtues?
    A. It is; for "we must not only decline from evil, but do good," Psalm xxxvi. 27.


 

CHAPTER XIII.

The Gifts of the Holy Ghost Expounded.

    Q. HOW many are the Gifts of the Holy Ghost?
    A. Seven: wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and the fear of the Lord. Isa. xi. 2.
    Q. What is wisdom?
    A. It is a gift of God, which teacheth us to direct our whole lives and actions to his honour, and the salvation of our souls.
    Q. What is understanding?
    A. It is a gift of God, by which we are enabled to comprehend the high mysteries of our Faith.
    Q. What is counsel?
    A. It is a gift of God, by which we discover the frauds and deceits of the Devil, and are not deceived by him.
    Q. What is fortitude?
    A. It is a gift of God, whereby we are enabled to undergo and despise all dangers for his sake.
    Q. What is knowledge?
    A. It is a gift of God, by which we know and understand the will of God.
    Q. What is piety?
    A. It is a gift of God, which makes us devout and zealous in his service.
    Q. What is the fear of the Lord?
    A. It is the gift of God, which curbs our rashness, withholds us from sin, and makes us obedient to God's law.


 

CHAPTER XIV.

The Twelve Fruits of the Holy Ghost Expounded.

    Q. HOW many are the fruits of the Holy Ghost?
    A. There are twelve, as you may see, Gal. v. 22, 23.
    Q. What is the first?
    A. Charity, whose nature and effects you know already.
    Q. What is the second?
    A. Joy, by which we are enabled to serve God with cheerful hearts.
    Q. What is the third?
    A. Peace, which keeps us unmoved in our minds amidst the storms and tempests of the world.
    Q. What is the fourth?
    A. Patience, which enables us to suffer all adversities for the love of God.
    Q. What is the fifth?
    A. Longanimity, which is an untired confidence of mind, in expecting the good things of the life to come.
    Q. What is the sixth?
    A. Goodness, which makes us hurt no man, and be good to all.
    Q. What is the seventh?
    A. Benignity, which causeth an affable sweetness in our manners and conversation.
    Q. What is the eighth?
    A. Mildness, which allays in us all the [e]motions of passion and anger.
    Q. What is the ninth?
    A. Fidelity, which makes us punctual observers of our covenants and promises.
    Q. What is the tenth?
    A. Modesty, which observes a becoming deportment in all our outward actions.
    Q. What is the eleventh?
    A. Continency, which makes us not only abstemious in meat and drink, but in all other sensible delights.
    Q. What is the twelfth?
    A. Chastity, which keeps a pure soul in a pure body.
    Q. Who are they that have these fruits?
    A. The children of God only; for "whosoever are led by the spirit of God, they are the sons of God." Rom. viii. 14.


 

CHAPTER XV.

The Works of Mercy (corporal and spiritual) Expounded.

    Q. HOW many are the corporal works of mercy?
    A. Seven. 1. To feed the hungry. 2. To give drink to the thirsty. 3. To clothe the naked. 4. To harbour the harbourless. 5. To visit the sick. 6. To visit the imprisoned. 7. To bury the dead.
    Q. How prove you that these works are meritorious of a reward?
    A. Because Christ hath promised the kingdom of Heaven as the reward of them. "Come, O ye blessed of my Father (saith he) and possess ye the kingdom, &c. for I was hungry, and ye gave me to eat," &c. Matt. xxv. 35, 36.
    Q. When are we said to feed and clothe Christ?
    A. As often as we feed and clothe the poor, "What ye have done (saith he) to one of my little ones, that ye have done unto me." ver. 40.
    Q. Is the reward of these works a reward of justice?
    A. It is; according to 2 Tim. iv. 7, 8. "I have fought a good fight (saith Paul) there is a crown of justice laid up for me, which our Lord will render to me at that day as the just judge."
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of Heb. vi. 10. "For God is not unjust, that he should forget the work and love, which you have shown in his name, who have ministered unto the Saints, and do minister.
    Q. How many are the works of mercy, spiritual?
    A. Seven also. 1. To give counsel to the doubtful. 2. To instruct the ignorant. 3. To admonish the sinners. 4. To comfort the afflicted. 5. To forgive offences. 6. To bear patiently the troublesome. 7. To pray for the quick and the dead.
    Q. How prove you your prayer for the dead?
    A. First, out of the places before and after cited for purgatory. Secondly, out of 1 John v. 16. "He that knoweth his brother to sin a sin not unto death, let him ask, and life shall be given him, not sinning to death; (i.e.) to final impenitence. Therefore it is lawful to pray for all such as die penitent, confessing their sins." And in 2 Mac. xii. we read, "It is a wholesome and holy thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from their sins."
    Q. How show you these works to be meritorious?
    A. Out of Dan. xii. 3. "They who instruct others to justice, shall shine as stars to all eternity."


 

CHAPTER XVI.

The Eight Beatitudes.  

    Q. WHAT are the eight Beatitudes?
    A. Christ "opening his mouth he taught them, saying: 1. Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 2. Blessed are the meek, for they shall possess the land. 3. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. 4. Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice: for they shall be filled. 5. Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. 6. Blessed are the clean of heart: for they shall see God. 7. Blessed are the peace-makers: for they shall be called the children of God. 8. Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice sake: for theirs is the Kingdom of heaven." Matt. v. 3, 10.
    Q. Whence ariseth the necessity of suffering persecution?
    A. Because all that will live piously in Jesus Christ shall suffer persecution. 2 Tim. iii. 12.


 

CHAPTER XVII.

The Kinds of Sin Expounded.

    Q. WHY is it necessary for a Christian to know the nature and kinds of sin?
    A. That so he may detest and avoid them.
    Q. How many kinds of sins are there?
    A. Two, namely, Original and Actual.
    Q. What is original sin?
    A. It is a privation of original justice, which we inherit from our first parent Adam, being all by course of nature, conceived and born in that privation or original sin.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Rom. v. 12. "Therefore as by one man sin entered into the world, and by sin death, and so unto all men death did pass, in whom all have sinned."
    Q. What are the effects of original sin?
    A. Concupiscence, ignorance, evil inclination, proneness to sin, sickness, and death.
    Q. How is original sin taken away?
    A. By holy baptism.
    Q. Whither go infants that die without baptism?
    A. To a part of hell, where they endure the pain of loss, but not of sense, and shall never see the face of God.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of John iii. 5. "Unless a man be born again of water, and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God."
    Q. What is actual sin?
    A. It is a thought, word or deed, contrary to the law of God.
    Q. What is the sin of omission?
    A. To omit any thing willing, which is commanded by God or his Church.
    Q. Why is actual sin so called?
    A. Because the material part of it is commonly some voluntary acts of ours.
    Q. Is all sin voluntary and deliberate?
    A. It is, because (speaking of actual sin) no man sinneth in doing that which is not in his power to avoid.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Because the whole gospel of Christ is nothing else but an exhortation to do good, and avoid evil, than which nothing were more vain, if it be not the free election and power of man, assisted by God's grace, to do, or not to do such things.
    Q. What scripture have you for that?
    A. First out of Gen. iv. 7. "If thou dost well, shalt thou not receive? But if ill, shall not thy sin be forthwith present at the door? But the lust thereof shall be under thee, and thou shalt have dominion over it."
    Secondly out of Deut. xxx. 19, 20. "I call heaven and earth to witness this day, that I have proposed to thee life and death, blessing and cursing, choose therefore life that thou mayest live."
    Thirdly, out of 1 Cor. vii. 37. "He that hath determined in his heart being settled not having necessity but having the power of his own will, and hath judged in his heart to keep his virginity, doth well;" (you see man hath power of his own will) and in Phil. iv. 13. "I can do all things (saith Paul) in him who strengtheneth me."
    Q. Doth not the efficacy of God's grace hinder, and hurt the freedom of our will?
    A. No, it perfects it according to 1 Cor. xv. 10, 11. "I have laboured more abundantly (saith Paul) than all they, yet not I, but the grace of God within me." You hear the grace of God did not hinder, but perfect his working.
    Q. How is actual sin divided?
    A. Into mortal and venial.
    Q. What is mortal sin?
    A. A great offence against the love of God; and is so called because it kills the soul, and robs it of the spiritual life of grace.
    Q. What is venial sin?
    A. A small, and very pardonable offence against God, or our neighbour.
    Q. How prove you that some sins are mortal?
    A. First, out of Rom. vi. 23. "For the wages of sin is death." And ver. xxi. "What fruit therefore had you then in these things, for which ye are now ashamed, for the end of them is death?"
    Secondly, out of Wis. xvi. 14. "For man by malice, killeth his own soul." And out of Ezek. xviii. 4. "The soul that sinneth, the same shall die."
    Q. How prove you that some sins are venial?
    A. First, out of 1 John i. 8, where speaking of such as walk in the light, and are cleansed from all mortal sin by the blood of Christ, he adds, "if we stay we have no sin, we seduce ourselves, and the truth is not in us."
    Secondly, "In many things we all offend," James iii 2. And in Prov. xxiv. 16. "The just man falleth seven times." Not mortally, for then he were no longer just, therefore venially.
    Thirdly, out of Matt. xii. 36. "But I say unto you, every idle word which men shall speak, they shall render an account for it at the day of judgment." Now God forbid every idle word should be a mortal sin.
    Q. What are the effects of venial sin?
    A. It doth not rob the soul of life, as mortal sin doth, but only weakeneth the fervour of charity, and by degrees disposeth unto mortal.
    Q. Why are we bound to shun not only mortal, but venial sins?
    A. Because "he that contemneth small things, shall fall by little and little." Eccles. xix. 1.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Because "no polluted thing shall enter into the heavenly Jerusalem." Apoc. xxi. 27, be it polluted with mortal, or venial sin.
    Q. How shall we be able to know when any sin is mortal, and when but venial?
    A. Because to any mortal sin it is required, both that it be deliberate, and perfectly voluntary; and that it be a matter of weight against the law of God; one or both of which conditions are always wanting in a venial sin.
    Q. How is mortal sin remitted?
    A. By hearty penance and contrition.
    Q. How is venial sin remitted?
    A. By all the sacraments, by holy water, devout prayer, alms-deeds, and the like good works.
    Q. Whither go such as die in venial sin, or not having fully satisfied for the temporal punishments due to their mortal sins which are forgiven them?
    A. To purgatory till they have made full satisfaction for them, and then to heaven.
    Q. How prove you there is a purgatory, or a place of punishment, where souls are purged after death?
    Q. Out of 1 Pet. iii. 10. "Christ being dead for our sins, came in spirit, and preached to them also that were in prison, who had been incredulous in the days of Noah, when the Ark was building."
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of 1 Cor. iii. 13. "The work of every man shall be manifest, for the day of our Lord will declare it, because it shall be revealed in fire; and the work of every one of what kind it is, the fire shall try; If a man's work abides," (as theirs doth who deserve no purgatory) he shall suffer loss, but himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire."
    Q. What besides?
    A. Out of Matt. v. 25. "Be thou at agreement with thy adversary betimes whilst thou art in the way with him (that is in this life) lest perhaps the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison (Purgatory): Amen, I say unto thee, thou shalt not go out from thence, till thou pay the last farthing."
    Q. What other yet?
    A. Out of Matt. xii. 32. "Some sins shall neither be forgiven in this world, nor in the world to come." Therefore there is a place of purging and pardoning sins after this life.
    Q. How is a man made guilty, or said to co-operate to other men's sins?
    A. As often as he is an actual cause of sin in others by any of these nine means: 1. By counsel. 2. By command. 3. By consent. 4. By provocation. 5. By praise or flattery. 6. By silence. 7. By connivance. 8. By participation; or 9. By defence of the ill done.

 

CHAPTER XVIII.

The Seven Deadly Sins Expounded.

   Q. HOW call you the seven deadly, or capital sins?
    A. Pride, covetousness, lechery, anger, gluttony, envy, and sloth.
    Q. What is pride?
    A. It is an inordinate desire of our own excellency or esteem.
    Q. Why is pride called a capital sin?
    A. Because it is the head or fountain of many other sins.
    Q. What for example?
    A. Vain-glory, boasting, hypocrisy, ambition, arrogance, presumption, and contempt of others.
    Q. What is vain-glory?
    A. And inordinate desire of human praise.
    Q. What is boasting?
    A. A foolish bragging of ourselves.
    Q. What is hypocrisy?
    A. Counterfeiting of more piety and virtue than we have.
    Q. What is ambition?
    A. An inordinate desire of honour.
    Q. What is arrogance?
    A. A high contempt of others, joined with insolence and rashness.
    Q. What is presumption?
    A. An attempting of things above our strength.
    Q. What is contempt of others?
    A. A disdainful preferring ourselves before others.
    Q. What other daughters hath pride?
    A. Pertinency, discord, disobedience, and ingratitude.
    Q. What is pertinency?
    A. A willful sticking to our own opinions, contrary to the judgment of our betters.
    Q. What is discord?
    A. A wrangling in words, with such as we ought to assent and yield unto.
    Q. What is disobedience?
    A. An opposition to the will or commands of parents and superiors.
    Q. What is ingratitude?
    A. A forgetting or neglecting of benefits.
    Q. How prove you pride to be a mortal sin?
    A. Because we read, that "God resists the proud, and gives this grace to the humble." 1 Pet. v. 5. And "pride is odious before God and men." Eccl. x. 7.
    Q. What are the remedies of pride?
    A. To remember that holy lesson of Christ, "learn of me, because I am meek and humble of heart." Matt. xi. 29. And to consider that we are sinful dust and shall return again to dust; and that whatsoever good we have to do, is the free gift of God.
    Q. What is the virtue opposite to pride?
    A. Humility, which teaches us a lowly opinion of ourselves. "He that humbleth himself shall be exalted." Matt. xxiii. 12.

Covetousness Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is covetousness?
    A. An inordinate desire of riches.
    Q. When is covetousness a mortal sin?
    A. When either we desire to get unjustly what which is another man's of considerable value, or else refuse to give of that which is our own, to such as are in any extreme or great necessity.
    Q. How prove you the first part?
    A. Out of 1 Tim. vi. 9. "They, who would become rich, fall into temptation, and into the snare of the devil, and into many unprofitable and hurtful desires, which drown men in destruction and perdition: for covetousness is the root of all evils."
    Q. How prove you the latter part?
    A. Out of 1 John iii. 17. "He that hath the substance of this world, and shall see his brother in necessity, and shall shut up his bowels from him; how doth the charity of God abide in him?"
    Q. What other proof have you for alms?
    A. Out of Luke xi. 41. "But yet that which remains, give alms, and behold all things are clean unto you." And out of Dan. iv. 24. "Redeem thy sins with alms and thy iniquity with the mercies of the poor."
    Q. What are the daughters of covetousness?
    A. Hardness of heart, unmercifulness to the poor unquiet solicitude, neglect of heavenly things, and confidence in things of this world.
    Q. What else?
    A. Usury, fraud, rapine, theft, &c.
    Q. What are the remedies of covetousness?
    A. To consider "that it is a kind of idolatry," according to Col. iii. 5. And that "it is harder for a rich man to enter into heaven, that for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle." Matt. xix. 24.
    Q. What are the virtues opposite to covetousness?
    A. Liberality, which makes a man give freely to the poor; and justice, which renders to a men that which is theirs. "It is a more blessed thing thing to give (saith our Lord) than to take." Acts xxvi. 35. And 2 Cor. ix. 6, St. Paul saith, "He that soweth sparingly, sparingly also shall he reap; but he that soweth in blessings, of blessings also shall he reap; for God loves the cheerful giver."

Lechery Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is lechery, or lust?
    A. An inordinate desire of carnal sin, or delights of the flesh.
    Q. How prove you the malice of this sin?
    A. Because the whole world was once drowned, and the cities of Sodom and Gemorrah were burnt with fire from heaven for it. Gen. vii. 21, and xix. 24.
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of Rom. viii. 13. "For if you live according to the flesh, you shall die; but if by the spirit you mortify the deeds of the flesh, you shall live."
    Q. What are the degrees of lust?
    A. Thought, delight, consent, and act.
    Q. What are the daughters of lust?
    A. Fornication, whoredom, adultery, voluntary pollution, unchaste signs and touches, wanton kisses and speeches.
    Q. How prove you voluntary pollution to be a mortal sin?
    A. Out of Gen. xxxviii. 9, where we read, that Onan was struck dead by God in the place, for shedding the seed of nature out of the due use of marriage to hinder generation, which fact the holy text calls a destestable thing. He also who was eldest brother to this Onan, was slain by God, as we read in the same chapter, ver. 7. And it is generally thought by expositors, that his sudden death was in punishment for the like sin of pollution.
    Q. Why are the lustful kisses and touches mortal sins?
    A. Because they vehemently dispose to fornication and pollution.
    Q. Is kissing by way of civility, when we meet friend, any sin?
    A. No, it is not.
    Q. What are the remedies of lust?
    A. To consider the beastliness of it, and that by it we make our bodies, which are members of Christ, to be members of an harlot. 1 Cor. vi. 15.
    Q. What else?
    A. To consider that God and his angels are even witnesses of it, how private soever it may seem.
    Q. What if the virtue opposite to lechery?
    A. Chastity, which makes us abstain from carnal pleasures. "Let us behave ourselves (saith St. Paul) as the ministers of God, in much patience, in watching, in fasting, in chastity." 2 Cor. vi. 4, 6.
    Q. How prove you the greatness of this virtue?
    A. Out of Apoc. xiv. 4. "These are they who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins, these follow the Lamb withersoever he shall go."

Envy Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is envy?
    A. It is a sadness or repining at another's good, in as much as it seems to lessen our own excellency.
    Q. How prove you envy to be a mortal sin?
    A. Because, by the "Devil's envy death entered into the world, and envy was the cause of all sin." Wis. ii. 24.
    Q. What are the daughters of envy?
    A. Hatred, detraction, rash judgment, strife, reproach, contempt, and rejoicing at another's evil.
    Q. What are the remedies of envy?
    A. To consider that it robs us of charity, and deforms us to the likeness of the Devil.
    Q. What is the opposite to envy?
    A. Brotherly love, which is the chiefest badge of Christianity, "In this all men should know that you are my disciples, if you love one another." John xiii. 35.

  Gluttony Expounded

   Q. WHAT is gluttony?
    A. An inordinate excess, or desire of excess in meat or drink.
    Q. How prove you that to be a mortal sin?
    A. Out of Cor. vi. 10. "Drunkards shall not possess the kingdom of God." And Luke xxi. 34. "Take heed to yourselves, lest your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting and drunkenness."
    Q. What are the daughters of gluttony?
    A. Babbling scurrility, spewing, sickness, and dullness of soul and body.
    Q. What are the remedies of it.
    A. To consider the abstinence of Christ and his Saints, and that "gluttons are enemies to the cross of Christ, whose end is destruction." Phil. iii. 19.

Anger Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is anger?
    A. An inordinate desire of revenge.
    Q. How prove you anger to be mortal?
    A. Out of Matt. ver. 22. "Whosoever shall be angry with his brother, shall be guilty of judgment, &c. And whosoever shall say, thou fool, shall be guilty of hell fire."
    Q. What are the daughters of anger?
    A. Hatred, passion, fury, clamour, threats, contumey, cursing, blasphemy, and murder.
    Q. What are the remedies of anger?
    A. To remember the holy lesson of Christ, Luke xxi. 19. "In your patience you shall possess your souls." And that of St. Paul. "Be gentle one to another, pardoning one another, as also God in Christ hath pardoned you." Ephes. iv. 32.
    Q. What is the virtue opposite to anger?
    A. Patience, which suppresseth in us all passion, and desire of revenge.
    Q. How prove you the necessity and force of patience?
    A. Out of Heb. x. 36. "Patience is necessary for you, that doing the will of God, you may partake of the promise."

Sloth Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is sloth?
    A. Laziness of mind, neglecting to begin, or prosecute good things.
    Q. How prove you sloth to be a deadly sin?
    A. Out of Apoc. iii. 15. "Because thou art neither cold nor hot, but lukewarm, I will begin to cast thee out of my mouth."
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of Matt. xxv. 30. "And the unprofitable servant cast ye forth into exterior darkness."
    Q. When is sloth mortal?
    A. As often as by it we break any commandment of God or his church.
    Q. What are daughters of sloth?
    A. Tepidity, pusillanimity, indevotion, weariness of life, aversion from spiritual things, and distrust of God's mercy.
    Q. What are the remedies of sloth?
    A. To remember that of Jeremiah xlvii. 10. "Cursed be he that doth the work of the Lord negligently." And to consider with what diligence men do worldly business.
    Q. What is the virtue opposite to sloth?
    A. Diligence, which makes us careful and zealous to performing our duty both to God and men. "Take heed, watch and pray, for you know not when the time is," Matt. xiii. 33. "Strive to enter by the narrow gate, for many I say to you, shall seek to enter, and shall not be able." Luke xiii. 24.


 

CHAPTER XIX.

The Sins against the Holy Ghost Expounded.

    Q. HOW many are the sins against the Holy Ghost?
    A. Six: despair of salvation, presumption of God's mercy, to impugn the known truth, envy at another's spiritual good, obstinacy in sin, and final impenitence.
    Q. What is despair of salvation?
    A. It is a diffidence in the mercies and power of God as also, in the merits of Jesus Christ, as if they were not of force enough to save us. This was the sin of Cain, when he said, "My sin is greater than I can deserve pardon." Gen. iv. 13. And of Judas, "when casting down the silver pieces in the temple, he went and hanged himself." Matt. xxvii. 4, 5.
    Q. What is the presumption of God's mercy?
    A. A foolish confidence of salvation, without leading a good life, or any care to keep the commandments; such as they entertain who think they will be saved by faith only, without good works.
    Q. What is it to impugn the known truth?
    A. To argue obstinately against known points of faith, or to prevent the way of our Lord by forging lies and slander, as Heretics do, when they teach the ignorant people, that Catholics worship images as God, and give Angels and Saints the honour which is due to God; or that the Pope for money gives us pardon to commit what sins we please; that all which, greater falsehoods cannot be invented.
    Q. What is the envy to another's spiritual good?
    A. A sadness or repining at another's growth in virtue and perfection; such as sectaries seem to have when they scoff and are troubled at the frequent fasts, prayers, feasts, pilgrimages, alms-deeds, vows, and religious orders of the Catholic Church, calling them superstitious and fooleries, because they have not in their churches any such practices of piety.
    Q. What is obstinacy in sin?
    A. A wilful persisting in wickedness, and running on from sin to sin, after sufficient instructions and admonition.
    Q. How show you the malice of this sin?
    A. Out of Heb. x. 26, 27. "If we sin wilfully after having received the knowledge of the truth, there is now left no sacrifice for sins, but a certain dreadful expectation of judgment."
    Q. What other proof have you?
    A. Out of 2 Pet. ii. 21. "It was better for them not to know the way of justice, than after the knowledge to turn back from the holy commandment which was given them."
    Q. What is final impenitence?
    A. To die without either confession or contrition for our sins, as those do of whom it is said, "With a hard neck, and with uncircumcised hearts and ears, you always resist the Holy Ghost." Acts vii. 51. And in the person of whom Job speaks, saying, "Depart thou from us, and we will not have the knowledge of thy ways." Job xxi. 14.
    Q. Why is it said that those sins should never be forgiven, neither in this world, nor in the world to come?
    A. Not because there is no power in God or in the sacraments to remit them, if we confess them, and be sorry for them, (excepting only final impenitence) of which we read, "There is a sin to death for that I say not that any man ask." 1 John i. 9. "If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive our sins, and cleanse us from all iniquity."


 

CHAPTER XX.

The Sins that cry to Heaven for Vengeance Expounded.

    Q. HOW many such sins are there?
    A. Four.
    Q. What is the first of them?
    A. Wilful murder, which is a voluntary and unjust taking away another's life.
    Q. How show you the pravity of this sin?
    A. Out of Gen. iv. 10. Where it is said to Cain "What hast thou done? the voice of the blood of thy brother crieth to me from the earth: now, therefore shalt thou be cursed upon the earth." And Matt. xxvi 52, "All that take the sword, shall perish with the sword."
    Q. What is the second?
    A. The sin of Sodom, or carnal sin against nature, which is a voluntary shedding of the seed of nature, out of the due use of marriage, or lust with a different sex.
    Q. What is the scripture proof of this?
    A. Out of Gen. xix. 13. where we read of the Sodomites, and their sin. "We will destroy this place because the cry of them hath increased before our Lord, who hath sent us to destroy them," (and they were burnt with fire from heaven.)
    Q. What is the third?
    A. Oppressing of the poor, which is a cruel, tyrannical, and unjust dealing with inferiors.
    Q. What other proof have you of that?
    A. Out of Exod. xxii. 21. "Ye shall not hurt the widow and the fatherless: If you do hurt them, they will cry unto me, and I will hear them cry, and my fury shall take indignation, and I will strike thee with the sword." And out of Isa. x. 1, 2. "Wo to them that make unjust laws, that they might oppress the poor in judgment, and do violence to the cause of the humble of my people."
    Q. What is the fourth?
    A. To defraud working men of their wages, which is to lessen, or detain it from them.
    Q. What proof have you of it?
    A. Out of Eccl. xxxiv. 37. "He that sheddeth blood and he that defraudeth the hired man, are brethren," and out of James v. 4. "Behold the hire of the workmen that have reaped your fields, which is defrauded by you, crieth, and their cry hath entered into the ears of the Lord God of Sabaoth."


 

CHAPTER XXI.

The Four Last Things Expounded.

    Q. WHAT are the four last things?
    A. Death, Judgment, Hell, and Heaven.
    Q. What understand you by death?
    A. That we are mortal, and shall once die; how soon, we are uncertain, and therefore we must be always prepared for it.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Heb. ix. 27. "It is decreed for all men once to die." And Matt. xxv. 13. "Watch ye therefore, because ye know not the day nor the hour."
    Q. What is the best preparation for death?
    A. A godly life, and to be often doing penance for our sins, and saying with St. Paul, "I desire to be dissolved and to be with Christ." Phil. i. 23.
    Q. What else?
    A. To remember often that of Matt. xvi. 25. "He that will save his life shall lose it, and he that shall lose his life for me shall find it."
    Q. What understand you by judgment?
    A. I understand, that (besides the general judgment at the last day) our souls as soon as we are dead, shall receive their particular judgment at the tribunal of Christ, according to that, "Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord, from henceforth now, saith the spirit, they rest from their labours, for their works follow them." Apoc. xiv. 13.
    Q. What is the best preparation from this judgment?
    A. To remember often that of Heb. x. 31. It is a terrible thing to fall into the hands of the living God." And that of 1 Cor. xi. 21. "For if we did judge our selves, we should not be judged."
    Q. What understand you by hell?
    A. That such as die in mortal sin "shall be tormented there both day and night, and for ever and ever." Apoc. xx. 21. "There shall be weeping, howling, and gnashing of teeth; the worm of conscience shall always gnaw them, and the fire that torments them, shall never be extinguished." Mark viii. 44, 45.
    Q. What understand you by heaven?
    A. That the elect and faithful servants of God, shall for ever reign with him in his kingdom, "where he hath such delights and comforts for them, as neither eye hath seen or ear hath heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man." 1 Cor. ii. 9.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Out of Matt. vii. 21. "He hath doth the will of my Father who is in heaven, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven."
    Q. What profit is there in the frequent memory of all those things?
    A. Very great according to that, "In all thy works remember the last things, and thou shalt never sin." Eccles. vii. 40. which God of his great mercy give us grace to do. Amen.

 
 

CHAPTER XXII.

The Substance or Essence, and Ceremonies of the Mass, Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is the mass?
    A. It is the unbloody sacrifice of Christ's body and blood, under the forms of bread and wine. The word Mass, used in English, being derived from Missa, Latin; and the word Missa, though it may have other derivations, may be well taken from the Hebrew word Missach, which signifies a free voluntary offering.
    Q. Who instituted the substance or essence of the Mass?
    A. Our Saviour Christ at his last supper, when he consecrated, i.e. converted the substance of bread and wine into his own true body and blood, and gave the same to his disciples, under the outward forms of bread and wine, commanding them to do what he had done in commemoration of him. Luke xxii. 19.
    Q. Who ordained the ceremonies of the mass?
    A. The church, directed by the Holy Ghost.
    Q. For what end did the church ordain them?
    A. To stir up devotion in the people, and reverence to the sacred mysteries.
    Q. For what other end?
    A. To instruct the ignorant in spiritual and high things by sensible and material signs; and by the glory of the church militant to make them comprehend something of the glory of the triumphant church.
    Q. What warrant hath the church to ordain ceremonies?
    A. The authority of God himself in the old law, commanding many and most stately ceremonies in things belonging to his service. See the whole book of Leviticus.
    Q. What besides?
    A. The example of Christ in the new law using dust and spittle to cure the blind, the deaf, and dumb. He prostrated himself at prayer in the garden three times. He lifted up his eyes to heaven and groaned, when he was raising Lazarus from the dead, which were all ceremonies.
    Q. Did he use any ceremonies at the last supper, where he ordained the sacrifice of the mass?
    A. He did; for he washed the feet of his disciples, he blessed the bread and the cup, and exhorted the communicants.
    Q. What signify the several ornaments of the priest?
    A. The Amict, or linen veil, which he first puts on, represents the veil with which the Jews covered the face of Christ, when they buffeted him in the house of Caiaphas, and bid him prophesy, "who it was that struck him."
    2. The Alb signifies the white garment, which Herod put on him, to intimate that he was a fool.
    3. The Girdle  signifies the cord that bound him in the garden.
    4. The Maniple, the cord which bound him to the pillar.
    5. The Stole, the cord by which they led him to the crucified.
    6. The priest's upper, Vestment, represents both the seamless coat of Christ, as also the purple garment with which they clothed him in derision in the house of Pilate.
    7. The Altar-stone, represents the cross on which he offered himself unto the Father.
    8. The Chalice, the sepulchre or grave of Christ.
    9. The Paten, the stone which was rolled to the door of the sepulchre.
    10. The Altar-cloths, with the corporal and Pall, the linen in which the dead body of Christ was shrouded and buried. Finally, the candles on the Altar puts us in mind of the light which Christ brought into the world by his passion, as also of his immortal and ever shining divinity.
    Q. What meaneth the priest's coming back three steps from the Altar, and humbling himself before he begins?
    A. It signifies the prostrating of Christ in the garden, when he began his passion.
    Q. Why doth the priest bow himself again at the Confiteor?
    A. To move the people to humiliation; and to signify that by the merits and passion of Christ, (which they are there to commemorate) salvation may be had, if it be sought with a contrite and humble heart.
    Q. Why doth he beat his breast as Mea Culpa?
    A. To teach the people to return into the heart, and signifies that all sin is from the heart, and ought to be discharged from the heart, with hearty sorrow.
    Q. Why doth the priest, ascending to the Altar, kiss it in the middle?
    A. Because the Altar signifies the church, composed of divers people, as of divers living stones, which Christ kissed in the middle, by giving a holy kiss of peace and unity, both to the Jews and Gentiles.
    Q. What signifies the Introit?
    A. It is, as it were, the entrance into the office, or that which the priest saith first after his coming to the Altar, and signifies the desires and groanings of the ancient fathers longing for the coming Christ.
    Q. Why is the Introit repeated twice?
    A. To signify the frequent repetition of their desires and supplications.
    Q. Why do we add unto the Introit, Gloria Patri, &c. glory be to the Father, &c. Amen?
    A. To render thanks to the most Blessed Trinity for our redemption, accomplished by the cross.
    Q. What means the Kyrie Eleison?
    A. It signifies, "Lord have mercy on us," and is repeated thrice in honour of the Son, and thrice in honour of the Holy Ghost.
    Q. Why so often?
    A. To signify our great necessity, and earnest desires to find mercy.
    Q. It signifies, "Glory be to God on high;" and is the song which the angels sung at the birth of Christ, used in this place to signify, that the mercy which we beg, was brought us by the birth and death of Christ.
    Q. What means the Oremus?
    A. It signifies, "Let us pray;" and is the priest's address to the people, by which he invites them to join with him, both in his prayer and intention.
    Q. What means the Collect?
    A. It is the priest's prayer, and is called a Collect, because it collects and gathers together the supplications of the multitude, speaking them all with one voice and also because it is a collection, or sum of the Epistle and Gospel, for the most part of the year, especially of all the Sundays.
    Q. Why doth the clerk say, Amen.
    A. He doth it in the name of the people, to signify, that all concur with the priest, in his petition of prayer.
    Q. What meaneth the Dominus Vobiscum?
    A. It signifies, "Our Lord be with you," and is used to beg God's presence and assistance to the people, in the performance of that work.
    Q. Why is it answered Et cum Spiritu tuo, "and with thy spirit?"
    A. To signify, that the people with one consent do beg the like for him.
    Q. Why are all the prayers ended with Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, &c. "Through our Lord Jesus Christ?"
    A. To signify, that whatsover we beg of God the Father, we must beg it in the name of Jesus Christ, by whom he hath given us all things.
    Q. What signifies the Epistle?
    A. It signifies the old law; as also the preaching of the Prophets and the Apostles, out of whom it is commonly taken: and it is read before the Gospel, to intimate that the old law being able to bring nothing to perfection, it was necessary the new should succeed it.
    Q. What means the Gradual?
    A. It signifies the penance preached by St. John Baptist, and that we cannot obtain the salvation of Christ, but by the holy degrees of penance.
    Q. What means the Alleluiah?
    A. It is the voice of men rejoicing, and aspiring to the joys of heaven.
    Q. Why is the Alleluiah repeated so often at the feast of Easter?
    A. Because it is the joyful solemnity of our Saviour's resurrection.
    Q. Why between the Septuagesima and Easter, is the Tract  read in the place of the Gradual?
    A. Because it is a time of penance and mourning, and therefore the Tract  is read with a mournful and slow voice, to signify the miseries and punishments of this life.
    Q. What is the Tract?
    A. Two or three versicles between the Epistle and the Gospel, sung with a slow, long protracted tone.
    Q. Why do we rise up at the reading of the Gospel?
    A. To signify our readiness to go, and do, whither, and whatsoever it commands us.
    Q. What means the Gospel?
    A. It signifies the preaching of Christ; and is the happy embassy or message of Christ unto the world.
    Q. Why is the Gospel read at the North end, or left side of the Altar?
    A. To signify that by the preaching of the Gospel of Christ, the kingdom of the Devil was overthrown.
    Q. How prove you that?
    A. Because the Devil hath chosen the North (figuratively infidels, and the wicked) for the seat of his malice. "From the North shall all evil be opened upon all the inhabitants of the land." Jer. i. 14. and Zach. ii. 7.
    Q. Why doth the priest before he begins the Gospel, salute the people with Dominus vobiscum?
    A. To prepare them for a devout hearing of it, and to beg of our Lord to make them worthy hearers of his word, which can save their souls.
    Q. Why then doth he say, Sequentia sancti Evangelii, &c. The sequel of the Holy Gospel, &c.?
    A. To move attention, and to signify what part of the Gospel he then reads.
    Q. Why doth the clerk answer, Gloria tibi Domine, Glory be to thee, O Lord?
    A. To give the glory of the gospel to God, who hath of his mercy made us partakers of it.
    Q. Why then doth the priest sign the book with the sign of the cross?
    A. To signify that the doctrine there delivered, appertains to the cross and passion of Christ.
    Q. Why after this do both priest and people sign themselves with the cross in three places?
    A. They sign themselves on their foreheads, to signify they are not, nor will be ashamed to profess Christ crucified: on their mouths to signify they will be ready with their mouths, to confess unto salvation: and on their breast to signify that with their hearts they believe unto justice.
    Q. Why at the end of the Gospel, do they sign their breast again with the sign of the cross?
    A. That the Devil may not steal the seed of God's word out of their hearts.
    Q. What means the Creed?
    A. It is a public profession of out faith, and the wholesome fruit of preaching the Gospel.
    Q. What means the first offertory, where the priest offers bread and wine mingled with water?
    A. It signifies the freedom wherewith Christ offered himself in his whole life unto his passion, and the desire he had to suffer for our sins.
    Q. What signifies the mingling of water with wine?
    A. It signifies the blood and water flowing from the side of Christ; as also the union of the faithful with Christ.
    Q. Why then doth the priest wash the ends of his fingers?
    A. To admonish both himself and the people to wash away the unclean thoughts of their hearts, that so they may partake of that clean sacrifice: As also to signify, that the priest is, ought to be clean from mortal sin.
    Q. Why then after some silence, doth he begin the preface with an elevated voice, saying Per omnia sæcula  sæculorum?
    A. To signify the triumphant entry of Christ into Jerusalem, after he had lain hid a little space; and therefore it is ended with Hosana, benedictus qui venit, &c. which was the Hebrew children's song.
    Q. What else meaneth the preface?
    A. It is a preparation of the people, for the approaching action of the sacrifice; and therefore the priest saith, Sursum corda, lift your hearts to God; so to move them to lay aside all earthly thoughts, and to think only on heavenly things.
    Q. Why at these words, Benedictus qui venit, Blessed is he that cometh in our Lord's name, doth he sign himself with the sign of the cross?
    A. To signify that the entry of Christ into Jerusalem was not to a kingdom of this world, but to a death upon the cross.
    Q. What is the Canon?
    A. It is a most sacred, essential, and substantial part of the mass, because in it the sacrifice is effected.
    Q. Why is the Canon read with a low voice?
    A. To signify the sadness in our Saviour's passion, which is there effectually represented.
    Q. Why doth the priest begin the Canon bowing his head?
    A. To signify the obedience of Christ unto his Father in making himself a sacrifice to sin.
    Q. What meaneth the Te-igitur, clementissime Pater, &c. Thee therefore, O most clement Father, &c.?
    A. It is a humble and devout supplication to God our heavenly Father, made in the name of all the people, that he would vouchsafe to accept and bless the sacrifice which we are offering unto him for the peace, unity and conversation of the whole Catholic Church, and likewise for the Pope, our prelate, and all the other the truly faithful.
    Q. Why in the middle of this prayer doth the priest kiss the altar, and sign the Host and Chalice thrice with the sign of the cross?
    A. He kisseth the altar, to show the kiss of peace which Christ gave us, by reconciling us to God in his own blood. He signeth the Host and Chalice thrice to signify that our redemption made upon the Cross, was done by the will of the Holy Trinity.
    Q. What meaneth the Memento Domine famulorum famularumque tuarum: Remember, O Lord, thy servants, men and women, &c.?
    A. It is a commemoration of the living, in which the pries remembers by name, such as he intends chiefly to say mass for, and then in general, all present and all the faithful, beseeching God by virtue of the sacrifice, to bless them, and be mercifully mindful of them.
    Q. What means the Communicantes and memorum venerantes, &c. Communicating and worshipping the memory, &c.?
    A. It is an exercise of our communion with the saints in which having recounted the names of the blessed virgin Mary, and many other glorious saints, we beg of God by their merits and intercession, to grant us the assistance of his protection in all things.
    Q. What signifies the Hanc igitur oblationem, this offering therefore of our servitude, &c. when the priest spreads his hands over the Host and Chalice?
    A. It is an earnest begging of God to accept the sacrifice that is presented to be offered for the safety and peace of the whole church, and salvation of all from eternal damnation.
    Q. Why then doth he sign the offerings again five times?
    A. To signify the mystery of those five days which were between our Saviour's entry into Jerusalem and his passion.
    Q. What meaneth Qui pridie quam pateretur, who the day before he suffered, &c.
    A. It is but a repetition and representation of what Christ did at his last supper, where he took bread, blessed it, &c. and immediately precedes the words of consecration spoken by the priest, by which he sacrificeth to God.
    Q. What are the words of consecration?
    A. "Hoc est corpus meum. &c. This is my body; This is the cup of my blood, of the New and eternal Testament; a mystery of faith, which shall be shed for you, and for the many, to the remission of sins." Matt. xxvi. 27, 28.
    Q. What meaneth these words?
    A. They signify according to the letter, what they effect and cause, viz. a change of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ; and in a mystery also they signify, unto us the incarnation, passion, resurrection, and ascension of Christ.
    Q. Why after consecration of the Host, doth the priest kneel and adore?
    A. He kneels and adores, to give sovereign honour to Christ, and signify the real presence of his body and blood in the blessed sacrament which he then holds in his hand.
    Q. Why after consecration of the wine, doth the priest kneel and adore, saying, Hæc quotiescumque feceritis, &c. that is, "As often as you shall do these things, you shall do them in remembrance of me." 1 Cor. xi. 25?
    A. He kneels and adores, to give sovereign honour to Christ, and to signify the real presence of Christ's body and blood in the chalice, then on the altar, and he speaks these words to signify, that as often as we say, or hear mass, and offer up this sacrifice, we must do it as Christ hath commanded us, in memory of his passion, resurrection and ascension: and therefore he goes on, beseeching God by all those mysteries, to look propitiously upon our holy and immaculate host, as he did upon the sacrifices of Abraham, Abel, and Melchisedech, and to replenish all that partake thereof, with heavenly grace and benediction.
    Q. Why after consecration of each, doth the priest elevate, or lift up the consecrated host and chalice?
    A. That all the people may adore the body and blood of Christ, as also to signify, that for our sins his body was lifted on the Cross and his blood shed.
    Q. For what other end doth he elevate the host and chalice?
    A. That he, with the whole multitude, may make oblations of Christ's body and blood unto God, which after consecration, is one of the most essential parts of the whole service of the mass, and signifies that oblation, wherewith Christ offered himself unto God upon the altar of the Cross.
    Q. Why then doth he again sign the offerings five times with the sign of the Cross?
    A. To signify the five wounds of Christ, which he represents to the eternal Father for us.
    Q. What means the Momento?
    A. It is a commemoration of the dead; in which the pries first nominates those whom he intends especially to apply the sacrifice unto; and then prays in general for all the faithful departed, beseeching God by virtue of that sacrifice, to give them rest, refreshment, and everlasting life.
    Q. Why after the Momento for the dead, doth the priest elevate or raise his voice, saying, Nobis quoqueveccatoribus, "and to us sinners also," &c.?
    A. In memory of the supplication of the penitent thief made to Christ on the Cross; that so we also (though unworthy sinners) by the virtue of the sacrifice, may with him and the holy saints, be made partakers of the heavenly kingdom.
    Q. Why then doth he again sign the Host and Chalice three times with the sign of the Cross?
    A. To signify, that this sacrifice is available for three sorts of men: for those in heaven, to the increase or glory; for those in purgatory, to free up them from their pains; and for those on earth, to an increase of grace and remission of their sins; as also to signify the three hours which Christ did hang living upon the Cross, and all the griefs he sustained in them.
    Q. Why then, uncovering the chalice, doth he sign it five times with the Host?
    A. His uncovering the chalice is to signify, that at the death of Christ the veil of the temple was rent asunder. The three crosses made over the chalice, signify the three hours which Christ hung dead on the cross; the other two made at the brim of the chalice, signifying the blood and water flowing from his side.
    Q. Why is the Pater Noster said with a loud voice?
    A. To signify, by the seven petitions thereof, the seven mystical words which Christ spoke upon the Cross with a loud voice, viz. "Father, forgive them, they know not what they do. 2. To day shalt thou be with me in Paradise. 3. Behold thy mother; woman behold thy son. 4. My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me. 5. I thirst. 6. Into thy hands I commend my spirit. 7. It is consummated."
    Q. What means the priest laying down the Host upon the corporal, and then covering the chalice again?
    A. It signifies the taking of our Saviour down from the Cross, and his burial.
    Q. Why, then is the priest silent for a time?
    A. To signify our Saviour's rest in the sepulchre on the Sabbath?
    Q. Why is the Host divided into three parts?
    A. To signify the division of our Saviour's soul and body made on the Cross, and that the body was broken, and divided in three principle parts, namely his hands, side, and feet.
    Q. Why after this doth he sign the chalice three times with a particle of the Host, and raise his voice saying, Pax Domini, &c., The peace of our Lord be always with you?
    A. To signify that the frequent voice of Christ to his disciples, Pax vobis, Peace be to you; as also to signify the triple peace which he hath purchased for us, by his Cross, namely, external, internal, and eternal.
    Q. Why then is the particle of the Host put into the chalice?
    A. To signify the reuniting of our Saviour's body, blood and soul, made at his resurrection; as also to signify, that we cannot partake of the blood and merits of Christ, unless we partake of his cup of sufferings.
    Q. Why is the Agnus Dei, or Lamb of God, which taketh away the sins of the world, said with a loud voice?
    A. To commemorate the glory of our Saviour's ascension, and to signify that he was slain like an innocent lamb to take away our sins and give us peace.
    Q. Why is the Pax, or kiss of peace, given before communion?
    A. To signify, that peace and mutual charity, which ought to be among the faithful, who all eat of one bread and of the Eucharist and are all members of one mystical body.
    Q. What means the three prayers said by the priest before the communion?
    A. They are said in honour of the blessed Trinity. In the first he begs peace for the whole church, and perfect charity among all Christians. In the second, he beseecheth God, by the body and blood of Christ, (which he is there about to receive) to free him from all evil. In the third, that it may not prove to his damnation and judgment, by an unworthy receiving of it, but to the defence and safety of his soul and body. And this immediately precedes the consummation of the Host and Chalice, which is another of the most essential parts of the whole service of the mass.
    Q. What signifies the consummation of communion?
    A. It signifies Christ's burial, and the consummation of his passion.
    Q. What means the Domine non sum dignus, &c.?
    A. It signifies, "O Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter under my roof; but only say the word," &c. And it was the Centurion's prayer, by which he obtained health for the sick boy, Matt. viii. 8. And teacheth us not to approach this sacrifice, but with an humble and contrite heart.
    Q. What means the prayers said by the priest after communion?
    A. They are thanksgiving to God for having made us partakers of his unbloody sacrifice of the Altar, and by it also of the bloody sacrifice of the Cross.
    Q. What means the words Ite Missa est?
    A. They signify, that the Host is offered, Mass ended, and the people dismissed; representing the voice of the angel dismissing the apostles and disciples when they stood looking up after Christ ascended into heaven, with, "O ye men of Galilee, why stand you here looking up into heaven?" Acts i. 11.
    Q. What means the priest lifting up his hands and blessing the people?
    A. It signifies the blessing which Christ gave his apostles and disciples at his ascension, with his hands lifted up.
    Q. What signifies the Gospel of St. John?
    A. It signifies the Apostles preaching the gospel to all nations. Luke xxiv. 50.
    Q. What is the missal?
    A. It is the Mass book, wherein this holy service is contained.


 

CHAPTER XXIII.

The Primer or Office of our Blessed Lady, Expounded.

    Q. WHO composed this office?
    A. The church, directed by the Holy Ghost.
    Q. Why is the Primer so called?
    A. From the Latin word Primo, which signifies, first of all, so to teach us, that prayer should be the first work of the day, according to that, "Seek ye first the kingdom of heaven, and all these things shall be given you.
    Q. Why is the office divided into Hymns, Psalms, Canticles, Antiphons, Versicles, Responsories, and Prayers?
    A. For order, beauty, and variety sake.
    Q. What warrant have you for that?
    A. Out of Col. iii. 16. "Sing ye in your hearts unto the Lord in spiritual Psalms, Hymns, and Canticles."
    Q. Why should the laity pray out of the Psalms, which they little understand?
    A. 1. Because, by so doing, they pray out of the mouth of the Holy Ghost. 2. Because, if they do it with devout and humble hearts, it is as meritorious in them, as in the greatest scholars; for a petition hath the same force, whether it be delivered by a learned or unlearned man; so hath also prayer. 3. Because a psalm is of the same value in the sight of God, in the mouth of a child, or woman, as from the mouth of the most learned doctor.
    Q. Why is the office divided into seven several hours?
    A. That so it might be a daily memorial of the seven principal parts, and seven hours of our Saviour's passion.
    Q. What ground have you for that?
    A. Out of Zac. xii 10. "At that day I will pour out upon the house of David, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and prayer, and they shall look up at him whom they have pierced."
    Q. What meaneth at that day?
    A. The day of grace, the new law.
    Q. What means the house of David, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem?
    A. The church of Christ.
    Q. What means the spirit of grace and prayer?
    A. The Holy Ghost which dictated the office, and poureth forth the grace of God into our souls by virtue of it.
    Q. What means, "And they shall look up at him whom they have pierced?"
    A. It signifies that the whole order, scope, and object of the office should be Christ crucified.
    Q. How are the seven hours a memorial of the passion of Christ?
    A. Because the seven hours were consumed in his passion; for three hours he hung living on the Cross; other three hours he hung dead upon it; and the seventh hour was spent in nailing him to and taking him from the cross.
    Q. What do we commemorate by the Matins and Lauds?
    A. His bloody sweat in the garden; as also his been dragged thence to Jerusalem.
    Q. What by the prime or first hour?
    A. The scoffs and indignations which he sustained, whilst they led him through the streets early in the morning to the princes of the Jews; as also the false accusations which then were brought against him.
    Q. What by the third hour?
    A. His whipping at the pillar, his crowning with thorns, his clothing with a purple garment, his sceptre of a reed, and showing to the people with these words: Behold the man.
    Q. What by the sixth hour?
    A. His unjust condemnation to death, his carrying the Cross, his stripping and nailing to the Cross.
    Q. What by the ninth hour?
    A. His drinking gall and vinegar, his dying on the Cross, and the opening his side with a spear.
    Q. What by the even-song?
    A. His taking down from the Cross, and the darkness which was made upon the face of the earth.
    Q. What by the Complin?
    A. His funeral and burial.
    Briefly thus; The matins and lauds, his agony, and binding in the garden; the crime, his scoffs, and false accusations; the third hour, his clothing with purple, and crowning with thorns; the sixth hour, his condemning and nailing to the Cross; the ninth hour, his yielding up the ghost, and the opening his side; the even-song, his taking from the Cross; and the complin, his burial.

The Particulars of the Office Expounded.

    Q. WHY doth our Lady's office always begin with an Ave Maria?
    A. To dedicate the office of our Lady, and to beg her aid for the devout performance of it to God's honour.
    Q. Why do we begin every hour with, Incline unto my aid, O God: O Lord, make haste to help me?
    A. To acknowledge our infirmity and misery, and out great need of divine assistance, not only in all other things, but also in our very prayers; according to that of the Apostles, "No man can say Lord Jesus, but in the Holy Ghost."
    Q. Why do we add to this, Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost?
    A. To signify that the intention of the office is, in the first place, to give one and equal glory to the most blessed Trinity, and to invite all creatures to do the like, this is the principle aim of the whole office; therefore we not only begin every hour, but also end every Psalm with the same verse.
    Q. Who ordained the Gloria Patri?
    A. The Apostles, according to Baronius in his 3d Tome.
    Q. Why do we join unto the Gloria Patri, Sicut erat, &c. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end?
    A. Because it was made by the Council of Nice against the Arians, who denied Christ to be coequal and consubstantial to his Father, or to have been before the blessed Virgin Mary.
    Q. Why after this, for a great part of the year, and especially between Easter and Whitsuntide, do we say, Alleluia, Alleluia?
    A. Because that is a time of joy, and Alleluia is a Hebrew word, signifying, "Praise ye the Lord with all joy, and exultation of heart."
    Q. Why were it not better changed into English?
    A. Because it is the language of the blessed in heaven, according to Apoc. viii. 6. Therefore the church hath forbidden it to be translated into any other language.
    Q. Why in Lent, and some other times, do we say, instead of Alleluiah, "Praise be to thee, O Lord, King of eternal Glory?
    A. Because those are times of penance; therefore God must be praised rather with tears, than exaltation.
    Q. Why then do we always say, for the invitatory Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee?
    A. To congratulate and renew the memory of our blessed Lady's joy, conceived at the conception of her Son Jesus; and to invite both men and angels to do the like.
    Q. What signify the five verses following the invitatory, which begin, Come let us exult unto our Lord?
    A. The five wounds of Christ, from which all our prayer hath its force and merit, and in honour of which all those versions are said.
    Q. What mean the Hymns?
    A. They are a poetical expression of prerogatives and praises of the Blessed Virgin.
    Q. Why are so many Psalms used in the office?
    A. Because they are directed by the Holy Ghost, and do contain in a most moving manner, all the affections of piety and devotion.
    Q. Why are there but three Psalms in the most of the hours?
    A. In honour of the most blessed Trinity, to whom chiefly the whole office is addressed.
    Q. Why was the office divided into so many hours?
    A. I have told you the chief reason already, and one other reason is, that so there might be no hour either by day or night, to which some hour of the office might not correspond.
    Q. What do the matins correspond to?
    A. To the first, second, and third watch of the night, consisting of three hours each; and therefore the matins consist of three psalms, and three lessons.
    Q. What do the lauds correspond to?
    A. To the fourth watch of the night.
    Q. What do the prime, the third, sixth, and ninth hours correspond to?
    A. To the third, sixth, and ninth hours of the day.
    Q. What do the even-song and complin correspond to?
    A. To the evening.
    Q. What means the benedictions, or blessings given before the lesson?
    A. They are short aspirations to beg divine assistance; and the first is in honour of the Father, and the second in honour of the Son, the third in honour of the Holy Ghost.
    Q. What doth the lesson contain?
    A. The mystical praises of our blessed Lady, taken out of the Prophets.
    Q. Why do we end every lesson, saying, But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us?
    A. To beg the praises and virtues of the blessed Virgin, which we have there read, may be deeply settled in our hearts, and that God would pardon our former negligence, both in his and her service.
    Q. Why is it answered, Thanks be to God?
    A. To render thanks to God for his mercy, in bestowing such a patroness on us as the blessed Virgin Mary.
    Q. What means the responsories?
    A. They are so called, because they answer one another.
    Q. What are the antiphons?
    A. The versicles which are begun before the Psalms.
    Q. Why do we stand up at the Magnificat, Benedictus, and Nunc dimittis?
    A. To signify our reverence to the gospel whence they are taken.
    Q. What is the collect?
    A. It is a prayer, and is so called, because it collects and gathers together all the petitions and supplications of the whole office.
    Q. Why is the collect always ended with these words, Through our Lord Jesus Christ, &c.?
    A. To signify that he is our only mediator of redemption, and principally mediator of intercession; and that we cannot merit any thing by our prayers unless we make them in his name.
    Q. Why make we a commemoration of the Saints?
    A. To praise God in his Saints, according to the advice of the Psalmist, Psalm cl., and to recommend ourselves to their merits and prayers.
    Q. Why end we every prayer with these words, And may the souls of the faithful, through the mercy of God, rest in peace?
    A. That the poor souls in purgatory, may be partakers of all our prayers and supplications.
    Q. Why is the whole office ended with some hymn or antiphon to our Lady?
    A. That by her it may be presented to her Son, and by him to his eternal Father.
    Q. Why are the nocturns in some offices so called?
    A. Because those parts of the offices were wont to be said Nocturne tempore, in the night time.
    Q. Why are the fifteen gradual psalms so called?
    A. From a custom the Jews observed of singing them, as they ascended up fifteen steps or degrees (in Latin Gradus) towards Solomon's Temple, singing one psalm on every step.
    Q. Why are the penitential psalms so called?
    A. Because they contain many deep expressions of inward sorrow and penitence, or repentance of sins committed, and many cries or supplications to God for mercy and forgiveness.


 

CHAPTER XXIV.

The Solemnities of CHRIST our Lord,
(instituted for the most part by the Apostles)
and the Sundays of the Year, expounded.

    Q. WHAT meaneth the nativity of Christ, or Christmas?
    A. It is a solemn feast or mass yearly celebrated by the whole Catholic Church from the Apostles' time to this day, in memory of the birth of Christ at Bethlehem;  and therefore is called the feast of the Nativity, and Christmas from the mass of the birth of Christ.
    Q. What meaneth the Circumcision or New-year's Day.
    A. It is a feast in memory of the Circumcision of our Lord, which was made on the eighth day from his nativity according to the prescript of the old law, Gen. xviii. 12, when he was named Jesus according to what the angel had foretold, Luke i. 14, and began to shed his infant blood by the stony knife of Circumcision for the redemption of the world, presenting it to his Father, as a New-year's gift in our behalf. And it is called New year's day from the old Roman account, who began their computation of the year from the first of January.
    Q. What meaneth the Epiphany, or twelfth day?
    A. It is a solemnity in memory and honour of Christ's manifestation or apparition made to the Gentiles by a miraculous blazing star, by virtue whereof he drew and conducted three kings out of the East to adore him in the manager, where they presented him as on this day with gold, myrrh, and frankincense, in testimony of his regality, humanity, and divinity. The word Epiphany comes from the Greek, and signifies a manifestation, and is called Twelfth-day, because it is celebrated the twelfth day after his nativity exclusively.
    Q. What meaneth purification or Candlemass-day?
    A. It is a feast in memory and honour both of the presentation of our blessed Lord, and of the purification of the blessed Virgin, made in the Temple of Jerusalem the fortieth day after her happy child birth, according to the law of Moses, Levit. xii. 6. And is called the Purification, from the Latin word Purifico, to purify; not that our blessed Lady and contracted any thing by her child-birth, which needed purifying, (being the mother of purity itself) but because other mothers were by this ceremonial rite freed from the legal impurity of their child-births.
    And is also called Candlemass, or a Mass Candles; because before the mass of that day, the church blesses her candles for the whole year, and makes a procession with hallowed candles in the hands of the faithful, in memory of divine light, wherewith Christ illuminated the whole church at his presentation, where aged Simeon styled him, "A light to the Revelation of the Gentiles, and the glory of his people Israel." Luke ii. 32.
    Q. What meaneth the resurrection of our Lord, or Easter-day?
    A. It is a solemnity in memory and honour of our Saviour's resurrection, or rising from the dead on the third day, Matt. xxvii. 6. And is called Easter, from Oriens, which signifies the East or Rising, which is one of the titles of Christ, "And his name (saith the prophet) shall be called Oriens." Zach. vi. 12, because as the material sun daily ariseth from the East, the sun of justice, at this day, arose from the dead.
    Q. What meaneth ascension-day?
    A. If is from a feast in memory of Christ's ascension into heaven the fortieth day after his resurrection, in the sight of his Apostles and Disciples, Acts i. 9, 10, there to prepare a place for us, being preceded by whole legions of Angels, and waited on by millions of Saints, whom he had freed out of the prison of Limbo. Mich. ii. 13.
    Q. What meaneth Pentecost or Whitsuntide?
    A. It is a solemn feast in memory and honour of the coming of the Holy Ghost upon the heads of the Apostles, in tongues as it were of fire, Acts ii. 3. Pentecost in Greek signifieth the Fiftieth, it being the fiftieth day after the resurrection. If is also called Whitsunday from the Catechumens, who were clothed in white, and admitted on the eve of this feast to the sacrament of baptism. It was anciently called Wied Sunday, (i.e.) Holy Sunday, for wied or withed signifies Holy in the old Saxon language.
    Q. What meaneth Trinity Sunday?
    A. It is the octave of Whitsunday, and is so called in honour of the Blessed Trinity, to signify that the works of our redemption and sanctification then completed, are common to all the three persons.
    Q. What meaneth Corpus Christi day?
    A. It is a feast instituted by the church, in honour of the body and blood of Christ, really present in the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist; during the octave of which feast, it is exposed to be adored by the faithful in all the principle churches of the world, and great processions are made in honour of it; and therefore is called Corpus Christi day, or the day of the body of Christ.
    Q. What meaneth the transfiguration of our Lord?
    A. It is a feast in memory of our Saviour's transfiguring himself upon Mount Tabor, and showing a glimpse of his glory to his Apostles, St. Peter, St. James, and St. John. "And his face (saith the text) shown as the sun, and his garment became white as snow," &c. Matt. xvii. 2. And in them also unto us, for our encouragement to virtue, and perseverance in his holy faith and love. The entymology is obvious from transfiguro, to transfigure, or to change shape.
    Q. What is Sunday, or the Lord's Day in general?
    A. It is a day dedicated by the Apostles to the honour of the most holy Trinity, and in memory that Christ our Lord arose from the  dead upon Sunday, sent down the holy Ghost on a Sunday, &c. and therefore is called the Lord's Day. It is also called Sunday from the old Roman denomination of Dies Solis, the day of the sun, to which it was sacred.
    Q. What are the four Sundays of Advent?
    A. They are the four Sundays preceding Christmas day, and were so called by the church, in memory and honour of our Saviour's coming both to redeem the world by his birth in the flesh, and to judge the quick and the dead; from the Latin word Adventus, which signifies Advent, or coming.
    Q. What are the four Sundays of Septuagesima, Sexagesima, Quinquagesiam, and Quadragesima?
    A. Those days are appointed by the church for acts of penance and mortification, and are a certain gradation or preparation for the passion and resurrection of Christ, being so called, because the first is the seventieth, the second the sixtieth, the third the fiftieth, the fourth the fortieth day, or thereabouts, preceding the octave of the resurrection according as their several names import.
    Q. Why is the whole lent called Quadragesima?
    A. Because it is a fast of forty days, in imitation of Christ's fasting in the desert forty days and forty nights, and is begun the fortieth day before Easter, which is therefore called Quadragesima, or the fortieth.
    Q. What is Passion-Sunday?
    A. That is a feast so called from the passion of Christ then drawing nigh, and was ordained to prepare us for a worthy celebrating of it.
    Q. Why is Palm-Sunday so called?
    A. It is a day in memory and honour of the triumphant entry of our Lord into Jerusalem, and is so called from the palm branches, which the Hebrew children strewed under his feet, crying Hosanna to the Son of David, Matt. xxi. 15. And hence it is that yearly, as on that day, the church blesseth Palms, and makes a solemn procession in honour of the same triumph, all the people bearing Palm branches in their hands.
    Q. What is Dominica in albis, commonly called Low-Sunday?
    A. It is the octave of Easter-day; and is so called from the Catechumens, or Neophytes, who were on that day solemnly divested in the church of their white garments.

  The Feasts of our Blessed Lady, and the Saints, Expounded.

    Q. WHAT means the conception, nativity, presentation, annunciation, visitation, and assumption of our blessed Lady?
    A. They are feasts instituted by the church in memory and honour of the mother of God, but chiefly to the honour of God himself; and so are all the other feasts of Saints.
    Q. How explain you that answer?
    A. The feast of the Conception is in memory of her miraculous conception, who was conceived by her parents, St. Joachim and St. Anne, in their old age, and sanctified from the first instant in the womb. The Nativity is in the memory of her happy and glorious birth, by whom the author of all life and salvation was born to the world. The Presentation, in memory of her being present in the Temple at three years old, where she vowed herself to God, both soul and body. The Annunciation is in memory of that most happy embassy brought to her by the angel Gabriel from God, in which she was declared to be the mother of God, Luke i. 31, 32. The Visitation is in memory of her visiting St. Elizabeth, after she had conceived the Son of God, at whose presence St. John the Baptist leaped in his mother's womb, Luke i. 41. And her Assumption is in memory of her being assumed or taken up into heaven, both soul and body, after her dissolution or dormition; which is a pious and well-founded tradition in the church.
    Q. For what end are the several solemnities of Saints?
    A. They are instituted by our holy mother the church, to honour God in his Saints, and to teach us to imitate their several kinds of martyrdoms and sufferings for the faith of Christ, as also their several ways of virtue and perfection: as the zeal, charity, and poverty of the Apostles and Evangelists; the fortitude of the martyrs the constancy of the confessors; the purity and humility of the virgins, &c.
    Q. What meaneth the feast of St. Peter's installing and erecting his apostolical chair in the city of Antioch?
    A. It is kept in memory of St. Peter's installing and erecting his apostolical chair in the city of Antioch.
    Q. What is the feast of his chair at Rome?
    A. It is a solemnity in honour of the translation of his chair from Antioch to Rome.
    Q. Why are St. Peter and St. Paul joined in one solemnity?
    A. Because they are principle and joint co-operators under Christ in the conversion of the world, St. Peter converting the Jews, and St. Paul, the Gentiles; as also because both of them were martyred at he same place Rome, and on the same day, June 29.
    Q. What means the feast of St. Peter and Vincula, or St. Peter's Chains?
    A. It in in honour of those chains wherewith Herod bound St. Peter in Jerusalem, and from which he was freed by an angel of God, Acts xii. by only the touch whereof great miracles were afterwards effected; to say nothing of their miraculous joining together many years after into one chain, with those iron fetters, with which they had been imprisoned in Rome.
    Q. What meaneth the feast of Michaelmas?
    A. It is a solemnity or solemn mass in honour of St. Michael, prince of the heavenly host, and likewise of all the nine orders of holy angels; as well to commemorate that famous battle fought by him and them in heaven, against the dragon and his apostate angels, Apoc. xii. 7. in defence of God's honour; as also to commend the whole church of God to their patronage and prayers. And it is called the dedication of St. Michael, by reason of a church in Rome, dedicated on that day to St. Michael, by Pope Boniface.
    There is another feast called the apparition of St. Michael, and is in memory of his miraculous apparition on Mount Garganus, where by his own appointment, a temple was dedicated to him in Pope Gelasius' time.
    Q. For what reason hath the holy church ordained a solemnity in memory of all the Saints?
    A. That so at least we might obtain the prayers and patronage of them all, seeing the whole year is much too short to afford us a particular feast for every Saint.
    Q. What meaneth All Souls Day?
    A. It is a day instituted by the church, in memory of all the faithful departed, that by the prayers and suffrages of the living, they may be freed out of their purgatory pains, and come to everlasting rest.
    Q. What means Shrove-tide?
    A. It signifies a time of confession; for our ancestors were used to say, we will go to the shrift, instead of we will go to confession, and in the more primitive times all good Christians went to confession, the better to prepare themselves for a holy observation of Lent, and worthy receiving the blessed sacrament at Easter.
    Q. What signifies Ash-Wednesday?
    A. It is a day of public penance and humiliation in the whole church of God, and is so called from the ceremony of blessing ashes on that day, wherewith the priest signeth the people, with a cross on their foreheads, giving them this wholesome admonition, Memento homo, &c. Remember man that thou art dust, and to dust thou shalt return. So to prepare them for the holy fast of Lent, and passion of Christ.
    Q. What means Maundy Thursday?
    A. That is a feast in memory of our Lord's last supper, where he instituted the blessed Eucharist, or sacrament of his precious body and blood, and washed his disciples' feet; and it is called Maundy Thursday, as it were mandatum or mandat Thursday from the first word of the Antiphon, mandatum novum de vobis, &c. John xiii. 34. "I give unto you a new command, (or mandat) that you love one another, as I have loved you;" which is sing on that day in the churches, when the prelates begin the ceremony of washing their people's feet, in imitation of Christ's washing his disciple's feet, before he instituted the blessed sacrament.
    Q. What meaneth Good-Friday?
    A. It is a most sacred and memorable day of which the great good work of our redemption was consummated by Christ on his bloody cross.
    Q. What means the three days of Tenebræ, before Easter?
    A. It is a mournful solemnity, in which the church laments the death of Christ; and is called Tenebræ or darkness, to signify the darkness which overspread the face of the earth, at the time of his passion, for which end also the church extinguisheth all her lights, and after some silence, at the end of the whole office, maketh a great and sudden noise, to represent the rending the veil of the Temple. The darkness also signifies the dark time of the night wherein Christ was apprehended in the garden, and the noise made by the soldiers and catch-poles at their seizing on our Saviour's person.
    Q. What meaneth Rogation week, being the fifth after Easter?
    A. It is a week of public prayer and confession for the temperateness of the seasons of the year, and the fruitfulness of the earth, and it is called Rogation from the verb Roga, to ask by reason of the petitions made to God in that behalf.
    Q. What means the Quatuor tempora, or four Ember weeks, or Ember Days?
    A. Those are times also of public prayer, fasting, and processions partly instituted for the successful ordination of the priest and ministers of the church, and partly, both to beg and render thanks to God for the fruits and blessings of the earth. And are called Ember days, or days of Ashes, from the no less ancient than religious custom of using hair-cloth and ashes, in time of public prayer and penance; or from the old custom of eating nothing on those days till night, and then only a cake baked under the embers or ashes, which was called, Panis, subcineritius, or Ember bread.
    Q. What mean the two Holy Rood Days?
    A. Those are two ancient feasts: the one in memory of the miraculous invention, or finding out the holy cross by St. Helen, mother of Constantine the great, after it had been hid and buried by the Infidels one hundred and eighty years, who had erected a statue of Venus in the place of it. The other in memory of the exaltation, or setting up the holy cross by Heraclius the emperor, who having regained it a second time from the Persians, after it had been lost fourteen years, carried it on his own shoulders to Mount Calvary, and there exalted it with great solemnity; and it is called Holy Rood, or Holy Cross, for the great sanctity which it received by touching and bearing the oblation of the most precious body of Christ; the word Rood in the old Saxon tongue, signifying Cross.


 

CHAPTER XXV.

Some Ceremonies of the Church Expounded.

    Q. WHAT is holy water?
    A. A water sanctified by the word of God and prayer. 1 Tim. iv. 5, in order to certain spiritual effects.
    Q. what are those effects?
    A. The chief are, 1. To make us mindful of our baptism, by which we entered into Christ's mystical body, and therefore we are taught to sprinkle ourselves with it as often as we enter the material Temple (which is a type thereof to celebrate his praise.) 2. To fortify against the illusions of evil spirits, against whom it hath great force as witnessed Theodoret, Eccl. Hist. l. 5, c. 31. And hence arose the proverb, He loves it, (speaking of things we hate) as the Devil loves holy water.
    Q. How ancient is the use of Holy water?
    A. Ever since the apostles' time; Pope Alexander I. who was but the fourth Pope from St. Peter, makes mention of it in one of his epistles. Exod. xxxvii. 8., 2 Par. iv. 6.; 4 Kings ii. 21.; Ps. I. 9.; Heb. ix. 19.; x. 22; De Cons. Dist. iii. c. 20; B. Greg. Pastor, Pars ii. c. 5.
    Q. Why is incense offered in the church?
    A. To raise in the mind of the people an awe of the mysterious in the action to which it is applied, and to beget a pious esteem of it, as also to signify, that out prayers ought to ascend like a sweet perfume in the sight of God. "Tis mentioned by St. Dionysius, Eccles Hierarch. c. 3.
    Q. Why is the cross carried before us in procession?
    A. To show that our pilgrimage in this life is nothing but a following of Christ crucified.
    Q. Why are our foreheads signed with holy ashes on Ash Wednesday?
    A. To remind us of what we are made, and to admonish us to do penance for our sins, as the Ninevites did in fasting, sackcloth, and ashes, especially in the holy time of Lent.
    Q. Who ordained the solemn fast of Lent?
    A. The twelve Apostles, according to Heirom Epist. ad Marcel, in memory and imitation of our Saviour's fasting forty days.
    Q. Why are the crosses and holy images covered in time of Lent?
    A. To signify that our sins (for which we then do penance) interpose between God and us, and to express an ecclesiastical kind of mourning in reference to our Saviour's passion.
    Q. Why is a veil drawn between the altar-piece and the people in Lent time?
    A. To intimate, that, as our sins are as a veil which binder us from seeing the beatific vision, or face of God; and as the veil of the Temple was rent at the death of Christ, so is the veil of our sins by virtue of his cross and passion, if we apply it by worthy fruits of penance.
    Q. What means the fifteen lights set on the triangular figure on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday in holy-week?
    A. The three upper lights signify Jesus, Mary, and Joseph; the twelve lower, the twelve Apostles. The triangular figure signifies, that all light of grace and glory is from the blessed Trinity; and fourteen of those lights are extinguished on by one after every Psalm, to show how all their light of spiritual comfort was extinguished for a time in those most Holy Saints, by the passion and burial of Christ. The fifteenth light is put under the altar to signify his being in the sepulchre, as also the darkness that overspread the whole earth at his death.
    Q. What signifies the noise made after a long silence, at the end of the office of Tenebræ?
    A. The silence signifies the horror of our Saviour's death; the noise, the cleaving of the rocks and rending the veil of the Temple which then happened.
    Q. Why is the paschal candle hallowed and set up at Easter?
    A. To signify the new light of the spiritual joy and comfort, which Christ brought us at his resurrection; and it is lighted from the beginning of the Gospel till after the communion, between Easter and Ascension, to signify the apparitions which Christ made to his disciples during that space.
    Q. Why is the font hallowed?
    A. Because the Apostles so ordered it, according to St. Dionysius, who lived in their time. 1 Eccl. Hier. c. 2.
    Q. Why is that ceremony performed at the feast of Easter and Whitsuntide?
    A. To show that, as in baptism we are buried with Christ, so by virtue of his resurrection, and the coming of the Holy Ghost, we ought to rise again, and walk with him in newness of life.
    Q. Why is the material church or temple hallowed?
    A. Because it bears a figure of the spiritual, viz. the mystical body of Christ, which is holy and unspotted, Ephes. v. 27. as also to move us to some special reverence and devotion in that place, and all things should be holy in some measure, which appertain to the service of our most Holy God.
    Q. Why is the altar consecrated?
    A. Because if the altar in the old law was so holy that it sanctified the gift, Matt. xxiii. 19. much more ought the altar of the new law to be holy, which is the place of the body and blood of Christ, according to Optatus, in his sixth book against Parmenian the Donatist. "We have an altar (saith St. Paul) whereof they (the Jews) have no power to eat, who serve the Tabernacle." Heb. xiii. 10.

Baltimore Catechism #3

1891 Version

Baltimore Catechism #3

Lesson 01  - On the end of Man
Lesson 02  - On God and His Perfections
Lesson 03  - On the Unity and Trinity of God
Lesson 04  - On Creation
Lesson 05  - On Our First Parents and the Fall
Lesson 06  - On Sin and Its Kinds
Lesson 07  - On the Incarnation and Redemption
Lesson 08  - On Our Lord's Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension
Lesson 09  - On the Holy Ghost and His Descent Upon the Apostles
Lesson 10  - On the Effects of the Redemption
Lesson 11  - On the Church
Lesson 12  - On the Attributes and Marks of the Church
Lesson 13  - On the Sacraments in General
Lesson 14  - On Baptism
Lesson 15  - On Confirmation
Lesson 16  - On the Gifts and Fruits of the Holy Ghost
Lesson 17  - On the Sacrament of Penance
Lesson 18  - On Contrition
Lesson 19  - On Confession
Lesson 20  - On the Manner of Making a Good Confession
Lesson 21  - On Indulgences
Lesson 22  - On the Holy Eucharist
Lesson 23  - On the Ends for which the Holy Eucharist was Instituted
Lesson 24  - On the Sacrifice of the Mass
Lesson 25  - On Extreme Unction and Holy Orders
Lesson 26  - On Matrimony
Lesson 27  - On the Sacramentals
Lesson 28  - On Prayer
Lesson 29  - On the Commandments of God
Lesson 30  - On the First Commandment
Lesson 31  - The First Commandment - On the Honor and Invocation of the Saints
Lesson 32  - From the Second to the Fourth Commandment
Lesson 33  - From the Fourth to the Seventh Commandment
Lesson 34  - From the Seventh to the Tenth Commandment
Lesson 35  - On the First and Second Commandments of the Church
Lesson 36  - On the Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Commandments of the Church
Lesson 37  - On the Last Judgment and Resurrection, Hell, Purgatory and Heaven

 First Lesson:

On the End of Man

 

Q. 126. What do we mean by the "end of man"?

A. By the "end of man" we mean the purpose for which he was created: namely, to know, love, and serve God.

Q. 127. How do you know that man was created for God alone?

A. I know that man was created for God alone because everything in the world was created for something more perfect than itself: but there is nothing in the world more perfect than man; therefore, he was created for something outside this world, and since he was not created for the Angels, he must have been created for God.

Q. 128. In what respect are all men equal?

A. All men are equal in whatever is necessary for their nature and end. They are all composed of a body and soul; they are all created to the image and likeness of God; they are all gifted with understanding and free will; and they have all been created for the same end -- God.

Q. 129. Do not men differ in many things?

A. Men differ in many things, such as learning, wealth, power, etc.; but these things belong to the world and not man's nature. He came into this world without them and he will leave it without them. Only the consequences of good or evil done in this world will accompany men to the next.

Q. 130. Who made the world?

A. God made the world.

Q. 131. What does "world" mean in this question?

A. In this question "world" means the universe; that is, the whole creation; all that we now see or may hereafter see.

Q. 132. Who is God?

A. God is the Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things.

Q. 133. What is man?

A. Man is a creature composed of body and soul, and made to the image and likeness of God.

Q. 134. Does "man" in the Catechism mean all human beings?

A. "Man" in the Catechism means all human beings, either men or women, boys, girls, or children.

Q. 135. What is a creature?

A. A creature is anything created, whether it has life or not; body or no body. Every being, person, or thing except God Himself may be called a creature.

Q. 136. Is this likeness in the body or in the soul?

A. This likeness is chiefly in the soul.

Q. 137. How is the soul like to God?

A. The soul is like to God because it is a spirit that will never die, and has understanding and free will.

Q. 138. Is every invisible thing a spirit?

A. Every spirit is invisible -- which means can not be seen; but every invisible thing is not a spirit. The wind is invisible, and it is not a spirit.

Q. 139. Has a spirit any other quality?

A. A spirit is also indivisible; that is, it can not be divided into parts, as we divide material things.

Q. 140. What do the words "will never die" mean?

A. By the words "will never die" we mean that the soul, when once created, will never cease to exist, whatever be its condition in the next world. Hence we say the soul is immortal or gifted with immortality.

Q. 141. Why then do we say a soul is dead while in a state of mortal sin?

A. We say a soul is dead while in a state of mortal sin, because in that state it is as helpless as a dead body, and can merit nothing for itself.

Q. 142. What does our "understanding" mean?

A. Our "understanding" means the "gift of reason," by which man is distinguished from all other animals, and by which he is enabled to think and thus acquire knowledge and regulate his actions.

Q. 143. Can we learn all truths by our reason alone?

A. We can not learn all truths by our reason alone, for some truths are beyond the power of our reason and must be taught to us by God.

Q. 144. What do we call the truths God teaches us?

A. Taken together, we call the truths God teaches us revelation, and we call the manner by which He teaches them also revelation.

Q. 145. What is "Free Will"?

A. "Free Will" is that gift of God by which we are enabled to choose between one thing and another; and to do good or evil in spite of reward or punishment.

Q. 146. Have brute animals "understanding" and "free will"?

A. Brute animals have not "understanding" and "free will." They have not "understanding" because they never change their habits or better their condition. They have not "free will" because they never show it in their actions.

Q. 147. What gift in animals supplies the place of reason?

A. In animals the gift of "instinct" supplies the place of reason in guiding their actions.

Q. 148. What is instinct?

A. "Instinct" is a gift by which all animals are impelled to follow the laws and habits that God has given to their nature.

Q. 149. Have men as well as brutes "instinct"?

A. Men have "instinct," and they show it when placed in sudden danger, when they have not time to use their reason. A falling man instantly grasps for something to support him.

Q. 150. Why did God make you?

A. God made me to know Him, to love Him, and to serve Him in this world, and to be happy with Him forever in the next.

Q. 151. Why is it necessary to know God?

A. It is necessary to know God because without knowing Him we cannot love Him; and without loving Him we cannot be saved. We should know Him because He is infinitely true; love Him because He is infinitely beautiful; and serve Him because He is infinitely good.

Q. 152. Of which must we take more care, our soul or our body?

A. We must take more care of our soul than of our body.

Q. 153. Why must we take more care of our soul than of our body?

A. We must take more care of our soul than of our body, because in losing our soul we lose God and everlasting happiness.

Q. 154. What must we do to save our souls?

A. To save our souls, we must worship God by faith, hope, and charity; that is, we must believe in Him, hope in Him, and love Him with all our heart.

Q. 155. What does "worship" mean?

A. "Worship" means to give divine honor by acts such as the offering of prayer or sacrifice.

Q. 156. How shall we know the things which we are to believe?

A. We shall know the things which we are to believe from the Catholic Church, through which God speaks to us.

Q. 157. What do we mean by the "Church, through which God speaks to us"?

A. By the "Church, through which God speaks to us," we mean the "teaching Church"; that is, the Pope, Bishops, and priests, whose duty it is to instruct us in the truths and practices of our religion.

Q. 158. Where shall we find the chief truths which the Church teaches?

A. We shall find the chief truths which the Church teaches in the Apostles' Creed.

Q. 159. If we shall find only the "chief truths" in the Apostles' Creed, where shall we find the remaining truths?

A. We shall find the remaining truths of our Faith in the religious writings and preachings that have been sanctioned by the authority of the Church.

Q. 160. Name some sacred truths not mentioned in the Apostles' Creed.

A. In the Apostles' Creed there is no mention of the Real Presence of Our Lord in the Holy Eucharist, nor of the Infallibility of the Pope, nor of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, nor of some other truths that we are bound to believe.

Q. 161. Say the Apostles' Creed.

A. I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified; died, and was buried. He descended into hell: the third day He arose again from the dead: He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty: from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.

Second Lesson:

On God and His Perfections

 

Q. 162. What is a perfection?

A. A perfection is any good quality a thing should have. A thing is perfect when it has all the good qualities it should have.

Q. 163. What is God?

A. God is a spirit infinitely perfect.

Q. 164. What do we mean when we say God is "infinitely perfect"?

A. When we say God is "infinitely perfect" we mean there is no limit or bounds to His perfection; for He possesses all good qualities in the highest possible degree and He alone is "infinitely perfect."

Q. 165. Had God a beginning?

A. God had no beginning; He always was and He always will be.

Q. 166. Where is God?

A. God is everywhere.

Q. 167. How is God everywhere?

A. God is everywhere whole and entire as He is in any one place. This is true and we must believe it, though we cannot understand it.

Q. 168. If God is everywhere, why do we not see Him?

A. We do not see God, because He is a pure spirit and cannot be seen with bodily eyes.

Q. 169. Why do we call God a "pure spirit"?

A. We call God a pure spirit because He has no body. Our soul is a spirit, but not a "pure" spirit, because it was created for union with our body.

Q. 170. Why can we not see God with the eyes of our body?

A. We cannot see God with the eyes of our body because they are created to see only material things, and God is not material but spiritual.

Q. 171. Does God see us?

A. God sees us and watches over us.

Q. 172. Is it necessary for God to watch over us?

A. It is necessary for God to watch over us, for without His constant care we could not exist.

Q. 173. Does God know all things?

A. God knows all things, even our most secret thoughts, words, and actions.

Q. 174. Can God do all things?

A. God can do all things, and nothing is hard or impossible to Him.

Q. 175. When is a thing said to be "impossible"?

A. A thing is said to be "impossible" when it cannot be done. Many things that are impossible for creatures are possible for God.

Q. 176. Is God just, holy, and merciful?

A. God is all just, all holy, all merciful, as He is infinitely perfect.

Q. 177. Why must God be "just" as well as "merciful"?

A. God must be just as well as merciful because He must fulfill His promise to punish those who merit punishment, and because He cannot be infinite in one perfection without being infinite in all.

Q. 178. Into what sins will the forgetfulness of God's justice lead us?

A. The forgetfulness of God's justice will lead us into sins of presumption.

Q. 179. Into what sins will the forgetfulness of God's mercy lead us?

A. The forgetfulness of God's mercy will lead us into sins of despair.

Third Lesson:

On the Unity and Trinity of God

 

Q. 180. What does "unity," and what does "trinity" mean?

A. "Unity" means being one, and "trinity" means three-fold or three in one.

Q. 181. Can we find an example to fully illustrate the mystery of the Blessed Trinity?

A. We cannot find an example to fully illustrate the mystery of the Blessed Trinity, because the mysteries of our holy religion are beyond comparison.

Q. 182. Is there but one God?

A. Yes; there is but one God.

Q. 183. Why can there be but one God?

A. There can be but one God because God, being supreme and infinite, cannot have an equal.

Q. 184. What does "supreme" mean?

A. "Supreme" means the highest in authority; also the most excellent or greatest possible in anything. Thus in all things God is supreme, and in the Church the Pope is supreme.

Q. 185. When are two persons said to be equal?

A. Two persons are said to be equal when one is in no way greater than or inferior to the other.

Q. 186. How many persons are there in God?

A. In God there are three Divine persons, really distinct, and equal in all things --the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.

Q. 187. What do "divine" and "distinct" mean?

A. "Divine" means pertaining to God, and "distinct" means separate; that is, not confounded or mixed with any other thing.

Q. 188. Is the Father God?

A. The Father is God and the first Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Q. 189. Is the Son God?

A. The Son is God and the second Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Q. 190. Is the Holy Ghost God?

A. The Holy Ghost is God and the third Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Q. 191. Do "first," "second," and "third" with regard to the persons of the Blessed Trinity mean that one person existed before the other or that one is greater than the other?

A. "First," "second," and "third" with regard to the persons of the Blessed Trinity do not mean that one person was before the other or that one is greater than the other; for all the persons of the Trinity are eternal and equal in every respect. These numbers are used to mark the distinction between the persons, and they show the order in which the one proceeded from the other.

Q. 192. What do you mean by the Blessed Trinity?

A. By the Blessed Trinity I mean one God in three Divine Persons.

Q. 193. Are the three Divine Persons equal in all things?

A. The three Divine Persons are equal in all things.

Q. 194. Are the three Divine Persons one and the same God?

A. The three Divine Persons are one and the same God, having one and the same Divine nature and substance.

Q. 195. What do we mean by the "nature" and "substance" of a thing?

A. By the "nature" of a thing we mean the combination of all the qualities that make the thing what it is. By the "substance" of a thing we mean the part that never changes, and which cannot be changed without destroying the nature of the thing.

Q. 196. Can we fully understand how the three Divine Persons are one and the same God?

A. We cannot fully understand how the three Divine Persons are one and the same God, because this is a mystery.

Q. 197. What is a mystery?

A. A mystery is a truth which we cannot fully understand.

Q. 198. Is every truth which we cannot understand a mystery?

A. Every truth which we cannot understand is not a mystery; but every revealed truth which no one can understand is a mystery.

Q. 199. Should we believe truths which we cannot understand?

A. We should and often do believe truths which we cannot understand when we have proof of their existence.

Q. 200. Give an example of truths which all believe, though many do not understand them.

A. All believe that the earth is round and moving, though many do not understand it. All believe that a seed planted in the ground will produce a flower or tree often with more than a thousand other seeds equal to itself, though many cannot understand how this is done.

Q. 201. Why must a divine religion have mysteries?

A. A divine religion must have mysteries because it must have supernatural truths and God Himself must teach them. A religion that has only natural truths, such as man can know by reason alone, fully understand and teach, is only a human religion.

Q. 202. Why does God require us to believe mysteries?

A. God requires us to believe mysteries that we may submit our understanding to Him.

Q. 203. By what form of prayer do we praise the Holy Trinity?

A. We praise the Holy Trinity by a form of prayer called the Doxology, which has come down to us almost from the time of the Apostles.

Q. 204. Say the Doxology.

A. The Doxology is: "Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen."

Q. 205. Is there any other form of the Doxology?

A. There is another form of the Doxology, which is said in the celebration of the Mass. It is called the "Gloria in excelsis" or "Glory be to God on high," etc., the words sung by the Angels at the birth of Our Lord.

 Fourth Lesson:

On Creation

 

Q. 206. What is the difference between making and creating?

A. "Making" means bringing forth or forming out of some material already existing, as workmen do. "Creating" means bringing forth out of nothing, as God alone can do.

Q. 207. Has everything that exists been created?

A. Everything that exists except God Himself has been created.

Q. 208. Who created heaven and earth, and all things?

A. God created heaven and earth, and all things.

Q. 209. From what do we learn that God created heaven and earth and all things?

A. We learn that God created heaven and earth and all things from the Bible or Holy Scripture, in which the account of the Creation is given.

Q. 210. Why did God create all things?

A. God created all things for His own glory and for their or our good.

Q. 211. Did God leave all things to themselves after He had created them?

A. God did not leave all things to themselves after He had created them; He continues to preserve and govern them.

Q. 212. What do we call the care by which God preserves and governs the world and all it contains?

A. We call the care by which God preserves and governs the world and all it contains His providence.

Q. 213. How did God create heaven and earth?

A. God created heaven and earth from nothing by His word only; that is, by a single act of His all-powerful will.

Q. 214. Which are the chief creatures of God?

A. The chief creatures of God are angels and men.

Q. 215. How may God's creatures on earth be divided?

A. God's creatures on earth may be divided into four classes:
   1. Things that exist, as air;
   2. Things that exist, grow and live, as plants and trees;
   3. Things that exist, grow, live and feel, as animals;
   4. Things that exist, grow, live, feel and understand, as man.

Q. 216. What are angels?

A. Angels are pure spirits without a body, created to adore and enjoy God in heaven.

Q. 217. If Angels have no bodies, how could they appear?

A. Angels could appear by taking bodies to render themselves visible for a time; just as the Holy Ghost took the form of a dove and the devil took the form of a serpent.

Q. 218. Name some persons to whom Angels appeared.

A. Angels appeared to the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph; also to Abraham, Lot, Jacob, Tobias and others.

Q. 219. Were the angels created for any other purpose?

A. The angels were also created to assist before the throne of God and to minister unto Him; they have often been sent as messengers from God to man; and are also appointed our guardians.

Q. 220. Are all the Angels equal in dignity?

A. All the Angels are not equal in dignity. There are nine choirs or classes mentioned in the Holy Scripture. The highest are called Seraphim and the lowest simply Angels. The Archangels are one class higher than ordinary Angels.

Q. 221. Mention some Archangels and tell what they did.

A. The Archangel Michael drove Satan out of heaven; the Archangel Gabriel announced to the Blessed Virgin that she was to become the Mother of God. The Archangel Raphael guided and protected Tobias.

Q. 222. Were Angels ever sent to punish men?

A. Angels were sometimes sent to punish men. An Angel killed 185,000 men in the army of a wicked king who had blasphemed God; an Angel also slew the first-born in the families of the Egyptians who had persecuted God's people.

Q. 223. What do our guardian Angels do for us?

A. Our guardian Angels pray for us, protect and guide us, and offer our prayers, good works and desires to God.

Q. 224. How do we know that Angels offer our prayers and good works to God?

A. We know that Angels offer our prayers and good works to God because it is so stated in Holy Scripture, and Holy Scripture is the Word of God.

Q. 225. Why did God appoint guardian Angels if He watches over us Himself?

A. God appointed guardian Angels to secure for us their help and prayers, and also to show His great love for us in giving us these special servants and faithful friends.

Q. 226. Were the angels, as God created them, good and happy?

A. The angels, as God created them, were good and happy.

Q. 227. Did all the angels remain good and happy?

A. All the angels did not remain good and happy; many of them sinned and were cast into hell, and these are called devils or bad angels.

Q. 228. Do we know the number of good and bad Angels?

A. We do not know the number of the good or bad Angels, but we know it is very great.

Q. 229. What was the devil's name before he fell, and why was he cast out of heaven?

A. Before he fell, Satan, or the devil, was called Lucifer, or light-bearer, a name which indicates great beauty. He was cast out of heaven because through pride he rebelled against God.

Q. 230. How do the bad Angels act toward us?

A. The bad Angels try by every means to lead us into sin. The efforts they make are called temptations of the devil.

Q. 231. Why does the devil tempt us?

A. The devil tempts us because he hates goodness, and does not wish us to enjoy the happiness which he himself has lost.

Q. 232. Can we by our own power overcome the temptations of the devil?

A. We cannot by our own power overcome the temptations of the devil, because the devil is wiser than we are; for, being an Angel, he is more intelligent, and he did not lose his intelligence by falling into sin any more than we do now. Therefore, to overcome his temptations we need the help of God.

Fifth Lesson:

On Our First Parents and the Fall

 

Q. 233. Who were the first man and woman?

A. The first man and woman were Adam and Eve.

Q. 234. Are there any persons in the world who are not the descendants of Adam and Eve?

A. There are no persons in the world now, and there never have been any, who are not the descendants of Adam and Eve, because the whole human race had but one origin.

Q. 235. Do not the differences in color, figure, etc., which we find in distinct races indicate a difference in first parents?

A. The differences in color, figure, etc., which we find in distinct races do not indicate a difference in first parents, for these differences have been brought about in the lapse of time by other causes, such as climate, habits, etc.

Q. 236. Were Adam and Eve innocent and holy when they came from the hand of God?

A. Adam and Eve were innocent and holy when they came from the hand of God.

Q. 237. What do we mean by saying Adam and Eve "were innocent" when they came from the hand of God?

A. When we say Adam and Eve "were innocent" when they came from the hand of God we mean they were in the state of original justice; that is, they were gifted with every virtue and free from every sin.

Q. 238. How was Adam's body formed?

A. God formed Adam's body out of the clay of the earth and then breathed into it a living soul.

Q. 239. How was Eve's body formed?

A. Eve's body was formed from a rib taken from Adam's side during a deep sleep which God caused to come upon him.

Q. 240. Why did God make Eve from one of Adam's ribs?

A. God made Eve from one of Adam's ribs to show the close relationship existing between husband and wife in their marriage union which God then instituted.

Q. 241. Could man's body be developed from the body of an inferior animal?

A. Man's body could be developed from the body of an inferior animal if God so willed; but science does not prove that man's body was thus formed, while revelation teaches that it was formed directly by God from the clay of the earth.

Q. 242. Could man's soul and intelligence be formed by the development of animal life and instinct?

A. Man's soul could not be formed by the development of animal instinct; for, being entirely spiritual, it must be created by God, and it is united to the body as soon as the body is prepared to receive it.

Q. 243. Did God give any command to Adam and Eve?

A. To try their obedience, God commanded Adam and Eve not to eat of a certain fruit which grew in the garden of Paradise.

Q. 244. What was the Garden of Paradise?

A. The Garden of Paradise was a large and beautiful place prepared for man's habitation upon earth. It was supplied with every species of plant and animal and with everything that could contribute to man's happiness.

Q. 245. Where was the Garden of Paradise situated?

A. The exact place in which the Garden of Paradise -- called also the Garden of Eden -- was situated is not known, for the deluge may have so changed the surface of the earth that old landmarks were wiped out. It was probably some place in Asia, not far from the river Euphrates.

Q. 246. What was the tree bearing the forbidden fruit called?

A. The tree bearing the forbidden fruit was called "the tree of knowledge of good and evil."

Q. 247. Do we know the name of any other tree in the garden?

A. We know the name of another tree in the Garden called the "tree of life." Its fruit kept the bodies of our first parents in a state of perfect health.

Q. 248. Which were the chief blessings intended for Adam and Eve had they remained faithful to God?

A. The chief blessings intended for Adam and Eve, had they remained faithful to God, were a constant state of happiness in this life and everlasting glory in the next.

Q. 249. Did Adam and Eve remain faithful to God?

A. Adam and Eve did not remain faithful to God, but broke His command by eating the forbidden fruit.

Q. 250. Who was the first to disobey God?

A. Eve was the first to disobey God, and she induced Adam to do likewise.

Q. 251. How was Eve tempted to sin?

A. Eve was tempted to sin by the devil, who came in the form of a serpent and persuaded her to break God's command.

Q. 252. Which were the chief causes that led Eve into sin?

A. The chief causes that led Eve into sin were: (1) She went into the danger of sinning by admiring what was forbidden, instead of avoiding it. (2) She did not fly from the temptation at once, but debated about yielding to it. Similar conduct on our part will lead us also into sin.

Q. 253. What befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin?

A. Adam and Eve, on account of their sin, lost innocence and holiness, and were doomed to sickness and death.

Q. 254. What other evils befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin?

A. Many other evils befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin. They were driven out of Paradise and condemned to toil. God also ordained that henceforth the earth should yield no crops without cultivation, and that the beasts, man's former friends, should become his savage enemies.

Q. 255. Were we to remain in the Garden of Paradise forever if Adam had not sinned?

A. We were not to remain in the Garden of Paradise forever even if Adam had not sinned, but after passing through the years of our probation or trial upon earth we were to be taken, body and soul, into heaven without suffering death.

Q. 256. What evil befell us on account of the disobedience of our first parents?

A. On account of the disobedience of our first parents, we all share in their sin and punishment, as we should have shared in their happiness if they had remained faithful.

Q. 257. Is it not unjust to punish us for the sin of our first parents?

A. It is not unjust to punish us for the sin of our first parents, because their punishment consisted in being deprived of a free gift of God; that is, of the gift of original justice to which they had no strict right and which they willfully forfeited by their act of disobedience.

Q. 258. But how did the loss of the gift of original justice leave our first parents and us in mortal sin?

A. The loss of the gift of original justice left our first parents and us in mortal sin because it deprived them of the Grace of God, and to be without this gift of Grace which they should have had was to be in mortal sin. As all their children are deprived of the same gift, they, too, come into the world in a state of mortal sin.

Q. 259. What other effects followed from the sin of our first parents?

A. Our nature was corrupted by the sin of our first parents, which darkened our understanding, weakened our will, and left in us a strong inclination to evil.

Q. 260. What do we mean by "our nature was corrupted"?

A. When we say "our nature was corrupted" we mean that our whole being, body and soul, was injured in all its parts and powers.

Q. 261. Why do we say our understanding was darkened?

A. We say our understanding was darkened because even with much learning we have not the clear knowledge, quick perception and retentive memory that Adam had before his fall from grace.

Q. 262. Why do we say our will was weakened?

A. We say our will was weakened to show that our free will was not entirely taken away by Adam's sin, and that we have it still in our power to use our free will in doing good or evil.

Q. 263. In what does the strong inclination to evil that is left in us consist?

A. This strong inclination to evil that is left in us consists in the continual efforts our senses and appetites make to lead our souls into sin. The body is inclined to rebel against the soul, and the soul itself to rebel against God.

Q. 264. What is this strong inclination to evil called, and why did God permit it to remain in us?

A. This strong inclination to evil is called concupiscence, and God permits it to remain in us that by His grace we may resist it and thus increase our merits.

Q. 265. What is the sin called which we inherit from our first parents?

A. The sin which we inherit from our first parents is called original sin.

Q. 266. Why is this sin called original?

A. This sin is called original because it comes down to us from our first parents, and we are brought into the world with its guilt on our soul.

Q. 267. Does this corruption of our nature remain in us after original sin is forgiven?

A. This corruption of our nature and other punishments remain in us after original sin is forgiven.

Q. 268. Was any one ever preserved from original sin?

A. The Blessed Virgin Mary, through the merits of her Divine Son, was preserved free from the guilt of original sin, and this privilege is called her Immaculate Conception.

Q. 269. Why was the Blessed Virgin preserved from original sin?

A. The Blessed Virgin was preserved from original sin because it would not be consistent with the dignity of the Son of God to have His Mother, even for an instant, in the power of the devil and an enemy of God.

Q. 270. How could the Blessed Virgin be preserved from sin by her Divine Son, before her Son was born?

A. The Blessed Virgin could be preserved from sin by her Divine Son before He was born as man, for He always existed as God and foresaw His own future merits and the dignity of His Mother. He therefore by His future merits provided for her privilege of exemption from original sin.

Q. 271. What does the "Immaculate Conception" mean?

A. The Immaculate Conception means the Blessed Virgin's own exclusive privilege of coming into existence, through the merits of Jesus Christ, without the stain of original sin. It does not mean, therefore, her sinless life, perpetual virginity or the miraculous conception of Our Divine Lord by the power of the Holy Ghost.

Q. 272. What has always been the belief of the Church concerning this truth?

A. The Church has always believed in the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin and to place this truth beyond doubt has declared it an Article of Faith.

Q. 273. To what should the thoughts of the Immaculate Conception lead us?

A. The thoughts of the Immaculate Conception should lead us to a great love of purity and to a desire of imitating the Blessed Virgin in the practice of that holy virtue.

Sixth Lesson:

On Sin and Its Kinds

 

Q. 274. How is sin divided?

A. (1) Sin is divided into the sin we inherit called original sin, and the sin we commit ourselves, called actual sin. (2) Actual sin is sub-divided into greater sins, called mortal, and lesser sins, called venial.

Q. 275. In how many ways may actual sin be committed?

A. Actual sin may be committed in two ways: namely, by willfully doing things forbidden, or by willfully neglecting things commanded.

Q. 276. What is our sin called when we neglect things commanded?

A. When we neglect things commanded our sin is called a sin of omission. Such sins as willfully neglecting to hear Mass on Sundays, or neglecting to go to Confession at least once a year, are sins of omission.

Q. 277. Is original sin the only kind of sin?

A. Original sin is not the only kind of sin; there is another kind of sin, which we commit ourselves, called actual sin.

Q. 278. What is actual sin?

A. Actual sin is any willful thought, word, deed, or omission contrary to the law of God.

Q. 279. How many kinds of actual sin are there?

A. There are two kinds of actual sin -- mortal and venial.

Q. 280. What is mortal sin?

A. Mortal sin is a grievous offense against the law of God.

Q. 281. Why is this sin called mortal?

A. This sin is called mortal because it deprives us of spiritual life, which is sanctifying grace, and brings everlasting death and damnation on the soul.

Q. 282. How many things are necessary to make a sin mortal?

A. To make a sin mortal, three things are necessary: 1.a grievous matter, sufficient reflection, and full consent of the will.

Q. 283. What do we mean by "grievous matter" with regard to sin?

A. By "grievous matter" with regard to sin we mean that the thought, word or deed by which mortal sin is committed must be either very bad in itself or severely prohibited, and therefore sufficient to make a mortal sin if we deliberately yield to it.

Q. 284. What does "sufficient reflection and full consent of the will" mean?

A. "Sufficient reflection" means that we must know the thought, word or deed to be sinful at the time we are guilty of it; and "full consent of the will" means that we must fully and willfully yield to it.

Q. 285. What are sins committed without reflection or consent called?

A. Sins committed without reflection or consent are called material sins; that is, they would be formal or real sins if we knew their sinfulness at the time we committed them. Thus to eat flesh meat on a day of abstinence without knowing it to be a day of abstinence or without thinking of the prohibition, would be a material sin.

Q. 286. Do past material sins become real sins as soon as we discover their sinfulness?

A. Past material sins do not become real sins as soon as we discover their sinfulness, unless we again repeat them with full knowledge and consent.

Q. 287. How can we know what sins are considered mortal?

A. We can know what sins are considered mortal from Holy Scripture; from the teaching of the Church, and from the writings of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church.

Q. 288. Why is it wrong to judge others guilty of sin?

A. It is wrong to judge others guilty of sin because we cannot know for certain that their sinful act was committed with sufficient reflection and full consent of the will.

Q. 289. What sin does he commit who without sufficient reason believes another guilty of sin?

A. He who without sufficient reason believes another guilty of sin commits a sin of rash judgment.

Q. 290. What is venial sin?

A. Venial sin is a slight offense against the law of God in matters of less importance, or in matters of great importance it is an offense committed without sufficient reflection or full consent of the will.

Q. 291. Can we always distinguish venial from mortal sin?

A. We cannot always distinguish venial from mortal sin, and in such cases we must leave the decision to our confessor.

Q. 292. Can slight offenses ever become mortal sins?

A. Slight offenses can become mortal sins if we commit them through defiant contempt for God or His law; and also when they are followed by very evil consequences, which we foresee in committing them.

Q. 293. Which are the effects of venial sin?

A. The effects of venial sin are the lessening of the love of God in our heart, the making us less worthy of His help, and the weakening of the power to resist mortal sin.

Q. 294. How can we know a thought, word or deed to be sinful?

A. We can know a thought, word or deed to be sinful if it, or the neglect of it, is forbidden by any law of God or of His Church, or if it is opposed to any supernatural virtue.

Q. 295. Which are the chief sources of sin?

A. The chief sources of sin are seven: 1.Pride, Covetousness, Lust, Anger, Gluttony, Envy, and Sloth, and they are commonly called capital sins.

Q. 296. What is pride?

A. Pride is an excessive love of our own ability; so that we would rather sinfully disobey than humble ourselves.

Q. 297. What effect has pride on our souls?

A. Pride begets in our souls sinful ambition, vainglory, presumption and hypocrisy.

Q. 298. What is covetousness?

A. Covetousness is an excessive desire for worldly things.

Q. 299. What effect has covetousness on our souls?

A. Covetousness begets in our souls unkindness, dishonesty, deceit and want of charity.

Q. 300. What is lust?

A. Lust is an excessive desire for the sinful pleasures forbidden by the Sixth Commandment.

Q. 301. What effect has lust on our souls?

A. Lust begets in our souls a distaste for holy things, a perverted conscience, a hatred for God, and it very frequently leads to a complete loss of faith.

Q. 302. What is anger?

A. Anger is an excessive emotion of the mind excited against any person or thing, or it is an excessive desire for revenge.

Q. 303. What effect has anger on our soul?

A. Anger begets in our souls impatience, hatred, irreverence, and too often the habit of cursing.

Q. 304. What is gluttony?

A. Gluttony is an excessive desire for food or drink.

Q. 305. What kind of a sin is drunkenness?

A. Drunkenness is a sin of gluttony by which a person deprives himself of the use of his reason by the excessive taking of intoxicating drink.

Q. 306. Is drunkenness always a mortal sin?

A. Deliberate drunkenness is always a mortal sin if the person be completely deprived of the use of reason by it, but drunkenness that is not intended or desired may be excused from mortal sin.

Q. 307. What are the chief effects of habitual drunkenness?

A. Habitual drunkenness injures the body, weakens the mind, leads its victim into many vices and exposes him to the danger of dying in a state of mortal sin.

Q. 308. What three sins seem to cause most evil in the world?

A. Drunkenness, dishonesty and impurity seem to cause most evil in the world, and they are therefore to be carefully avoided at all times.

Q. 309. What is envy?

A. Envy is a feeling of sorrow at another's good fortune and joy at the evil which befalls him; as if we ourselves were injured by the good and benefited by the evil that comes to him.

Q. 310. What effect has envy on the soul?

A. Envy begets in the soul a want of charity for our neighbor and produces a spirit of detraction, back-biting and slander.

Q. 311. What is sloth?

A. Sloth is a laziness of the mind and body, through which we neglect our duties on account of the labor they require.

Q. 312. What effect has sloth upon the soul?

A. Sloth begets in the soul a spirit of indifference in our spiritual duties and a disgust for prayer.

Q. 313. Why are the seven sources of sin called capital sins?

A. The seven sources of sin are called capital sins because they rule over our other sins and are the causes of them.

Q. 314. What do we mean by our predominant sin or ruling passion?

A. By our predominant sin, or ruling passion, we mean the sin into which we fall most frequently and which we find it hardest to resist.

Q. 315. How can we best overcome our sins?

A. We can best overcome our sins by guarding against our predominant or ruling sin.

Q. 316. Should we give up trying to be good when we seem not to succeed in overcoming our faults?

A. We should not give up trying to be good when we seem not to succeed in overcoming our faults, because our efforts to be good will keep us from becoming worse than we are.

Q. 317. What virtues are opposed to the seven capital sins?

A. Humility is opposed to pride; generosity to covetousness; chastity to lust; meekness to anger; temperance to gluttony; brotherly love to envy, and diligence to sloth.

Seventh Lesson:

On the Incarnation and Redemption

 

Q. 318. What does "incarnation" mean, and what does "redemption" mean?

A. "Incarnation" means the act of clothing with flesh. Thus Our Lord clothed His divinity with a human body. "Redemption" means to buy back again.

Q. 319. Did God abandon man after he fell into sin?

A. God did not abandon man after he fell into sin, but promised him a Redeemer, who was to satisfy for man's sin and reopen to him the gates of heaven.

Q. 320. What do we mean by the "gates of heaven"?

A. By the "gates of heaven" we mean the divine power by which God keeps us out of heaven or admits us into it, at His pleasure.

Q. 321. Who is the Redeemer?

A. Our Blessed Lord and Savior Jesus Christ is the Redeemer of mankind.

Q. 322. What does the name "Jesus" signify and how was this name given to Our Lord?

A. The name "Jesus" signifies Savior or Redeemer, and this name was given to Our Lord by an Angel who appeared to Joseph and said: "Mary shall bring forth a Son; and thou shalt call His name Jesus."

Q. 323. What does the name "Christ" signify?

A. The name "Christ" means the same as Messiah, and signifies Anointed; because, as in the Old Law, Prophets, High Priests and Kings were anointed with oil; so Jesus, the Great Prophet, High Priest and King of the New Law, was anointed as man with the fullness of divine power.

Q. 324. How did Christ show and prove His divine power?

A. Christ showed and proved His divine power chiefly by His miracles, which are extraordinary works that can be performed only by power received from God, and which have, therefore, His sanction and authority.

Q. 325. What, then, did the miracles of Jesus Christ prove?

A. The miracles of Jesus Christ proved that whatever He said was true, and that when He declared Himself to be the Son of God He really was what He claimed to be.

Q. 326. Could not men have been deceived in the miracles of Christ?

A. Men could not have been deceived in the miracles of Christ because they were performed in the most open manner and usually in the presence of great multitudes of people, among whom were many of Christ's enemies, ever ready to expose any deceit. And if Christ performed no real miracles, how, then, could He have converted the world and have persuaded sinful men to give up what they loved and do the difficult things that the Christian religion imposes?

Q. 327. Could not false accounts of these miracles have been written after the death of Our Lord?

A. False accounts of these miracles could not have been written after the death of Our Lord; for then neither His friends nor His enemies would have believed them without proof. Moreover, the enemies of Christ did not deny the miracles, but tried to explain them by attributing them to the power of the devil or other causes. Again, the Apostles and the Evangelists who wrote the accounts suffered death to testify their belief in the words and works of Our Lord.

Q. 328. Did Jesus Christ die to redeem all men of every age and race without exception?

A. Jesus Christ died to redeem all men of every age and race without exception; and every person born into the world should share in His merits, without which no one can be saved.

Q. 329. How are the merits of Jesus Christ applied to our souls?

A. The merits of Jesus Christ are applied to our souls through the Sacraments, and especially through Baptism and Penance, which restore us to the friendship of God.

Q. 330. What do you believe of Jesus Christ?

A. I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the second Person of the Blessed Trinity, true God and true man.

Q. 331. Cannot we also be called the Children of God, and therefore His sons and daughters?

A. We can be called the Children of God because He has adopted us by His grace or because He is the Father who has created us; but we are not, therefore, His real Children; whereas, Jesus Christ, His only real and true Son, was neither adopted nor created, but was begotten of His Father from all eternity.

Q. 332. Why is Jesus Christ true God?

A. Jesus Christ is true God because He is the true and only Son of God the Father.

Q. 333. Why is Jesus Christ true man?

A. Jesus Christ is true man because He is the Son of the Blessed Virgin Mary and has a body and soul like ours.

Q. 334. Who was the foster father or guardian of Our Lord while on earth?

A. St. Joseph, the husband of the Blessed Virgin, was the foster-father or guardian of Our Lord while on earth.

Q. 335. Is Jesus Christ in heaven as God or as man?

A. Since His Ascension Jesus Christ is in heaven both as God and as man.

Q. 336. How many natures are there in Jesus Christ?

A. In Jesus Christ there are two natures, the nature of God and the nature of man.

Q. 337. Is Jesus Christ more than one person?

A. No. Jesus Christ is but one Divine Person.

Q. 338. From what do we learn that Jesus Christ is but one person?

A. We learn that Jesus Christ is but one person from Holy Scripture and from the constant teaching of the Church, which has condemned all those who teach the contrary.

Q. 339. Was Jesus Christ always God?

A. Jesus Christ was always God, as He is the second person of the Blessed Trinity, equal to His Father from all eternity.

Q. 340. Was Jesus Christ always man?

A. Jesus Christ was not always man, but became man at the time of His Incarnation.

Q. 341. What do you mean by the Incarnation?

A. By the Incarnation I mean that the Son of God was made man.

Q. 342. How was the Son of God made man?

A. The Son of God was conceived and made man by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Q. 343. Is the Blessed Virgin Mary truly the Mother of God?

A. The Blessed Virgin Mary is truly the Mother of God, because the same Divine Person who is the Son of God is also the Son of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Q. 344. Did the Son of God become man immediately after the sin of our first parents?

A. The Son of God did not become man immediately after the sin of our first parents, but was promised to them as a Redeemer.

Q. 345. How many years passed from the time Adam sinned till the time the Redeemer came?

A. About 4,000 years passed from the time Adam sinned till the time the Redeemer came.

Q. 346. What was the moral condition of the world just before the coming of Our Lord?

A. Just before the coming of Our Lord the moral condition of the world was very bad. Idolatry, injustice, cruelty, immorality and horrid vices were common almost everywhere.

Q. 347. Why was the coming of the Redeemer so long delayed?

A. The coming of the Redeemer was so long delayed that the world -- suffering from every misery -- might learn the great evil of sin and know that God alone could help fallen man.

Q. 348. When was the Redeemer promised to mankind?

A. The Redeemer was first promised to mankind in the Garden of Paradise, and often afterward through Abraham and his descendants, the patriarchs, and through numerous prophets.

Q. 349. Who were the prophets?

A. The prophets were inspired men to whom God revealed the future, that they might with absolute certainty make it known to the people.

Q. 350. What did the prophets foretell concerning the Redeemer?

A. The prophets, taken together, foretold so accurately all the circumstances of the birth, life, death, resurrection and glory of the Redeemer that no one who carefully studied their writings could fail to recognize Him when He came.

Q. 351. Have all these prophecies concerning the Redeemer been fulfilled?

A. All the prophecies concerning the Redeemer have been fulfilled in every point by the circumstances of Christ's birth, life, death, resurrection and glory; and He is, therefore, the Redeemer promised to mankind from the time of Adam.

Q. 352. Where shall we find these prophecies concerning the Redeemer?

A. We shall find these prophecies concerning the Redeemer in the prophetic books of the Bible or Holy Scripture.

Q. 353. If the Redeemer's coming was so clearly foretold, why did not all recognize Him when He came?

A. All did not recognize the Redeemer when He came, because many knew only part of the prophecies; and taking those concerning His glory and omitting those concerning His suffering, they could not understand His life.

Q. 354. How could they be saved who lived before the Son of God became man?

A. They who lived before the Son of God became man could be saved by believing in a Redeemer to come, and by keeping the Commandments.

Q. 355. On what day was the Son of God conceived and made man?

A. The Son of God was conceived and made man on Annunciation Day -- the day on which the Angel Gabriel announced to the Blessed Virgin Mary that she was to be the Mother of God.

Q. 356. On what day was Christ born?

A. Christ was born on Christmas Day, in a stable at Bethlehem, over nineteen hundred years ago.

Q. 357. Why did the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph go to Bethlehem just before the birth of Our Lord?

A. The Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph went to Bethlehem in obedience to the Roman Emperor, who ordered all his subjects to register their names in the towns or cities of their ancestors. Bethlehem was the City of David, the royal ancestor of Mary and Joseph, hence they had to register there. All this was done by the Will of God, that the prophecies concerning the birth of His Divine Son might be fulfilled.

Q. 358. Why was Christ born in a stable?

A. Christ was born in a stable because Joseph and Mary were poor and strangers in Bethlehem, and without money they could find no other shelter. This was permitted by Our Lord that we might learn a lesson from His great humility.

Q. 359. In giving the ancestors or forefathers of Our Lord, why do the Gospels give the ancestors of Joseph, who was only Christ's foster-father, and not the ancestors of Mary, who was Christ's real parent?

A. In giving the ancestors of Our Lord, the Gospels give the ancestors of Joseph: (1) Because the ancestors of women were not usually recorded by the Jews; and (2) Because Mary and Joseph were members of the same tribe, and had, therefore, the same ancestors; so that, in giving the ancestors of Joseph, the Gospels give also those of Mary; and this was understood by those for whom the Gospels were intended.

Q. 360. Had Our Lord any brothers or sisters ?

A. Our Lord had no brothers or sisters. When the Gospels speak of His brethren they mean only His near relations. His Blessed Mother Mary was always a Virgin as well before and at His birth as after it.

Q. 361. Who were among the first to adore the Infant Jesus?

A. The shepherds of Bethlehem, to whom His birth was announced by Angels; and the Magi or three wise men, who were guided to His crib by a miraculous star, were among the first to adore the Infant Jesus. We recall the adoration of the Magi on the feast of the Epiphany, which means appearance or manifestation, namely, of Our Savior.

Q. 362. Who sought to kill the Infant Jesus?

A. Herod sought to kill the Infant Jesus because he thought the influence of Christ -- the new-born King -- would deprive him of his throne.

Q. 363. How was the Holy Infant rescued from the power of Herod?

A. The Holy Infant was rescued from the power of Herod by the flight into Egypt, when St. Joseph -- warned by an Angel -- fled hastily into that country with Jesus and Mary.

Q. 364. How did Herod hope to accomplish his wicked designs?

A. Herod hoped to accomplish his wicked designs by murdering all the infants in and near Bethlehem. The day on which we commemorate the death of these first little martyrs, who shed their blood for Christ's sake, is called the feast of Holy Innocents.

Q. 365. How may the years of Christ's life be divided?

A. The years of Christ's life may be divided into three parts:
   1. His childhood, extending from His birth to His twelfth year, when He went with his parents to worship in the Temple of Jerusalem.
   2. His hidden life, which extends from His twelfth to His thirtieth year, during which time He dwelt with His parents at Nazareth.
   3. His public life, extending from His thirtieth year -- or from His baptism by St. John the Baptist to His death; during which time He taught His doctrines and established His Church.

Q. 366. Why is Christ's life thus divided?

A. Christ's life is thus divided to show that all classes find in Him their model. In childhood He gave an example to the young; in His hidden life an example to those who consecrate themselves to the service of God in a religious state; and in His public life an example to all Christians without exception.

Q. 367. How long did Christ live on earth?

A. Christ lived on earth about thirty-three years, and led a most holy life in poverty and suffering.

Q. 368. Why did Christ live so long on earth?

A. Christ lived so long on earth to show us the way to heaven by His teachings and example.

 Eighth Lesson:

On Our Lord's Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension

 

Q. 369. What do we mean by Our Lord's Passion?

A. By Our Lord's Passion we mean His dreadful sufferings from His agony in the garden till the moment of His death.

Q. 370. What did Jesus Christ suffer?

A. Jesus Christ suffered a bloody sweat, a cruel scourging, was crowned with thorns, and was crucified.

Q. 371. When did Our Lord suffer the "bloody sweat"?

A. Our Lord suffered the "bloody sweat" while drops of blood came forth from every pore of His body, during His agony in the Garden of Olives, near Jerusalem, where He went to pray on the night His Passion began.

Q. 372. Who accompanied Our Lord to the Garden of Olives on the night of His Agony?

A. The Apostles Peter, James and John, the same who had witnessed His transfiguration on the mount, accompanied Our Lord to the Garden of Olives, to watch and pray with Him on the night of His agony.

Q. 373. What do we mean by the transfiguration of Our Lord?

A. By the transfiguration of Our Lord we mean the supernatural change in His appearance when He showed Himself to His Apostles in great glory and brilliancy in which "His face did shine as the sun and His garments became white as snow."

Q. 374. Who were present at the transfiguration?

A. There were present at the transfiguration -- besides the Apostles Peter, James and John, who witnessed it -- the two great and holy men of the Old Law, Moses and Elias, talking with Our Lord.

Q. 375. What caused Our Lord's agony in the garden?

A It is believed Our Lord's agony in the garden was caused:
   1. By his clear knowledge of all He was soon to endure;
   1. By the sight of the many offenses committed against His Father by the sins of the whole world;
   1. By His knowledge of men's ingratitude for the blessings of redemption.

Q. 376. Why was Christ cruelly scourged?

A. Christ was cruelly scourged by Pilate's orders, that the sight of His bleeding body might move His enemies to spare His life.

Q. 377. Why was Christ crowned with thorns?

A. Christ was crowned with thorns in mockery because He had said He was a King.

Q. 378. Could Christ, if He pleased, have escaped the tortures of His Passion?

A. Christ could, if He pleased, have escaped the tortures of His Passion, because He foresaw them and had it in His power to overcome His enemies.

Q. 379. Was it necessary for Christ to suffer so much in order to redeem us?

A. It was not necessary for Christ to suffer so much in order to redeem us, for the least of His sufferings was more than sufficient to atone for all the sins of mankind. By suffering so much He showed His great love for us.

Q. 380. Who betrayed Our Lord?

A. Judas, one of His Apostles, betrayed Our Lord, and from His sin we may learn that even the good may become very wicked by the abuse of their free will.

Q. 381. How was Christ condemned to death?

A. Through the influence of those who hated Him, Christ was condemned to death, after an unjust trial, at which false witnesses were induced to testify against Him.

Q. 382. On what day did Christ die?

A. Christ died on Good Friday.

Q. 383. Why do you call that day "good" on which Christ died so sorrowful a death?

A. We call that day good on which Christ died because by His death He showed His great love for man, and purchased for him every blessing.

Q. 384. How long was Our Lord hanging on the cross before He died?

A. Our Lord was hanging on the Cross about three hours before He died. While thus suffering, His enemies stood around blaspheming and mocking Him. By His death He proved Himself a real mortal man, for He could not die in His divine nature.

Q. 385. What do we call the words Christ spoke while hanging on the Cross?

A. We call the words Christ spoke while hanging on the Cross "the seven last words of Jesus on the Cross." They teach us the dispositions we should have at the hour of death.

Q. 386. Repeat the seven last words or sayings of Jesus on the Cross.

A. The seven last words or sayings of Jesus on the Cross are:
   1. "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do," in which He forgives and prays for His enemies.
   2. "Amen, I say to thee, this day thou shalt be with Me in Paradise," in which He pardons the penitent sinner.
   3. "Woman, behold thy Son" -- "Behold thy Mother," in which He gave up what was dearest to Him on earth, and gave us Mary for our Mother.
   4. "My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?" from which we learn the suffering of His mind.
   5. "I thirst," from which we learn the suffering of His body.
   6. "All is consummated," by which He showed the fulfillment of all the prophecies concerning Him and the completion of the work of our redemption.
   7. "Father, into Thy hands I commend my spirit," by which He showed His perfect resignation to the Will of His Eternal Father.

Q. 387. What happened at the death of Our Lord?

A. At the death of Our Lord there were darkness and earthquake; many holy dead came forth from their graves, and the veil concealing the Holy of Holies, in the Temple of Jerusalem, was torn asunder.

Q. 388. What was the Holy of Holies in the temple?

A. The Holy of Holies was the sacred part of the Temple, in which the Ark of the Covenant was kept, and where the high priest consulted the Will of God.

Q. 389. What was the "Ark of the Covenant"?

A. The Ark of the Covenant was a precious box in which were kept the tablets of stone bearing the written Commandments of God, the rod which Aaron changed into a serpent before King Pharaoh, and a portion of the manna with which the Israelites were miraculously fed in the desert. The Ark of the Covenant was a figure of the Tabernacle in which we keep the Holy Eucharist.

Q. 390. Why was the veil of the Temple torn asunder at the death of Christ?

A. The veil of the Temple was torn asunder at the death of Christ because at His death the Jewish religion ceased to be the true religion, and God no longer manifested His presence in the Temple.

Q. 391. Why did the Jewish religion, which up to the death of Christ had been the true religion, cease at that time to be the true religion?

A. The Jewish religion, which, up to the death of Christ, had been the true religion, ceased at that time to be the true religion, because it was only a promise of the redemption and figure of the Christian religion, and when the redemption was accomplished and the Christian religion established by the death of Christ, the promise and the figure were no longer necessary.

Q. 392. Were all the laws of the Jewish religion abolished by the establishment of Christianity?

A. The moral laws of the Jewish religion were not abolished by the establishment of Christianity, for Christ came not to destroy these laws, but to make them more perfect. Its ceremonial laws were abolished when the Temple of Jerusalem ceased to be the House of God.

Q. 393. What do we mean by moral and ceremonial laws?

A. By "moral" laws we mean laws regarding good and evil. By "ceremonial" laws we mean laws regulating the manner of worshipping God in Temple or Church.

Q. 394. Where did Christ die?

A. Christ died on Mount Calvary.

Q. 395. Where was Mount Calvary, and what does the name signify?

A. Mount Calvary was the place of execution, not far from Jerusalem; and the name signifies the "place of skulls."

Q. 396. How did Christ die?

A. Christ was nailed to the Cross, and died on it between two thieves.

Q. 397. Why was Our Lord crucified between thieves?

A. Our Lord was crucified between thieves that His enemies might thus add to His disgrace by making Him equal to the worst criminals.

Q. 398. Why did Christ suffer and die?

A. Christ suffered and died for our sins.

Q. 399. How was Our Lord's body buried?

A. Our Lord's body was wrapped in a clean linen cloth and laid in a new sepulchre or tomb cut in a rock, by Joseph of Arimathea and other pious persons who believed in Our Divine Lord.

Q. 400. What lessons do we learn from the sufferings and death of Christ?

A. From the sufferings and death of Christ we learn the great evil of sin, the hatred God bears to it, and the necessity of satisfying for it.

Q. 401. Whither did Christ's soul go after His death?

A. After Christ's death His soul descended into hell.

Q. 402. Did Christ's soul descend into the hell of the damned?

A. The hell into which Christ's soul descended was not the hell of the dammed, but a place or state of rest called Limbo, where the souls of the just were waiting for Him.

Q. 403. Why did Christ descend into Limbo?

A. Christ descended into Limbo to preach to the souls who were in prison -- that is, to announce to them the joyful tidings of their redemption.

Q. 404. Where was Christ's body while His soul was in Limbo?

A. While Christ's soul was in Limbo His body was in the holy sepulchre.

Q. 405. On what day did Christ rise from the dead?

A. Christ rose from the dead, glorious and immortal, on Easter Sunday, the third day after His death.

Q. 406. Why is the Resurrection the greatest of Christ's miracles?

A. The Resurrection is the greatest of Christ's miracles because all He taught and did is confirmed by it and depends upon it. He promised to rise from the dead and without the fulfillment of that promise we could not believe in Him.

Q. 407. Has any one ever tried to disprove the miracle of the resurrection?

A. Unbelievers in Christ have tried to disprove the miracle of the resurrection as they have tried to disprove all His other miracles; but the explanations they give to prove Christ's miracles false are far more unlikely and harder to believe than the miracles themselves.

Q. 408. What do we mean when we say Christ rose "glorious" from the dead?

A. When we say Christ rose "glorious" from the dead we mean that His body was in a glorified state; that is, gifted with the qualities of a glorified body.

Q. 409. What are the qualities of a glorified body?

A. The qualities of a glorified body are:
   1. Brilliancy, by which it gives forth light;
   2. Agility, by which it moves from place to place as rapidly as an angel;
   3. Subtility, by which material things cannot shut it out;
   4. Impassibility, by which it is made incapable of suffering.

Q. 410. Was Christ three full days in the tomb?

A. Christ was not three full days, but only parts of three days in the tomb.

Q. 411. How long did Christ stay on earth after His resurrection?

A. Christ stayed on earth forty days after His resurrection, to show that He was truly risen from the dead, and to instruct His apostles.

Q. 412. Was Christ visible to all and at all times during the forty days He remained on earth after His resurrection?

A. Christ was not visible to all nor at all times during the forty days He remained on earth after His resurrection. We know that He appeared to His apostles and others at least nine times, though He may have appeared oftener.

Q. 413. How did Christ show that He was truly risen from the dead?

A. Christ showed that He was truly risen from the dead by eating and conversing with His Apostles and others to whom He appeared. He showed the wounds in His hands, feet and side, and it was after His resurrection that He gave to His Apostles the power to forgive sins.

Q. 414. After Christ had remained forty days on earth, whither did He go?

A. After forty days Christ ascended into heaven, and the day on which be ascended into heaven is called Ascension Day.

Q. 415. Where did the ascension of Our Lord take place?

A. Christ ascended into heaven from Mount Olivet, the place made sacred by His agony on the night before His death.

Q. 416. Who were present at the ascension and who ascended with Christ?

A. From various parts of Scripture we may conclude there were about 125 persons -- though traditions tell us there was a greater number -- present at the Ascension. They were the Apostles, the Disciples, the pious women and others who had followed Our Blessed Lord. The souls of the just who were waiting in Limbo for the redemption ascended with Christ.

Q. 417. Why is the paschal candle which is lighted on Easter morning extinguished at the Mass on Ascension Day?

A. The paschal candle which is lighted on Easter morning signifies Christ's visible presence on earth, and it is extinguished on Ascension Day to show that He, having fulfilled all the prophecies concerning Himself and having accomplished the work of redemption, has transferred the visible care of His Church to His Apostles and returned in His body to heaven.

Q. 418. Where is Christ in heaven?

A. In heaven Christ sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty.

Q. 419. What do you mean by saying that Christ sits at the right hand of God?

A. When I say that Christ sits at the right hand of God I mean that Christ as God is equal to His Father in all things, and that as man He is in the highest place in heaven next to God.

Ninth Lesson:

On the Holy Ghost and His Descent Upon the Apostles

 

Q. 420. Who is the Holy Ghost?

A. The Holy Ghost is the third Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Q. 421. Did the Holy Ghost ever appear?

A. The Holy Ghost appeared at times under the form of a dove, and again under the form of tongues of fire; for, being a pure spirit without a body, He can take any form.

Q. 422. Is the Holy Ghost called by other names?

A. The Holy Ghost is called also the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete, the Spirit of Truth and other names given in Holy Scripture.

Q. 423. From whom does the Holy Ghost proceed?

A. The Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son.

Q. 424. Is the Holy Ghost equal to the Father and the Son?

A. The Holy Ghost is equal to the Father and the Son, being the same Lord and God as they are.

Q. 425. On what day did the Holy Ghost come down upon the Apostles?

A. The Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles ten days after the Ascension of our Lord; and the day on which He came down upon the Apostles is called Whitsunday, or Pentecost.

Q. 426. Why is the day on which the Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles called Whitsunday?

A. The day on which the Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles is called Whitsunday or White Sunday, probably because the Christians who were baptized on the eve of Pentecost wore white garments for some time afterward, as a mark of the purity bestowed upon their souls by the Sacrament of Baptism.

Q. 427. Why is this feast called also Pentecost?

A. This feast is called also Pentecost because Pentecost means the fiftieth; and the Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles fifty days after the resurrection of Our Lord.

Q. 428. How did the Holy Ghost come down upon the Apostles?

A. The Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles in the form of tongues of fire.

Q. 429. What did the form of tongues of fire denote?

A. The form of tongues of fire denoted the sacred character and divine authority of the preaching and teaching of the Apostles, by whose words and fervor all men were to be converted to the love of God.

Q. 430. Who sent the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles?

A. Our Lord Jesus Christ sent the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles.

Q. 431. Did the Apostles know that the Holy Ghost would come down upon them?

A. The Apostles knew that the Holy Ghost would come down upon them; for Christ promised His Apostles that after His Ascension He would send the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of Truth, to teach them all truths and to abide with them forever.

Q. 432. Has any one ever denied the existence of the Holy Ghost?

A. Some persons have denied the existence of the Holy Ghost; others have denied that He is a real person equal to the Father and the Son; but all these assertions are shown to be false by the words of Holy Scripture and the infallible teaching of the Church.

Q. 433. What are the sins against the Holy Ghost which Our Lord said will not be forgiven either in this world or in the next?

A. The sins against the Holy Ghost which Our Lord said will not be forgiven either in this world or in the next, are sins committed out of pure malice, and greatly opposed to the mercy of God, and are, therefore, seldom forgiven.

Q. 434. Why did Christ send the Holy Ghost?

A. Christ sent the Holy Ghost to sanctify His Church, to enlighten and strengthen the Apostles, and to enable them to preach the Gospel.

Q. 435. How was the Church sanctified through the coming of the Holy Ghost?

A. The Church was sanctified through the coming of the Holy Ghost by receiving those graces which Christ had merited for His ministers, the bishops and priests, and for the souls of all those committed to their care.

Q. 436. How were the Apostles enlightened through the coming of the Holy Ghost?

A. The Apostles were enlightened through the coming of the Holy Ghost by receiving the grace to remember and understand in its true meaning all that Christ had said and done in their presence.

Q. 437. How were the Apostles strengthened through the coming of the Holy Ghost?

A. The Apostles were strengthened through the coming of the Holy Ghost by receiving the grace to brave every danger, even death itself, in the performance of their sacred duties.

Q. 438. What does "Apostle," and what does "Gospel" mean?

A. "Apostle" means a person sent, and "Gospel" means good tidings or news. Hence the name "Gospel" is given to the inspired history of Our Lord's life and works upon earth.

Q. 439. Name the Apostles.

A. The Apostles were: Peter, Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James, Thaddeus, Simon, and Judas Iscariot, in whose place Mathias was chosen.

Q. 440. Was St. Paul an Apostle?

A. St. Paul was an Apostle, but as he was not called till after the Ascension of Our Lord he is not numbered among the twelve. He is called the Apostle of the Gentiles; that is, of all those who were not of the Jewish religion or members of the Church of the Old Law.

Q. 441. How did St. Paul become an Apostle?

A. While on his way to persecute the Christians St. Paul was miraculously converted and called to be an Apostle by Our Lord Himself, who spoke to him. St. Paul was called Saul before his conversion.

Q. 442. Who were the Evangelists?

A. St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke and St. John are called Evangelists, because they wrote the four Gospels bearing their names, and Evangelia is the Latin name for Gospels. St. Mark and St. Luke were not Apostles, but St. Matthew and St. John were both Apostles and Evangelists.

Q. 443. Why did not the Apostles fully understand when Christ Himself taught them?

A. The Apostles did not fully understand when Christ Himself taught them because during His stay with them on earth they were only preparing to become Apostles; and their minds were yet filled with many worldly thoughts and desires that were to be removed at the coming of the Holy Ghost.

Q. 444. Will the Holy Ghost abide with the Church forever?

A. The Holy Ghost will abide with the Church forever, and guide it in the way of holiness and truth.

Q. 445. What benefit do we derive from the knowledge that the Holy Ghost will abide with the Church forever?

A. From the knowledge that the Holy Ghost will abide with the Church forever we are made certain that the Church can never teach us falsehood, and can never be destroyed by the enemies of Our Faith.

Q. 446. What visible power was given to the Apostles through the coming of the Holy Ghost?

A. Through the coming of the Holy Ghost the Apostles received the "gift of tongues," by which they could be understood in every language, though they preached in only one.

Q. 447. Why did such wonderful gifts accompany confirmation, or the coming of the Holy Ghost, in the first ages of the Church?

A. Such wonderful gifts accompanied Confirmation in the first ages of the Church to prove the power, truth and divine character of Christianity to those who otherwise might not believe, and to draw the attention of all to the establishment of the Christian Church.

Q. 448. Why are these signs not continued everywhere at the present time?

A. These signs are not continued everywhere at the present time, because now that the Church is fully established and its divine character and power proved in other ways, such signs are no longer necessary.

Q. 449. Were such powers as the "gift of tongues" a part of the Sacrament of Confirmation?

A. Such powers as the "gift of tongues" were not a part of the Sacrament of Confirmation, but they were added to it by the Holy Ghost when necessary for the good of the Church.

Tenth Lesson:

On the Effects of the Redemption

 

Q. 450. What is an effect?

A. An effect is that which is caused by something else, as smoke, for example, is an effect of fire.

Q. 451. What does redemption mean?

A. Redemption means the buying back of a thing that was given away or sold.

Q. 452. What did Adam give away by his sin, and what did Our Lord buy back for him and us?

A. By his sin Adam gave away all right to God's promised gifts of grace in this world and of glory in the next, and Our Lord bought back the right that Adam threw away.

Q. 453. Which are the chief effects of the Redemption?

A. The chief effects of the Redemption are two: The satisfaction of God's justice by Christ's sufferings and death, and the gaining of grace for men.

Q. 454. Why do we say "chief effects"?

A. We say "chief effects" to show that these are the most important but not the only effects of the Redemption -- for all the benefits of our holy religion and of its influence upon the world are the effects of the redemption.

Q. 455. Why did God's justice require satisfaction?

A. God's justice required satisfaction because it is infinite and demands reparation for every fault. Man in his state of sin could not make the necessary reparation, so Christ became man and made it for him.

Q. 456. What do you mean by grace?

A. By grace I mean a supernatural gift of God bestowed on us, through the merits of Jesus Christ, for our salvation.

Q. 457. What does "supernatural" mean?

A. Supernatural means above or greater than nature. All gifts such as health, learning or the comforts of life, that affect our happiness chiefly in this world, are called natural gifts, and all gifts such as blessings that affect our happiness chiefly in the next world are called supernatural or spiritual gifts.

Q. 458. What do you mean by "merit"?

A. Merit means the quality of deserving well or ill for our actions. In the question above it means a right to reward for good deeds done.

Q. 459. How many kinds of grace are there?

A. There are two kinds of grace, sanctifying grace and actual grace.

Q. 460. What is the difference between sanctifying grace and actual grace?

A. Sanctifying grace remains with us as long as we are not guilty of mortal sin; and hence, it is often called habitual grace; but actual grace comes to us only when we need its help in doing or avoiding an action, and it remains with us only while we are doing or avoiding the action.

Q. 461. What is sanctifying grace?

A. Sanctifying grace is that grace which makes the soul holy and pleasing to God.

Q. 462. What do you call those graces or gifts of God by which we believe in Him, hope in Him, and love Him?

A. Those graces or gifts of God by which we believe in Him, and hope in Him, and love Him, are called the Divine virtues of Faith, Hope, and Charity.

Q. 463. What do you mean by virtue and vice?

A. Virtue is the habit of doing good, and vice is the habit of doing evil. An act, good or bad, does not form a habit; and hence, a virtue or a vice is the result of repeated acts of the same kind.

Q. 464. Does habit excuse us from the sins committed through it?

A. Habit does not excuse us from the sins committed through it, but rather makes us more guilty by showing how often we must have committed the sin to acquire the habit. If, however, we are seriously trying to overcome a bad habit, and through forgetfulness yield to it, the habit may sometimes excuse us from the sin.

Q. 465. What is Faith?

A. Faith is a Divine virtue by which we firmly believe the truths which God has revealed.

Q. 466. What is Hope?

A. Hope is a Divine virtue by which we firmly trust that God will give us eternal life and the means to obtain it.

Q. 467. What is Charity?

A. Charity is a Divine virtue by which we love God above all things for His own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God.

Q. 468. Why are Faith, Hope and Charity called virtues?

A. Faith, Hope and Charity are called virtues because they are not mere acts, but habits by which we always and in all things believe God, hope in Him, and love Him.

Q. 469. What kind of virtues are Faith, Hope and Charity?

A. Faith, Hope and Charity are called infused theological virtues to distinguish them from the four moral virtues -- Prudence, Justice, Fortitude and Temperance.

Q. 470. Why do we say the three theological virtues are infused and the four moral virtues acquired?

A. We say the three theological virtues are infused; that is, poured into our souls, because they are strictly gifts of God and do not depend upon our efforts to obtain them, while the four moral virtues -- Prudence, Justice, Fortitude and Temperance -- though also gifts of God, may, as natural virtues, be acquired by our own efforts.

Q. 471. Why do we believe God, hope in Him, and love Him?

A. We believe God and hope in Him because He is infinitely true and cannot deceive us. We love Him because He is infinitely good and beautiful and worthy of all love.

Q. 472. What mortal sins are opposed to Faith?

A. Atheism, which is a denial of all revealed truths, and heresy, which is a denial of some revealed truths, and superstition, which is a misuse of religion, are opposed to Faith.

Q. 473. Who is our neighbor?

A. Every human being capable of salvation of every age, country, race or condition, especially if he needs our help, is our neighbor in the sense of the Catechism.

Q. 474. Why should we love our neighbor?

A. We should love our neighbor because he is a child of God, redeemed by Jesus Christ, and because he is our brother created to dwell in heaven with us.

Q. 475. What is actual grace?

A. Actual grace is that help of God which enlightens our mind and moves our will to shun evil and do good.

Q. 476. Is grace necessary to salvation?

A. Grace is necessary to salvation, because without grace we can do nothing to merit heaven.

Q. 477. Can we resist the grace of God?

A. We can, and unfortunately often do, resist the grace of God.

Q. 478. Is it a sin knowingly to resist the grace of God?

A. It is a sin, knowingly, to resist the grace of God, because we thereby insult Him and reject His gifts without which we cannot be saved.

Q. 479. Does God give His grace to every one?

A. God gives to everyone He creates sufficient grace to save his soul; and if persons do not save their souls, it is because they have not used the grace given.

Q. 480. What is the grace of perseverance?

A. The grace of perseverance is a particular gift of God which enables us to continue in the state of grace till death.

Q. 481. Can we merit the grace of final perseverance or know when we possess it?

A. We cannot merit the grace of final perseverance, or know when we possess it, because it depends entirely upon God's mercy and not upon our actions. To imagine we possess it would lead us into the sin of presumption.

Q. 482. Can a person merit any supernatural reward for good deeds performed while he is in mortal sin?

A. A person cannot merit any supernatural reward for good deeds performed while he is in mortal sin; nevertheless, God rewards such good deeds by giving the grace of repentance; and, therefore, all persons, even those in mortal sin, should ever strive to do good.

Q. 483. Does God reward anything but our good works?

A. God rewards our good intention and desire to serve Him, even when our works are not successful. We should make this good intention often during the day, and especially in the morning.

Eleventh Lesson:

On the Church

 

Q. 484. How was the true religion preserved from Adam till the coming of Christ?

A. The true religion was preserved from Adam till the coming of Christ by the patriarchs, prophets and other holy men whom God appointed and inspired to teach His Will and Revelations to the people, and to remind them of the promised Redeemer.

Q. 485. Who were the prophets, and what was their chief duty?

A. The prophets were men to whom God gave a knowledge of future events connected with religion, that they might foretell them to His people and thus give proof that the message came from God. Their chief duty was to foretell the time, place and circumstances of Our Savior's coming into the world, that men might know when and where to look for Him, and might recognize Him when He came.

Q. 486. How could they be saved who lived before Christ became man?

A. They who lived before Christ became man could be saved by belief in the Redeemer to come and by keeping the Commandments of God.

Q. 487. Was the true religion universal before the coming of Christ?

A. The true religion was not universal before the coming of Christ. It was confined to one people -- the descendants of Abraham. All other nations worshipped false gods.

Q. 488. Which are the means instituted by Our Lord to enable men at all times to share in the fruits of the Redemption?

A. The means instituted by Our Lord to enable men at all times to share in the fruits of His Redemption are the Church and the Sacraments.

Q. 489. What is the Church?

A. The Church is the congregation of all those who profess the faith of Christ, partake of the same Sacraments, and are governed by their lawful pastors under one visible Head.

Q. 490. How may the members of the Church on earth be divided?

A. The members of the Church on earth may be divided into those who teach and those who are taught. Those who teach, namely, the Pope, bishops and priests, are called the Teaching Church, or simply the Church. Those who are taught are called the Believing Church, or simply the faithful.

Q. 491. What is the duty of the Teaching Church?

A. The duty of the Teaching Church is to continue the work Our Lord began upon earth, namely, to teach revealed truth, to administer the Sacraments and to labor for the salvation of souls.

Q. 492. What is the duty of the faithful?

A. The duty of the faithful is to learn the revealed truths taught; to receive the Sacraments, and to aid in saving souls by their prayers, good works and alms.

Q. 493. What do you mean by "profess the faith of Christ"?

A. By "profess the faith of Christ" we mean, believe all the truths and practice the religion He has taught.

Q. 494. What do we mean by "lawful pastors"?

A. By "lawful pastors" we mean those in the Church who have been appointed by lawful authority and who have, therefore, a right to rule us. The lawful pastors in the Church are: Every priest in his own parish; every bishop in his own diocese, and the Pope in the whole Church.

Q. 495. Who is the invisible Head of the Church?

A. Jesus Christ is the invisible Head of the Church.

Q. 496. Who is the visible Head of the Church?

A. Our Holy Father the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is the Vicar of Christ on earth and the visible Head of the Church.

Q. 497. What does "vicar" mean?

A. Vicar is a name used in the Church to designate a person who acts in the name and authority of another. Thus a Vicar Apostolic is one who acts in the name of the Pope, and a Vicar General is one who acts in the name of the bishop.

Q. 498. Could any one be Pope without being Bishop of Rome?

A. One could not be Pope without being Bishop of Rome, and whoever is elected Pope must give up his title to any other diocese and take the title of Bishop of Rome.

Q. 499. Why is the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, the visible Head of the Church?

A. The Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is the visible Head of the Church because he is the successor of St. Peter, whom Christ made the chief of the Apostles and the visible Head of the Church.

Q. 500. Why are Catholics called "Roman"?

A. Catholics are called Roman to show that they are in union with the true Church founded by Christ and governed by the Apostles under the direction of St. Peter, by divine appointment the Chief of the Apostles, who founded the Church of Rome and was its first bishop.

Q. 501. By what name is a bishop's diocese sometimes called?

A. A bishop's diocese is sometimes called his see. The diocese of Rome, on account of its authority and dignity, is called the Holy See, and its bishop is called the Holy Father or Pope. Pope means father.

Q. 502. What do we call the right by which St. Peter or his successor has always been the head of the Church and of all its bishops?

A. We call the right by which St. Peter or his successor has always been the head of the Church, and of all its bishops, the Primacy of St. Peter or of the Pope. Primacy means holding first place.

Q. 503. How is it shown that St. Peter or his successor has always been the head of the Church?

A. It is shown that St. Peter or his successor has always been the head of the Church: (1) From the words of Holy Scripture, which tell how Christ appointed Peter Chief of the Apostles and head of the Church. (2) From the history of the Church, which shows that Peter and his successors have always acted and have always been recognized as the head of the Church.

Q. 504. How do we know that the rights and privileges bestowed on St. Peter were given also to his successors -- the Popes?

A. We know that the rights and privileges bestowed on St. Peter were given also to his successors, the Popes, because the promises made to St. Peter by Our Lord were to be fulfilled in the Church till the end of time, and as Peter was not to live till the end of time, they are fulfilled in his successors.

Q. 505. Did St. Peter establish any Church before he came to Rome?

A. Before he came to Rome, St. Peter established a Church at Antioch and ruled over it for several years.

Q. 506. Who are the successors of the other Apostles?

A. The successors of the other Apostles are the Bishops of the Holy Catholic Church.

Q. 507. How do we know that the bishops of the Church are the successors of the Apostles?

A. We know that the bishops of the Church are the successors of the Apostles because they continue the work of the Apostles and give proof of the same authority. They have always exercised the rights and powers that belonged to the Apostles in making laws for the Church, in consecrating bishops and ordaining priests.

Q. 508. Why did Christ found the Church?

A. Christ founded the Church to teach, govern, sanctify, and save all men.

Q. 509. Are all bound to belong to the Church?

A. All are bound to belong to the Church, and he who knows the Church to be the true Church and remains out of it cannot be saved.

Q. 510. Is it ever possible for one to be saved who does not know the Catholic Church to be the true Church?

A. It is possible for one to be saved who does not know the Catholic Church to be the true Church, provided that person:
   1. Has been validly baptized;
   2. Firmly believes the religion he professes and practices to be the true religion, and
   3. Dies without the guilt of mortal sin on his soul.

Q. 511. Why do we say it is only possible for a person to be saved who does not know the Catholic Church to be the true Church?

A. We say it is only possible for a person to be saved who does not know the Catholic Church to be the true Church, because the necessary conditions are not often found, especially that of dying in a state of grace without making use of the Sacrament of Penance.

Q. 512. How are such persons said to belong to the Church?

A. Such persons are said to belong to the "soul of the church", that is, they are really members of the Church without knowing it. Those who share in its Sacraments and worship are said to belong to the body or visible part of the Church.

Q. 513. Why must the true Church be visible?

A. The true Church must be visible because its founder, Jesus Christ, commanded us under pain of condemnation to hear the Church; and He could not in justice command us to hear a Church that could not be seen and known.

Q. 514. What excuses do some give for not becoming members of the true Church?

A. The excuses some give for not becoming members of the true church are:
   1. They do not wish to leave the religion in which they were born.
   2. There are too many poor and ignorant people in the Catholic Church.
   3. One religion is as good as another if we try to serve God in it, and be upright and honest in our lives.

Q. 515. How do you answer such excuses?

A.
   1. To say that we should remain in a false religion because we were born in it is as untrue as to say we should not heal our bodily diseases because we were born with them.
   2. To say there are too many poor and ignorant in the Catholic Church is to declare that it is Christ's Church; for He always taught the poor and ignorant and instructed His Church to continue the work.
   3. To say that one religion is as good as another is to assert that Christ labored uselessly and taught falsely; for He came to abolish the old religion and found the new in which alone we can be saved as He Himself declared.

Q. 516. Why can there be only one true religion?

A. There can be only one true religion, because a thing cannot be false and true at the same time, and, therefore, all religions that contradict the teaching of the true Church must teach falsehood. If all religions in which men seek to serve God are equally good and true, why did Christ disturb the Jewish religion and the Apostles condemn heretics?

  Twelfth Lesson:

On the Attributes and Marks of the Church

 

Q. 517. What is an attribute?

A. An attribute is any characteristic or quality that a person or thing may be said to have. All perfections or imperfections are attributes .

Q. 518. What is a mark?

A. A mark is a given and known sign by which a thing can be distinguished from all others of its kind. Thus a trademark is used to distinguish the article bearing it from all imitations of the same article.

Q. 519. How do we know that the Church must have the four marks and three attributes usually ascribed or given to it?

A. We know that the Church must have the four marks and three attributes usually ascribed or given to it from the words of Christ given in the Holy Scripture and in the teaching of the Church from its beginning.

Q. 520. Can the Church have the four marks without the three attributes?

A. The Church cannot have the four marks without the three attributes, because the three attributes necessarily come with the marks and without them the marks could not exist.

Q. 521. Why are both marks and attributes necessary in the Church?

A. Both marks and attributes are necessary in the Church, for the marks teach us its external or visible qualities, while the attributes teach us its internal or invisible qualities. It is easier to discover the marks than the attributes; for it is easier to see that the Church is one than that it is infallible.

Q. 522. Which are the attributes of the Church?

A. The attributes of the Church are three: 1.authority, infallibility, and indefectibility.

Q. 523. What is authority?

A. Authority is the power which one person has over another so as to be able to justly exact obedience. Rulers have authority over their subjects, parents over their children, and teachers over their scholars.

Q. 524. From whom must all persons derive whatever lawful authority they possess?

A. All persons must derive whatever lawful authority they possess from God Himself, from whom they receive it directly or indirectly. Therefore, to disobey our lawful superiors is to disobey God Himself, and hence such disobedience is always sinful.

Q. 525. What do you mean by the authority of the Church?

A. By the authority of the Church I mean the right and power which the Pope and the Bishops, as the successors of the Apostles, have to teach and to govern the faithful.

Q. 526. What do you mean by the infallibility of the Church?

A. By the infallibility of the Church I mean that the Church can not err when it teaches a doctrine of faith or morals.

Q. 527. What do we mean by a "doctrine of faith or morals"?

A. By a doctrine of faith or morals we mean the revealed teaching that refers to whatever we must believe and do in order to be saved.

Q. 528. How do you know that the Church can not err?

A. I know that the Church can not err because Christ promised that the Holy Ghost would remain with it forever and save it from error. If, therefore, the Church has erred, the Holy Ghost must have abandoned it and Christ has failed to keep His promise, which is a thing impossible.

Q. 529. Since the Church can not err, could it ever be reformed in its teaching of faith or morals?

A. Since the Church can not err, it could never be reformed in its teaching of faith or morals. Those who say the Church needed reformation in faith or morals accuse Our Lord of falsehood and deception.

Q. 530. When does the Church teach infallibly?

A. The Church teaches infallibly when it speaks through the Pope and Bishops united in general council, or through the Pope alone when he proclaims to all the faithful a doctrine of faith or morals.

Q. 531. What is necessary that the Pope may speak infallibly or ex-cathedra?

A. That the Pope may speak infallibly, or ex-cathedra:
   1. He must speak on a subject of faith or morals;
   2. He must speak as the Vicar of Christ and to the whole Church;
   3. He must indicate by certain words, such as, we define, we proclaim, etc., that he intends to speak infallibly.

Q. 532. Is the Pope infallible in everything he says and does?

A. The Pope is not infallible in everything he says and does, because the Holy Ghost was not promised to make him infallible in everything, but only in matters of faith and morals for the whole Church. Nevertheless, the Pope's opinion on any subject deserves our greatest respect on account of his learning, experience and dignity.

Q. 533. Can the Pope commit sin?

A. The Pope can commit sin and he must seek forgiveness in the Sacrament of Penance as others do. Infallibility does not prevent him from sinning, but from teaching falsehood when he speaks ex-cathedra.

Q. 534. What does ex-cathedra mean?

A. "Cathedra" means a seat, and "ex" means out of. Therefore, ex-cathedra means speaking from the seat or official place held by St. Peter and his successors as the head of the whole Church.

Q. 535. Why is the chief Church in a diocese called a Cathedral?

A. The chief Church in a diocese is called a Cathedral because the bishop's cathedra, that is, his seat or throne, is erected in it, and because he celebrates all important feasts and performs all his special duties in it.

Q. 536. How many Popes have governed the Church from St. Peter to Pius XI.?

A. From St. Peter to Pius XI., 261 Popes have governed the Church; and many of them have been remarkable for their zeal, prudence, learning and sanctity.

Q. 537. What does anti-pope mean, and who were the anti-popes?

A. Anti-pope means a pretended pope. The anti-popes were men who by the aid of faithless Christians or others unlawfully seized and claimed the papal power while the lawful pope was in prison or exile.

Q. 538. Why must the Pope sometimes warn us on political and other matters?

A. The Pope must sometimes warn us on political and other matters, because whatever nations or men do is either good or bad, just or unjust, and wherever the Pope discovers falsehood, wickedness or injustice he must speak against it and defend the truths of faith and morals. He must protect also the temporal rights and property of the Church committed to his care.

Q. 539. What do we mean by the "temporal power" of the Pope?

A. By the temporal power of the Pope we mean the right which the Pope has as a temporal or ordinary ruler to govern the states and manage the properties that have rightfully come into the possession of the Church.

Q. 540. How did the Pope acquire and how was he deprived of the temporal power?

A. The Pope acquired the temporal power in a just manner by the consent of those who had a right to bestow it. He was deprived of it in an unjust manner by political changes.

Q. 541. How was the temporal power useful to the Church?

A. The temporal power was useful to the Church:
   1. Because it gave the Pope the complete independence necessary for the government of the Church and for the defense of truth and virtue.
   2. It enabled him to do much for the spread of the true religion by giving alms for the establishment and support of Churches and schools in poor or pagan countries.

Q. 542. What name do we give to the offerings made yearly by the faithful for the support of the Pope and the government of the Church?

A. We call the offerings made yearly by the faithful for the support of the Pope and government of the Church "Peter's pence." It derives its name from the early custom of sending yearly a penny from every house to the successor of St. Peter, as a mark of respect or as an alms for some charity.

Q. 543. What do you mean by the indefectibility of the Church?

A. By the indefectibility of the Church I mean that the Church, as Christ founded it, will last till the end of time.

Q. 544. What is the difference between the infallibility and indefectibility of the Church?

A. When we say the Church is infallible we mean that it can never teach error while it lasts; but when we say the Church is indefectible, we mean that it will last forever and be infallible forever; that it will always remain as Our Lord founded it and never change the doctrines He taught.

Q. 545. Did Our Lord Himself make all the laws of the Church?

A. Our Lord Himself did not make all the laws of the Church. He gave the Church also power to make laws to suit the needs of the times, places or persons as it judged necessary.

Q. 546. Can the Church change its laws?

A. The Church can, when necessary, change the laws it has itself made, but it cannot change the laws that Christ has made. Neither can the Church change any doctrine of faith or morals.

Q. 547. In whom are these attributes found in their fullness?

A. These attributes are found in their fullness in the Pope, the visible Head of the Church, whose infallible authority to teach bishops, priests, and people in matters of faith or morals will last to the end of the world.

Q. 548. Has the Church any marks by which it may be known?

A. The Church has four marks by which it may be known: it is One; it is Holy; it is Catholic; it is Apostolic.

Q. 549. How is the Church One?

A. The Church is One because all its members agree in one faith, are all in one communion, and are all under one head.

Q. 550. How is it evident that the Church is one in government?

A. It is evident that the Church is one in government, for the faithful in a parish are subject to their pastors, the pastors are subject to the bishops of their dioceses, and the bishops of the world are subject to the Pope.

Q. 551. What is meant by the Hierarchy of the Church?

A. By the Hierarchy of the Church is meant the sacred body of clerical rules who govern the Church.

Q. 552. How is it evident that the Church is one in worship?

A. It is evident that the Church is one in worship because all its members make use of the same sacrifice and receive the same Sacraments.

Q. 553. How is it evident that the Church is one in faith?

A. It is evident the Church is one in faith because all Catholics throughout the world believe each and every article of faith proposed by the Church.

Q. 554. Could a person who denies only one article of our faith be a Catholic?

A. A person who denies even one article of our faith could not be a Catholic; for truth is one and we must accept it whole and entire or not at all.

Q. 555. Are there any pious beliefs and practices in the Church that are not articles of faith?

A. There are many pious beliefs and practices in the Church that are not articles of faith; that is, we are not bound under pain of sin to believe in them; yet we will often find them useful aids to holiness, and hence they are recommended by our pastors.

Q. 556. Of what sin are persons guilty who put firm belief in religious or other practices that are either forbidden or useless?

A. Persons who put a firm belief in religious or other practices that are forbidden or useless are guilty of the sin of superstition.

Q. 557. Where does the Church find the revealed truths it is bound to teach?

A. The Church finds the revealed truths it is bound to teach in the Holy Scripture and revealed traditions.

Q. 558. What is the Holy Scripture or Bible?

A. The Holy Scripture or Bible is the collection of sacred, inspired writings through which God has made known to us many revealed truths. Some call them letters from Heaven to earth, that is, from God to man.

Q. 559. What is meant by the Canon of the Sacred Scriptures?

A. The Canon of Sacred Scriptures means the list the Church has prepared to teach us what sacred writings are Holy Scripture and contain the inspired word of God.

Q. 560. Where does the Church find the revealed traditions?

A. The Church finds the revealed traditions in the decrees of its councils; in its books of worship; in its paintings and inscriptions on tombs and monuments; in the lives of its Saints; the writings of its Fathers, and in its own history.

Q. 561. Must we ourselves seek in the Scriptures and traditions for what we are to believe?

A. We ourselves need not seek in the Scriptures and traditions for what we are to believe. God has appointed the Church to be our guide to salvation and we must accept its teaching us our infallible rule of faith.

Q. 562. How do we show that the Holy Scriptures alone could not be our guide to salvation and infallible rule of faith?

A. We show that the Holy Scripture alone could not be our guide to salvation and infallible rule of faith:
   1. Because all men cannot examine or understand the Holy Scripture; but all can listen to the teaching of the Church;
   2. Because the New Testament or Christian part of the Scripture was not written at the beginning of the Church's existence, and, therefore, could not have been used as the rule of faith by the first Christians;
   3. Because there are many things in the Holy Scripture that cannot be understood without the explanation given by tradition, and hence those who take the Scripture alone for their rule of faith are constantly disputing about its meaning and what they are to believe.

Q. 563. How is the Church Holy?

A. The Church is Holy because its founder, Jesus Christ, is holy; because it teaches a holy doctrine; invites all to a holy life; and because of the eminent holiness of so many thousands of its children.

Q. 564. How is the Church Catholic or universal?

A. The Church is Catholic or universal because it subsists in all ages, teaches all nations, and maintains all truth.

Q. 565. How do you show that the Catholic Church is universal in time, in place, and in doctrine?

A.
   1. The Catholic Church is universal in time, for from the time of the Apostles to the present it has existed, taught and labored in every age;
   2. It is universal in place, for it has taught throughout the whole world;
   3. It is universal in doctrine, for it teaches the same everywhere, and its doctrines are suited to all classes of persons. It has converted all the pagan nations that have ever been converted.

Q. 566. Why does the Church use the Latin language instead of the national language of its children?

A. The Church uses the Latin language instead of the national language of its children:
   1. To avoid the danger of changing any part of its teaching in using different languages;
   2. That all its rulers may be perfectly united and understood in their communications;
   3. To show that the Church is not an institute of any particular nation, but the guide of all nations.

Q. 567. How is the Church Apostolic?

A. The Church is Apostolic because it was founded by Christ on His Apostles, and is governed by their lawful successors, and because it has never ceased, and never will cease, to teach their doctrine.

Q. 568. Does the Church, by defining certain truths, thereby make new doctrines?

A. The Church, by defining, that is, by proclaiming certain truths, articles of faith, does not make new doctrines, but simply teaches more clearly and with greater effort truths that have always been believed and held by the Church.

Q. 569. What, then, is the use of defining or declaring a truth an article of faith if it has always been believed?

A. The use of defining or declaring a truth an article of faith, even when it has always been believed, is: (1) To clearly contradict those who deny it and show their teaching false; (2) To remove all doubt about the exact teaching of the Church, and to put an end to all discussion about the truth defined.

Q. 570. In which Church are these attributes and marks found?

A. These attributes and marks are found in the Holy Roman Catholic Church alone.

Q. 571. How do you show that Protestant Churches have not the marks of the true Church?

A. Protestant Churches have not the marks of the true Church, because:
   1. They are not one either in government or faith; for they have no chief head, and they profess different beliefs;
   2. They are not holy, because their doctrines are founded on error and lead to evil consequences;
   3. They are not catholic or universal in time, place or doctrine. They have not existed in all ages nor in all places, and their doctrines do not suit all classes;
   4. They are not apostolic, for they were not established for hundreds of years after the Apostles, and they do not teach the doctrines of the Apostles.

Q. 572. From whom does the Church derive its undying life and infallible authority?

A. The Church derives its undying life and infallible authority from the Holy Ghost, the spirit of truth, who abides with it forever.

Q. 573. By whom is the Church made and kept One, Holy, and Catholic?

A. The Church is made and kept One, Holy, and Catholic by the Holy Ghost, the spirit of love and holiness, who unites and sanctifies its members throughout the world.

Thirteenth Lesson:

On the Sacraments in General

 

Q. 574. What is a Sacrament?

A. A Sacrament is an outward sign instituted by Christ to give grace.

Q. 575. Are these three things, namely: An outward or visible sign, the institution of that sign by Christ, and the giving of grace through the use of that sign, always necessary for the existence of a Sacrament?

A. These three things, namely: 1.An outward or visible sign, the institution of that sign by Christ, and the giving of grace through the use of that sign, are always necessary for the existence of a Sacrament, and if any of the three be wanting there can be no Sacrament.

Q. 576. Why does the Church use numerous ceremonies or actions in applying the outward signs of the Sacraments?

A. The Church uses numerous ceremonies or actions in applying the outward signs of the Sacraments to increase our reverence and devotion for the Sacraments, and to explain their meaning and effects.

Q. 577. How many Sacraments are there?

A. There are seven Sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony.

Q. 578. Were all the Sacraments instituted by Our Lord?

A. All the Sacraments were instituted by Our Lord, for God alone has power to attach the gift of grace to the use of an outward or visible sign. The Church, however, can institute the ceremonies to be used in administering or giving the Sacraments.

Q. 579. How do we know there are seven Sacraments and no more or less?

A. We know there are seven Sacraments and no more or less because the Church always taught that truth. The number of the Sacraments is a matter of faith, and the Church cannot be mistaken in matters of faith.

Q. 580. Why have the Sacraments been instituted?

A. The Sacraments have been instituted as a special means through which we are to receive the grace merited for us by Christ. As Christ is the giver of the grace, He has the right to determine the manner in which it shall be given, and one who refuses to make use of the Sacraments will not receive God's grace.

Q. 581. Do the Sacraments recall in any way the means by which Our Lord merited the graces we receive through them?

A. The Sacraments recall in many ways the means by which Our Lord merited the graces we receive through them. Baptism recalls His profound humility; Confirmation His ceaseless prayer; Holy Eucharist His care of the needy; Penance His mortified life; Extreme Unction His model death; Holy Orders His establishment of the priesthood, and Matrimony His close union with the Church.

Q. 582. Give, for example, the outward sign in Baptism and Confirmation.

A. The outward sign in Baptism is the pouring of the water and the saying of the words of Baptism. The outward sign in Confirmation is the anointing with oil, the saying of the words of Confirmation and the placing of the bishop's hands over the person he confirms.

Q. 583. What is the use of the outward signs in the Sacraments?

A. Without the outward signs in the Sacraments we could not know when or with what effect the grace of the Sacraments enters into our souls.

Q. 584. Does the outward sign merely indicate that grace has been given, or does the use of the outward sign with the proper intention also give the grace of the Sacrament?

A. The outward sign is not used merely to indicate that grace has been given, for the use of the outward sign with the proper intention also gives the grace of the Sacrament. Hence the right application of the outward sign is always followed by the gift of internal grace if the Sacrament be administered with the right intention and received with the right dispositions.

Q. 585. What do we mean by the "right intention" for the administration of the Sacraments?

A. By the right intention for the administration of the Sacraments we mean that whoever administers a Sacrament must have the intention of doing what Christ intended when He instituted the Sacrament and what the Church intends when it administers the Sacrament.

Q. 586. Is there any likeness between the thing used in the outward sign and the grace given in each Sacrament? A. There is a great likeness between the thing used in the outward sign and the grace given in each Sacrament; thus water is used for cleansing; Baptism cleanses the soul; Oil gives strength and light; Confirmation strengthens and enlightens the soul; Bread and wine nourish; the Holy Eucharist nourishes the soul.

Q. 587. What do we mean by the "matter and form" of the Sacraments?

A. By the "matter" of the Sacraments we mean the visible things, such as water, oil, bread, wine, etc., used for the Sacraments. By the "form" we mean the words, such as "I baptize thee," "I confirm thee," etc., used in giving or administering the Sacraments.

Q. 588. Do the needs of the soul resemble the needs of the body?

A. The needs of the soul do resemble the needs of the body; for the body must be born, strengthened, nourished, healed in affliction, helped at the hour of death, guided by authority, and given a place in which to dwell. The soul is brought into spiritual life by Baptism; it is strengthened by Confirmation; nourished by the Holy Eucharist; healed by Penance; helped at the hour of our death by Extreme Unction; guided by God's ministers through the Sacrament of Holy Orders, and it is given a body in which to dwell by the Sacrament of Matrimony.

Q. 589. Whence have the Sacraments the power of giving grace?

A. The Sacraments have the power of giving grace from the merits of Jesus Christ.

Q. 590. Does the effect of the Sacraments depend on the worthiness or unworthiness of the one who administers them?

A. The effect of the Sacraments does not depend on the worthiness or unworthiness of the one who administers them, but on the merits of Jesus Christ, who instituted them, and on the worthy dispositions of those who receive them.

Q. 591. What grace do the Sacraments give?

A. Some of the Sacraments give sanctifying grace, and others increase it in our souls.

Q. 592. When is a Sacrament said to give, and when is it said to increase, grace in our souls?

A. A Sacrament is said to give grace when there is no grace whatever in the soul, or in other words, when the soul is in mortal sin. A Sacrament is said to increase grace when there is already grace in the soul, to which more is added by the Sacrament received.

Q. 593. Which are the Sacraments that give sanctifying grace?

A. The Sacraments that give sanctifying grace are Baptism and Penance; and they are called Sacraments of the dead.

Q. 594. Why are Baptism and Penance called Sacraments of the dead?

A. Baptism and Penance are called Sacraments of the dead because they take away sin, which is the death of the soul, and give grace, which is its life.

Q. 595. May not the Sacrament of Penance be received by one who is in a state of grace?

A. The Sacrament of Penance may be and very often is received by one who is in a state of grace, and when thus received it increases -- as the Sacraments of the living do -- the grace already in the soul.

Q. 596. Which are the Sacraments that increase sanctifying grace in our soul?

A. The Sacraments that increase sanctifying grace in our souls are: Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony; and they are called Sacraments of the living.

Q. 597. What do we mean by Sacraments of the dead and Sacraments of the living?

A. By the Sacraments of the dead we mean those Sacraments that may be lawfully received while the soul is in a state of mortal sin. By the Sacraments of the living we mean those Sacraments that can be lawfully received only while the soul is in a state of grace -- i.e., free from mortal sin. Living and dead do not refer here to the persons, but to the condition of the souls; for none of the Sacraments can be given to a dead person.

Q. 598. Why are Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony called Sacraments of the living?

A. Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony are called Sacraments of the living because those who receive them worthily are already living the life of grace.

Q. 599. What sin does he commit who receives the Sacraments of the living in mortal sin?

A. He who receives the Sacraments of the living in mortal sin commits a sacrilege, which is a great sin, because it is an abuse of a sacred thing.

Q. 600. In what other ways besides the unworthy reception of the Sacraments may persons commit sacrilege?

A. Besides the unworthy reception of the Sacraments, persons may commit sacrilege by the abuse of a sacred person, place or thing; for example, by willfully wounding a person consecrated to God; by robbing or destroying a Church; by using the sacred vessels of the Altar for unlawful purposes, etc.

Q. 601. Besides sanctifying grace do the Sacraments give any other grace?

A. Besides sanctifying grace the Sacraments give another grace, called sacramental grace.

Q. 602. What is sacramental grace?

A. Sacramental grace is a special help which God gives, to attain the end for which He instituted each Sacrament.

Q. 603. Is the Sacramental grace independent of the sanctifying grace given in the Sacraments?

A. The Sacramental grace is not independent of the sanctifying grace given in the Sacraments; for it is the sanctifying grace that gives us a certain right to special helps -- called Sacramental grace -- in each Sacrament, as often as we have to fulfill the end of the Sacrament or are tempted against it.

Q. 604. Give an example of how the Sacramental grace aids us, for instance, in Confirmation and Penance.

A. The end of Confirmation is to strengthen us in our faith. When we are tempted to deny our religion by word or deed, the Sacramental Grace of Confirmation is given to us and helps us to cling to our faith and firmly profess it. The end of Penance is to destroy actual sin. When we are tempted to sin, the Sacramental Grace of Penance is given to us and helps us to overcome the temptation and persevere in a state of grace. The sacramental grace in each of the other Sacraments is given in the same manner, and aids us in attaining the end for which each Sacrament was instituted and for which we receive it.

Q. 605. Do the Sacraments always give grace?

A. The Sacraments always give grace, if we receive them with the right dispositions.

Q. 606. What do we mean by the "right dispositions" for the reception of the Sacraments?

A. By the right dispositions for the reception of the Sacraments we mean the proper motives and the fulfillment of all the conditions required by God and the Church for the worthy reception of the Sacraments.

Q. 607. Give an example of the "right dispositions" for Penance and for the Holy Eucharist.

A. The right dispositions for Penance are:
   1. To confess all our mortal sins as we know them;
   2. To be sorry for them, and
   3. To have the determination never to commit them or others again.

The right dispositions for the Holy Eucharist are:
   1. To know what the Holy Eucharist is;
   2. To be in a state of grace, and
   3. -- except in special cases of sickness -- to be fasting from midnight.

Q. 608. Can we receive the Sacraments more than once?

A. We can receive the Sacraments more than once, except Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders.

Q. 609. Why can we not receive Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders more than once?

A. We cannot receive Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders more than once, because they imprint a character in the soul.

Q. 610. What is the character which these Sacraments imprint in the soul?

A. The character which these Sacraments imprint in the soul is a spiritual mark which remains forever.

Q. 611. Does this character remain in the soul even after death?

A. This character remains in the soul even after death; for the honor and glory of those who are saved; for the shame and punishment of those who are lost.

Q. 612. Can the Sacraments be given conditionally?

A. The Sacraments can be given conditionally as often as we doubt whether they were properly given before, or whether they can be validly given now.

Q. 613. What do we mean by giving a Sacrament conditionally?

A. By giving a Sacrament conditionally we mean that the person administering the Sacrament intends to give it only in case it has not been given already or in case the person has the right dispositions for receiving it, though the dispositions cannot be discovered.

Q. 614. Give an example of how a Sacrament is given conditionally.

A. In giving Baptism, for instance, conditionally -- or what we call conditional Baptism -- the priest, instead of saying absolutely, as he does in ordinary Baptism: "I baptize thee," etc., says: "If you are not already baptized, or if you are capable of being baptized, I baptize thee," etc., thus stating the sole condition on which he intends to administer the Sacrament.

Q. 615. Which of the Sacraments are most frequently given conditionally?

A. The Sacraments most frequently given conditionally are Baptism, Penance and Extreme Unction; because in some cases it is difficult to ascertain whether these Sacraments have been given before or whether they have been validly given, or whether the person about to receive them has the right dispositions for them.

Q. 616. Name some of the more common circumstances in which a priest is obliged to administer the Sacraments conditionally.

A. Some of the more common circumstances in which a priest is obliged to administer the Sacraments conditionally are:
   1. When he receives converts into the Church and is not certain of their previous baptism, he must baptize them conditionally.
   2. When he is called -- as in cases of accident or sudden illness -- and doubts whether the person be alive or dead, or whether he should be given the Sacraments, he must give absolution and administer Extreme Unction conditionally.

Q. 617. What is the use and effect of giving the Sacraments conditionally?

A. The use of giving the Sacraments conditionally is that there may be no irreverence to the Sacraments in giving them to persons incapable or unworthy of receiving them; and yet that no one who is capable or worthy may be deprived of them. The effect is to supply the Sacrament where it is needed or can be given, and to withhold it where it is not needed or cannot be given.

Q. 618. What is the difference between the powers of a bishop and of a priest with regard to the administration of the Sacraments?

A. The difference between the powers of a bishop and of a priest with regard to the administration of the Sacraments is that a bishop can give all the Sacraments, while a priest cannot give Confirmation or Holy Orders.

Q. 619. Can a person receive all the Sacraments?

A. A person cannot, as a rule, receive all the Sacraments; for a woman cannot receive Holy Orders, and a man who receives priesthood is forbidden to receive the Sacrament of Matrimony.

Fourteenth Lesson:

On Baptism

 

Q. 620. When was baptism instituted?

A. Baptism was instituted, very probably, about the time Our Lord was baptized by St. John, and its reception was commanded when after His resurrection Our Lord said to His Apostles: "All power is given to Me in heaven and in earth. Going, therefore, teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."

Q. 621. What is Baptism?

A. Baptism is a Sacrament which cleanses us from original sin, makes us Christians, children of God, and heirs of heaven.

Q. 622. What were persons called in the first ages of the Church who were being instructed and prepared for baptism?

A. Persons who were being instructed and prepared for baptism, in the first ages of the Church, were called catechumens, and they are frequently mentioned in Church history.

Q. 623. What persons are called heirs?

A. All persons who inherit or come lawfully into the possession of property or goods at the death of another, are called heirs.

Q. 624. Why, then, are we the heirs of Christ?

A. We are the heirs of Christ because at His death we came into the possession of God's friendship, of grace, and of the right to enter heaven, provided we comply with the conditions Our Lord has laid down for the gaining of this inheritance.

Q. 625. What conditions has Our Lord laid down for the gaining of this inheritance?

A. The conditions Our Lord has laid down for the gaining of this inheritance are: (1) That we receive, when possible, the Sacraments He has instituted; and (2) That we believe and practice all He has taught.

Q. 626. Did not St. John the Baptist institute the Sacrament of Baptism?

A. St. John the Baptist did not institute the Sacrament of Baptism, for Christ alone could institute a Sacrament. The baptism given by St. John had the effect of a Sacramental; that is, it did not of itself give grace, but prepared the way for it.

Q. 627. Are actual sins ever remitted by Baptism?

A. Actual sins and all the punishment due to them are remitted by Baptism, if the person baptized be guilty of any.

Q. 628. That actual sins may be remitted by baptism, is it necessary to be sorry for them?

A. That actual sins may be remitted by baptism it is necessary to be sorry for them, just as we must be when they are remitted by the Sacrament of Penance.

Q. 629. What punishments are due to actual sins?

A. Two punishments are due to actual sins: one, called the eternal, is inflicted in hell; and the other, called the temporal, is inflicted in this world or in purgatory. The Sacrament of Penance remits or frees us from the eternal punishment and generally only from part of the temporal. Prayer, good works and indulgences in this world and the sufferings of purgatory in the next remit the remainder of the temporal punishment.

Q. 630. Why is there a double punishment attached to actual sins?

A. There is a double punishment attached to actual sins, because in their commission there is a double guilt: (1) Of insulting God and of turning away from Him; (2) Of depriving Him of the honor we owe Him, and of turning to His enemies.

Q. 631. Is Baptism necessary to salvation?

A. Baptism is necessary to salvation, because without it we cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven.

Q. 632. Where will persons go who -- such as infants -- have not committed actual sin and who, through no fault of theirs, die without baptism?

A. Persons, such as infants, who have not committed actual sin and who, through no fault of theirs, die without baptism, cannot enter heaven; but it is the common belief they will go to some place similar to Limbo, where they will be free from suffering, though deprived of the happiness of heaven.

Q. 633. Who can administer Baptism?

A. A priest is the ordinary minister of baptism; but in case of necessity anyone who has the use of reason may baptize.

Q. 634. What do we mean by the "ordinary minister" of a Sacrament?

A. By the "ordinary minister" of a Sacrament we mean the one who usually does administer the Sacrament, and who has always the right to do so.

Q. 635. Can a person who has not himself been baptized, and who does not even believe in the Sacrament of baptism, give it validly to another in case of necessity?

A. A person who has not himself been baptized, and who does not even believe in the Sacrament of baptism, can give it validly to another in case of necessity, provided:
   1. He has the use of reason;
   2. Knows how to give baptism, and
   3. Intends to do what the Church intends in the giving of the Sacrament.
Baptism is so necessary that God affords every opportunity for its reception.

Q. 636. Why do the consequences of original sin, such as suffering, temptation, sickness, and death, remain after the sin has been forgiven in baptism?

A. The consequences of original sin, such as suffering, temptation, sickness and death, remain after the sin has been forgiven in baptism: (1) To remind us of the misery that always follows sin; and (2) To afford us an opportunity of increasing our merit by bearing these hardships patiently.

Q. 637. Can a person ever receive any of the other Sacraments without first receiving baptism?

A. A person can never receive any of the other Sacraments without first receiving baptism, because baptism makes us members of Christ's Church, and unless we are members of His Church we cannot receive His Sacraments.

Q. 638. How is Baptism given?

A. Whoever baptizes should pour water on the head of the person to be baptized, and say, while pouring the water: "I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."

Q. 639. If water cannot be had, in case of necessity, may any other liquid be used for baptism?

A. If water cannot be had, in case of necessity or in any case, no other liquid can be used, and the baptism cannot be given.

Q. 640. If it is impossible, in case of necessity, to reach the head, may the water be poured on any other part of the body?

A. If it is impossible, in case of necessity, to reach the head, the water should be poured on whatever part of the body can be reached; but then the baptism must be given conditionally; that is, before pronouncing the words of baptism, you must say: "If I can baptize thee in this way, I baptize thee in the name of the Father," etc. If the head can afterward be reached, the water must be poured on the head and the baptism repeated conditionally by saying: "If you are not already baptized, I baptize thee in the name," etc.

Q. 641. Is the baptism valid if we say: "I baptize thee in the name of the Holy Trinity," without naming the Persons of the Trinity?

A. The baptism is not valid if we say: "I baptize thee in the name of the Holy Trinity," without naming the Persons of the Trinity; for we must use the exact words instituted by Christ.

Q. 642. Is it wrong to defer the baptism of an infant?

A. It is wrong to defer the baptism of an infant, because we thereby expose the child to the danger of dying without the Sacrament.

Q. 643. Can we baptize a child against the wishes of its parents?

A. We cannot baptize a child against the wishes of its parents; and if the parents are not Catholics, they must not only consent to the baptism, but also agree to bring the child up in the Catholic religion. But if a child is surely dying, we may baptize it without either the consent or permission of its parents.

Q. 644. How many kinds of Baptism are there?

A. There are three kinds of Baptism: 1.Baptism of water, of desire, and of blood.

Q. 645. What is Baptism of water?

A. Baptism of water is that which is given by pouring water on the head of the person to be baptized, and saying at the same time, "I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."

Q. 646. In how many ways was the baptism of water given in the first ages of the Church?

A. In the first ages of the Church, baptism of water was given in three ways, namely, by immersion or dipping, by aspersion or sprinkling, and by infusion or pouring. Although any of these methods would be valid, only the method of infusion or pouring is now allowed in the Church.

Q. 647. What are the chief ceremonies used in solemn baptism, and what do they signify?

A. The chief ceremonies used in solemn baptism are:
   1. A profession of faith and renouncement of the devil to signify our worthiness;
   2. The placing of salt in the mouth to signify the wisdom imparted by faith;
   3. The holding of the priest's stole to signify our reception into the Church;
   4. The anointing to signify the strength given by the Sacrament;
   5. The giving of the white garment or cloth to signify our sinless state after baptism; and
   6. The giving of the lighted candle to signify the light of faith and fire of love that should dwell in our souls.

Q. 648. Should one who, in case of necessity, has been baptized with private baptism, be afterwards brought to the Church to have the ceremonies of solemn baptism completed?

A. One who, in case of necessity, has been baptized with private baptism should afterwards be brought to the Church to have the ceremonies of solemn baptism completed, because these ceremonies are commanded by the Church and bring down blessings upon us.

Q. 649. Is solemn baptism given with any special kind of water?

A. Solemn baptism is given with consecrated water; that is, water mixed with holy oil and blessed for baptism on Holy Saturday and on the Saturday before Pentecost. It is always kept in the baptismal font in the baptistry -- a place near the door of the Church set apart for baptism.

Q. 650. What is Baptism of desire?

A. Baptism of desire is an ardent wish to receive Baptism, and to do all that God has ordained for our salvation.

Q. 651. What is Baptism of blood?

A. Baptism of blood is the shedding of one's blood for the faith of Christ.

Q. 652. What is the baptism of blood most commonly called?

A. The baptism of blood is most commonly called martyrdom, and those who receive it are called martyrs. It is the death one patiently suffers from the enemies of our religion, rather than give up Catholic faith or virtue. We must not seek martyrdom, though we must endure it when it comes.

Q. 653. Is Baptism of desire or of blood sufficient to produce the effects of Baptism of water?

A. Baptism of desire or of blood is sufficient to produce the effects of the Baptism of water, if it is impossible to receive the Baptism of water.

Q. 654. How do we know that the baptism of desire or of blood will save us when it is impossible to receive the baptism of water?

A. We know that baptism of desire or of blood will save us when it is impossible to receive the baptism of water, from Holy Scripture, which teaches that love of God and perfect contrition can secure the remission of sins ; and also that Our Lord promises salvation to those who lay down their life for His sake or for His teaching.

Q. 655. What do we promise in Baptism?

A. In Baptism we promise to renounce the devil, with all his works and pomps.

Q. 656. What do we mean by the "pomps" of the devil?

A. By the pomps of the devil we mean all worldly pride, vanities and vain shows by which people are enticed into sin, and all foolish or sinful display of ourselves or of what we possess.

Q. 657. Why is the name of a saint given in Baptism?

A. The name of a saint is given in Baptism in order that the person baptized may imitate his virtues and have him for a protector.

Q. 658. What is the Saint whose name we bear called?

A. The saint whose name we bear is called our patron saint -- to whom we should have great devotion.

Q. 659. What names should never be given in baptism?

A. These and similar names should never be given in baptism:
   1. The names of noted unbelievers, heretics or enemies of religion and virtue;
   2. The names of heathen gods, and
   3. Nick-names.

Q. 660. Why are godfathers and godmothers given in Baptism?

A. Godfathers and godmothers are given in Baptism in order that they may promise, in the name of the child, what the child itself would promise if it had the use of reason.

Q. 661. By what other name are godfathers and godmothers called?

A. Godfathers and godmothers are usually called sponsors. Sponsors are not necessary at private baptism.

Q. 662. Can a person ever be sponsor when absent from the baptism?

A. A person can be sponsor even when absent from the baptism, provided he has been asked and has consented to be sponsor, and provided also some one answers the questions and touches the person to be baptized in his name. The absent godfather or godmother is then said to be sponsor by proxy and becomes the real godparent of the one baptized.

Q. 663. With whom do godparents, as well as the one baptizing, contract a relationship?

A. Godparents, as well as the one baptizing, contract a spiritual relationship with the person baptized (not with his parents), and this relationship is an impediment to marriage that must be made known to the priest in case of their future marriage with one another. The godfather and godmother contract no relationship with each other.

Q. 664. What questions should persons who bring a child for baptism be able to answer?

A. Persons who bring a child for baptism should be able to tell:
   1. The exact place where the child lives;
   2. The full name of its parents, and, in particular, the maiden name, or name before her marriage, of its mother;
   3. The exact day of the month on which it was born;
   4. Whether or not it has received private baptism, and
   5. Whether its parents be Catholics.
Sponsors must know also the chief truths of our religion.

Q. 665. What is the obligation of a godfather and a godmother?

A. The obligation of a godfather and a godmother is to instruct the child in its religious duties, if the parents neglect to do so or die.

Q. 666. Can persons who are not Catholics be sponsors for Catholic children?

A. Persons who are not Catholics cannot be sponsors for Catholic children, because they cannot perform the duties of sponsors; for if they do not know and profess the Catholic religion themselves, how can they teach it to their godchildren? Moreover, they must answer the questions asked at baptism and declare that they believe in the Holy Catholic Church and in all it teaches; which would be a falsehood on their part.

Q. 667. What should parents chiefly consider in the selection of sponsors for their children?

A. In the selection of sponsors for their children parents should chiefly consider the good character and virtue of the sponsors, selecting model Catholics to whom they would be willing at the hour of death to entrust the care and training of their children.

Q. 668. What dispositions must adults or grown persons, have that they may worthily receive baptism?

A. That adults may worthily receive baptism:
   1. They must be willing to receive it;
   2. They must have faith in Christ;
   3. They must have true sorrow for their sins, and
   4. They must solemnly renounce the devil and all his works; that is, all sin.

Q. 669. What is the ceremony of churching?

A. The ceremony of churching is a particular blessing which a mother receives at the Altar, as soon as she is able to present herself in the Church after the birth of her child. In this ceremony the priest invokes God's blessing on the mother and child, while she on her part returns thanks to God

Fifteenth Lesson:

On Confirmation

 

Q. 670. What is Confirmation?

A. Confirmation is a Sacrament through which we receive the Holy Ghost to make us strong and perfect Christians and soldiers of Jesus Christ.

Q. 671. When was Confirmation instituted?

A. The exact time at which Confirmation was instituted is not known. But as this Sacrament was administered by the Apostles and numbered with the other Sacraments instituted by Our Lord, it is certain that He instituted this Sacrament also and instructed His Apostles in its use, at some time before His ascension into heaven.

Q. 672. Why is Confirmation so called?

A. Confirmation is so called from its chief effect, which is to strengthen or render us more firm in whatever belongs to our faith and religious duties.

Q. 673. Why are we called soldiers of Jesus Christ?

A. We are called soldiers of Jesus Christ to indicate how we must resist the attacks of our spiritual enemies and secure our victory over them by following and obeying Our Lord.

Q. 674. May one add a new name to his own at Confirmation?

A. One may and should add a new name to his own at Confirmation, especially when the name of a saint has not been given in Baptism.

Q. 675. Who administers Confirmation?

A. The bishop is the ordinary minister of Confirmation.

Q. 676. Why do we say the bishop is the "ordinary minister" of Confirmation?

A. We say the bishop is the ordinary minister of Confirmation because in some foreign missions, where bishops have not yet been appointed, the Holy Father permits one of the priests to administer Confirmation with the Holy Oil blessed by the bishop.

Q. 677. How does the bishop give Confirmation?

A. The bishop extends his hands over those who are to be confirmed, prays that they may receive the Holy Ghost, and anoints the forehead of each with holy chrism in the form of a cross.

Q. 678. In Confirmation, what does the extending of the bishop's hands over us signify?

A. In Confirmation, the extending of the bishop's hands over us signifies the descent of the Holy Ghost upon us and the special protection of God through the grace of Confirmation.

Q. 679. What is holy chrism?

A. Holy chrism is a mixture of olive-oil and balm, consecrated by the bishop.

Q. 680. What do the oil and balm in Holy Chrism signify?

A. In Holy Chrism, the oil signifies strength, and the balm signifies the freedom from corruption and the sweetness which virtue must give to our lives.

Q. 681. How many holy oils are used in the Church?

A. Three holy oils are used in the Church, namely, the oil of the sick, the oil of catechumens, and holy chrism.

Q. 682. What constitutes the difference between these oils?

A. The form of prayer or blessing alone constitutes the difference between these oils; for they are all olive oil, but in the Holy Chrism, balm is mixed with the oil.

Q. 683. When and by whom are the holy oils blessed?

A. The holy oils are blessed at the Mass on Holy Thursday by the bishop, who alone has the right to bless them. After the blessing they are distributed to the priests of the diocese, who must then burn what remains of the old oils and use the newly blessed oils for the coming year.

Q. 684. For what are the holy oils used?

A. The holy oils are used as follows: The oil of the sick is used for Extreme Unction and for some blessings; the oil of catechumens is used for Baptism and Holy Orders. Holy Chrism is used at Baptism and for the blessing of some sacred things, such as altars, chalices, church-bells, etc., which are usually blessed by a bishop.

Q. 685. What does the bishop say in anointing the person he confirms?

A. In anointing the person he confirms the bishop says: "I sign thee with the sign of the cross, and I confirm thee with the chrism of salvation, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."

Q. 686. What is meant by anointing the forehead with chrism in the form of a cross?

A. By anointing the forehead with chrism in the form of a cross is meant that the Christian who is confirmed must openly profess and practice his faith, never be ashamed of it; and rather die than deny it.

Q. 687. When must we openly profess and practice our religion?

A. We must openly profess and practice our religion as often as we cannot do otherwise without violating some law of God or of His Church.

Q. 688. Why have we good reason never to be ashamed of the Catholic faith?

A. We have good reason never to be ashamed of the Catholic Faith because it is the Old Faith established by Christ and taught by His Apostles; it is the Faith for which countless Holy Martyrs suffered and died; it is the Faith that has brought true civilization, with all its benefits, into the world, and it is the only Faith that can truly reform and preserve public and private morals.

Q. 689. Why does the bishop give the person he confirms a slight blow on the cheek?

A. The bishop gives the person he confirms a slight blow on the cheek, to put him in mind that he must be ready to suffer everything, even death, for the sake of Christ.

Q. 690. Is it right to test ourselves through our imagination of what we would be willing to suffer for the sake of Christ?

A. It is not right to test ourselves through our imagination of what we would be willing to suffer for the sake of Christ, for such tests may lead us into sin. When a real test comes we are assured God will give to us, as He did to the Holy Martyrs, sufficient grace to endure it.

Q. 691. To receive Confirmation worthily is it necessary to be in the state of grace?

A. To receive Confirmation worthily it is necessary to be in the state of grace.

Q. 692. What special preparation should be made to receive Confirmation?

A. Persons of an age to learn should know the chief mysteries of faith and the duties of a Christian, and be instructed in the nature and effects of this Sacrament.

Q. 693. Why should we know the chief mysteries of faith and the duties of a Christian before receiving Confirmation?

A. We should know the Chief Mysteries of Faith and the duties of a Christian before receiving Confirmation because as one cannot be a good soldier without knowing the rules of the army to which he belongs and understanding the commands of his leader, so one cannot be a good Christian without knowing the laws of the Church and understanding the commands of Christ.

Q. 694. Is it a sin to neglect Confirmation?

A. It is a sin to neglect Confirmation, especially in these evil days when faith and morals are exposed to so many and such violent temptations.

Q. 695. What do we mean by "these evil days"?

A. By "these evil days" we mean the present age or century in which we are living, surrounded on all sides by unbelief, false doctrines, bad books, bad example and temptation in every form.

Q. 696. Is Confirmation necessary for salvation?

A. Confirmation is not so necessary for salvation that we could not be saved without it, for it is not given to infants even in danger of death; nevertheless, there is a divine command obliging all to receive it, if possible. Persons who have not been confirmed in youth should make every effort to be confirmed later in life.

Q. 697. Are sponsors necessary in Confirmation?

A. Sponsors are necessary in Confirmation, and they must be of the same good character as those required at Baptism, for they take upon themselves the same duties and responsibilities. They also contract a spiritual relationship, which, however, unlike that in Baptism, is not an impediment to marriage.

Q. 698. Which are the effects of Confirmation?

A. The effects of Confirmation are an increase of sanctifying grace, the strengthening of our faith, and the gifts of the Holy Ghost.

Sixteenth Lesson:

On the Gifts and Fruits of the Holy Ghost

 

Q. 699. Which are the gifts of the Holy Ghost?

A. The gifts of the Holy Ghost are Wisdom, Understanding, Counsel, Fortitude, Knowledge, Piety, and Fear of the Lord.

Q. 700. Why do we receive the gift of Fear of the Lord?

A. We receive the gift of Fear of the Lord to fill us with a dread of sin.

Q. 701. Why do we receive the gift of Piety?

A. We receive the gift of Piety to make us love God as a Father, and obey Him because we love Him.

Q. 702. Why do we receive the gift of Knowledge?

A. We receive the gift of Knowledge to enable us to discover the will of God in all things.

Q. 703. Why do we receive the gift of Fortitude?

A. We receive the gift of Fortitude to strengthen us to do the will of God in all things.

Q. 704. Why do we receive the gift of Counsel?

A. We receive the gift of Counsel to warn us of the deceits of the devil, and of the dangers to salvation.

Q. 705. How is it clear that the devil could easily deceive us if the Holy Ghost did not aid us?

A. It is clear that the devil could easily deceive us if the Holy Ghost did not aid us, for just as our sins do not deprive us of our knowledge, so the devil's sin did not deprive him of the great intelligence and power which he possessed as an angel. Moreover, his experience in the world extends over all ages and places, while ours is confined to a few years and to a limited number of places.

Q. 706. Why do we receive the gift of Understanding?

A. We receive the gift of Understanding to enable us to know more clearly the mysteries of faith.

Q. 707. Why do we receive the gift of Wisdom?

A. We receive the gift of Wisdom to give us a relish for the things of God, and to direct our whole life and all our actions to His honor and glory.

Q. 708. Which are the Beatitudes?

A. The Beatitudes are:
   1. Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
   2. Blessed are the meek, for they shall possess the land.
   3. Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted.
   4. Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice, for they shall be filled.
   5. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.
   6. Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see God.
   7. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God.
   8. Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Q. 709. What are the Beatitudes and why are they so called?

A. The Beatitudes are a portion of Our Lord's Sermon on the Mount, and they are so called because each of them holds out a promised reward to those who practice the virtues they recommend.

Q. 710. Where did Our Lord usually preach?

A. Our Lord usually preached wherever an opportunity of doing good by His Words presented itself. He preached at times in the synagogues or meeting-houses but more frequently in the open air -- by the seashore or on the mountain, and often by the wayside.

Q. 711. What is the meaning and use of the Beatitudes in general?

A.
   1. In general the Beatitudes embrace whatever pertains to the perfection of Christian life, and they invite us to the practice of the highest Christian virtues.
   2. In different forms they all promise the same reward, namely, sanctifying grace in this life and eternal glory in the next.
   3. They offer us encouragement and consolation for every trial and affliction.

Q. 712. What does the first Beatitude mean by the "poor in spirit"?

A. The first Beatitude means by the "poor in spirit" all persons, rich or poor, who would not offend God to possess or retain anything that this world can give; and who, when necessity or charity requires it, give willingly for the glory of God. It includes also those who humbly submit to their condition in life when it cannot be improved by lawful means.

Q. 713. Who are the mourners who deserve the consolation promised in the third Beatitude?

A. The mourners who deserve the consolation promised in the third Beatitude are they who, out of love for God, bewail their own sins and those of the world; and they who patiently endure all trials that come from God or for His sake.

Q. 714. What lessons do the other Beatitudes convey?

A. The other Beatitudes convey these lessons: The meek suppress all feelings of anger and humbly submit to whatever befalls them by the Will of God; and they never desire to do evil for evil. The justice after which we should seek is every Christian virtue included under that name, and we are told that if we earnestly desire and seek it we shall obtain it. The persecuted for justice' sake are they who will not abandon their faith or virtue for any cause.

Q. 715. Who may be rightly called merciful?

A. The merciful are they who practice the corporal and spiritual works of mercy, and who aid by word or deed those who need their help for soul or body.

Q. 716. Why are the clean of heart promised so great a reward?

A. The clean of heart, that is, the truly virtuous, whose thoughts, desires, words and works are pure and modest, are promised so great a reward because the chaste and sinless have always been the most intimate friends of God.

Q. 717. What is the duty of a peacemaker?

A. It is the duty of a peacemaker to avoid and prevent quarrels, reconcile enemies, and to put an end to all evil reports of others or evil speaking against them. As peacemakers are called the children of God, disturbers of peace should be called the children of the devil.

Q. 718. Why does Our Lord speak in particular of poverty, meekness, sorrow, desire for virtue, mercy, purity, peace and suffering?

A. Our Lord speaks in particular of poverty, meekness, sorrow, desire for virtue, mercy, purity, peace and suffering because these are the chief features in His own earthly life; poverty in His birth, life and death; meekness in His teaching; sorrow at all times. He eagerly sought to do good, showed mercy to all, recommended chastity, brought peace, and patiently endured suffering.

Q. 719. Which are the twelve fruits of the Holy Ghost?

A. The twelve fruits of the Holy Ghost are Charity, Joy, Peace, Patience, Benignity, Goodness, Long-suffering, Mildness, Faith, Modesty, Continency, and Chastity.

Q. 720. Why are charity, joy, peace, etc., called fruits of the Holy Ghost?

A. Charity, joy, peace, etc., are called fruits of the Holy Ghost because they grow in our souls out of the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost.

Seventeenth Lesson:

On the Sacrament of Penance

 

Q. 721. What is the Sacrament of Penance?

A. Penance is a Sacrament in which the sins committed after Baptism are forgiven.

Q. 722. Has the word Penance any other meaning?

A. The word Penance has other meanings. It means also those punishments we inflict upon ourselves as a means of atoning for our past sins; it means likewise that disposition of the heart in which we detest and bewail our sins because they were offensive to God.

Q. 723. How does the institution of the Sacrament of Penance show the goodness of Our Lord?

A. The institution of the Sacrament of Penance shows the goodness of Our Lord, because having once saved us through Baptism, He might have left us to perish if we again committed sin.

Q. 724. What are the natural benefits of the Sacrament of Penance?

A. The natural benefits of the Sacrament of Penance are: It gives us in our confessor a true friend, to whom we can go in all our trials and to whom we can confide our secrets with the hope of obtaining advice and relief.

Q. 725. How does the Sacrament of Penance remit sin, and restore to the soul the friendship of God?

A. The Sacrament of Penance remits sin and restores the friendship of God to the soul by means of the absolution of the priest.

Q. 726. What is Absolution?

A. Absolution is the form of prayer or words the priest pronounces over us with uplifted hand when he forgives the sins we have confessed. It is given while we are saying the Act of Contrition after receiving our Penance.

Q. 727. Does the priest ever refuse absolution to a penitent?

A. The priest must and does refuse absolution to a penitent when he thinks the penitent is not rightly disposed for the Sacrament. He sometimes postpones the absolution till the next confession, either for the good of the penitent or for the sake of better preparation -- especially when the person has been a long time from confession.

Q. 728. What should a person do when the priest has refused or postponed absolution?

A. When the priest has refused or postponed absolution, the penitent should humbly submit to his decision, follow his instructions, and endeavor to remove whatever prevented the giving of the absolution and return to the same confessor with the necessary dispositions and resolution of amendment.

Q. 729. Can the priest forgive all sins in the Sacrament of Penance?

A. The priest has the power to forgive all sins in the Sacrament of Penance, but he may not have the authority to forgive all. To forgive sins validly in the Sacrament of Penance, two things are required:
   1. The power to forgive sins which every priest receives at his ordination, and
   1. The right to use that power which must be given by the bishop, who authorizes the priest to hear confessions and pass judgment on the sins.

Q. 730. What are the sins called which the priest has no authority to absolve?

A. The sins which the priest has no authority to absolve are called reserved sins. Absolution from these sins can be obtained only from the bishop, and sometimes only from the Pope, or by his special permission. Persons having a reserved sin to confess cannot be absolved from any of their sins till the priest receives faculties or authority to absolve the reserved sin also.

Q. 731. Why is the absolution from some sins reserved to the Pope or bishop?

A. The absolution from some sins is reserved to the Pope or bishop to deter or prevent, by this special restriction, persons from committing them, either on account of the greatness of the sin itself or on account of its evil consequences.

Q. 732. Can any priest absolve a person in danger of death from reserved sins without the permission of the bishop?

A. Any priest can absolve a person in danger of death from reserved sins without the permission of the bishop, because at the hour of death the Church removes these restrictions in order to save, if possible, the soul of the dying.

Q. 733. How do you know that the priest has the power of absolving from the sins committed after Baptism?

A. I know that the priest has the power of absolving from the sins committed after Baptism, because Jesus Christ granted that power to the priests of His Church when He said: "Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; whose sins you shall retain, they are retained."

Q. 734. How do we know that Our Lord, while on earth, had the power to forgive sins?

A. We know that Our Lord, while on earth, had the power to forgive sins:
   1. Because He was always God, and;
   2. Because He frequently did forgive sins and proved their forgiveness by miracles. Since He had the power Himself, He could give it to His Apostles.

Q. 735. Was the power to forgive sins given to the apostles alone?

A. The power to forgive sins was not given to the apostles alone, because it was not given for the benefit merely of those who lived at the time of the apostles, but for all who, having grievously sinned, after Baptism, should need forgiveness. Since, therefore, Baptism will be given till the end of time, and since the danger of sinning after it always remains the power to absolve from such sins must also remain in the Church till the end of time.

Q. 736. When was the Sacrament of Penance instituted?

A. The Sacrament of Penance was instituted after the resurrection of Our Lord, when He gave to His apostles the power to forgive sins, which He had promised to them before His death.

Q. 737. Are the enemies of our religion right when they say man cannot forgive sins?

A. The enemies of our religion are right when they say man cannot forgive sins if they mean that he cannot forgive them by his own power, but they are certainly wrong if they mean that he cannot forgive them even by the power of God, for man can do anything if God gives him the power. The priest does not forgive sins by his own power as man, but by the authority he receives as the minister of God.

Q. 738. How do the priests of the Church exercise the power of forgiving sins?

A. The priests of the Church exercise the power of forgiving sins by hearing the confession of sins, and granting pardon for them as ministers of God and in His name.

Q. 739. How does the power to forgive sins imply the obligation of going to confession?

A. The power to forgive sins implies the obligation of going to confession because as sins are usually committed secretly, the priest could never know what sins to forgive and what not to forgive, unless the sins committed were made known to him by the persons guilty of them.

Q. 740. Could God not forgive our sins if we confessed them to Himself in secret?

A. Certainly, God could forgive our sins if we confessed them to Himself in secret, but He has not promised to do so; whereas He has promised to pardon them if we confess them to His priests. Since He is free to pardon or not to pardon, He has the right to establish a Sacrament through which alone He will pardon.

Q. 741. What must we do to receive the Sacrament of Penance worthily?

A. To receive the Sacrament of Penance worthily we must do five things:
   1. We must examine our conscience.
   2. We must have sorrow for our sins.
   3. We must make a firm resolution never more to offend God.
   4. We must confess our sins to the priest.
   5. We must accept the penance which the priest gives us.

Q. 742. What should we pray for in preparing for confession?

A. In preparing for confession we should pray to the Holy Ghost to give us light to know our sins and to understand their guilt; for grace to detest them; for courage to confess them and for strength to keep our resolutions.

Q. 743. What faults do many commit in preparing for confession?

A. In preparing for confession many commit the faults:
   1. Of giving too much time to the examination of conscience and little or none in exciting themselves to true sorrow for the sins discovered;
   2. Of trying to recall every trifling circumstance, instead of thinking of the means by which they will avoid their sins for the future.

Q. 744. What, then, is the most important part of the preparation for confession?

A. The most important part of the preparation for confession is sincere sorrow for the sins committed and the firm determination to avoid them for the future.

Q. 745. What is the chief reason that our confessions do not always amend our way of living?

A. The chief reason that our confessions do not always amend our way of living is our want of real earnest preparation for them and the fact that we have not truly convinced ourselves of the need of amendment. We often confess our sins more from habit, necessity or fear than from a real desire of receiving grace and of being restored to the friendship of God.

Q. 746. What faults are to be avoided in making our confession?

A. In making our confession we are to avoid:
   1. Telling useless details, the sins of others, or the name of any person;
   2. Confessing sins we are not sure of having committed; exaggerating our sins or their number; multiplying the number of times a day by the number of days to get the exact number of habitual sins;
   3. Giving a vague answer, such as "sometimes," when asked how often; waiting after each sin to be asked for the next;
   4. Hesitating over sins through pretended modesty and thus delaying the priests and others; telling the exact words in each when we have committed several sins of the same kind, cursing, for example; and, lastly, leaving the confessional before the priest gives us a sign to go.

Q. 747. Is it wrong to go to confession out of your turn against the will of others waiting with you?

A. It is wrong to go to confession out of our turn against the will of others waiting with us, because:
   1. It causes disorder, quarreling and scandalous conduct in the Church;
   2. It is unjust, makes others angry and lessens their good dispositions for confession;
   3. It annoys and distracts the priest by the confusion and disorder it creates. It is better to wait than go to confession in an excited and disorderly manner.

Q. 748. What should a penitent do who knows he cannot perform the penance given?

A. A penitent who knows he cannot perform the penance given should ask the priest for one that he can perform. When we forget the penance given we must ask for it again, for we cannot fulfill our duty by giving ourselves a penance. The penance must be performed at the time and in the manner the confessor directs.

Q. 749. What is the examination of conscience?

A. The examination of conscience is an earnest effort to recall to mind all the sins we have committed since our last worthy confession.

Q. 750. When is our confession worthy?

A. Our confession is worthy when we have done all that is required for a good confession, and when, through the absolution, our sins are really forgiven.

Q. 751. How can we make a good examination of conscience?

A. We can make a good examination of conscience by calling to memory the commandments of God, the precepts of the Church, the seven capital sins, and the particular duties of our state in life, to find out the sins we have committed.

Q. 752. What should we do before beginning the examination of conscience?

A. Before beginning the examination of conscience we should pray to God to give us light to know our sins and grace to detest them.

 Eighteenth Lesson:

On Contrition

 

Q. 753. What is contrition, or sorrow for sin?

A. Contrition, or sorrow for sin, is a hatred of sin and a true grief of the soul for having offended God, with a firm purpose of sinning no more.

Q. 754. Give an example of how we should hate and avoid sin.

A. We should hate and avoid sin as one hates and avoids a poison that almost caused his death. We may not grieve over the death of our soul as we do over the death of a friend, and yet our sorrow may be true; because the sorrow for sin comes more from our reason than from our feelings.

Q. 755. What kind of sorrow should we have for our sins?

A. The sorrow we should have for our sins should be interior, supernatural, universal, and sovereign.

Q. 756. What do you mean by saying that our sorrow should be interior?

A. When I say that our sorrow should be interior, I mean that it should come from the heart, and not merely from the lips.

Q. 757. What do you mean by saying that our sorrow should be supernatural?

A. When I say that our sorrow should be supernatural, I mean that it should be prompted by the grace of God, and excited by motives which spring from faith, and not by merely natural motives.

Q. 758. What do we mean by "motives that spring from faith" and by "merely natural motives" with regard to sorrow for sin?

A. By sorrow for sin from "motives that spring from faith," we mean sorrow for reasons that God has made known to us, such as the loss of heaven, the fear of hell or purgatory, or the dread of afflictions that come from God in punishment for sin. By "merely natural motives" we mean sorrow for reasons made known to us by our own experience or by the experience of others, such as loss of character, goods or health. A motive is whatever moves our will to do or avoid anything.

Q. 759. What do you mean by saying that our sorrow should be universal?

A. When I say that our sorrow should be universal, I mean that we should be sorry for all our mortal sins without exception.

Q. 760. Why cannot some of our mortal sins be forgiven while the rest remain on our souls?

A. It is impossible for any of our mortal sins to be forgiven unless they are all forgiven, because as light and darkness cannot be together in the same place, so sanctifying grace and mortal sin cannot dwell together. If there be grace in the soul, there can be no mortal sin, and if there be mortal sin, there can be no grace, for one mortal sin expels all grace.

Q. 761. What do you mean when you say that our sorrow should be sovereign?

A. When I say that our sorrow should be sovereign, I mean that we should grieve more for having offended God than for any other evil that can befall us.

Q. 762. Why should we be sorry for our sins?

A. We should be sorry for our sins because sin is the greatest of evils and an offense against God our Creator, Preserver, and Redeemer, and because it shuts us out of heaven and condemns us to the eternal pains of hell.

Q. 763. How do we show that sin is the greatest of all evils?

A. We show that sin is the greatest of evils because its effects last the longest and have the most terrible consequences. All the misfortunes of this world can last only for a time, and we escape them at death, whereas the evils caused by sin keep with us for all eternity and are only increased at death.

Q. 764. How many kinds of contrition are there?

A. There are two kinds of contrition; perfect contrition and imperfect contrition.

Q. 765. What is perfect contrition?

A. Perfect contrition is that which fills us with sorrow and hatred for sin, because it offends God, who is infinitely good in Himself and worthy of all love.

Q. 766. When will perfect contrition obtain pardon for mortal sin without the Sacrament of Penance?

A. Perfect contrition will obtain pardon for mortal sin without the Sacrament of Penance when we cannot go to confession, but with the perfect contrition we must have the intention of going to confession as soon as possible, if we again have the opportunity.

Q. 767. What is imperfect contrition?

A. Imperfect contrition is that by which we hate what offends God because by it we lose heaven and deserve hell; or because sin is so hateful in itself.

Q. 768. What other name is given to imperfect contrition and why is it called imperfect?

A. Imperfect contrition is called attrition. It is called imperfect only because it is less perfect than the highest grade of contrition by which we are sorry for sin out of pure love of God's own goodness and without any consideration of what befalls ourselves.

Q. 769. Is imperfect contrition sufficient for a worthy confession?

A. Imperfect contrition is sufficient for a worthy confession, but we should endeavor to have perfect contrition.

Q. 770. What do you mean by a firm purpose of sinning no more?

A. By a firm purpose of sinning no more I mean a fixed resolve not only to avoid all mortal sin, but also its near occasions.

Q. 771. What do you mean by the near occasions of sin?

A. By the near occasions of sin I mean all the persons, places and things that may easily lead us into sin.

Q. 772. Why are we bound to avoid occasions of sin?

A. We are bound to avoid occasions of sin because Our Lord has said: "He who loves the danger will perish in it"; and as we are bound to avoid the loss of our souls, so we are bound to avoid the danger of their loss. The occasion is the cause of sin, and you cannot take away the evil without removing its cause.

Q. 773. Is a person who is determined to avoid the sin, but who is unwilling to give up its near occasion when it is possible to do so, rightly disposed for confession?

A. A person who is determined to avoid the sin, but who is unwilling to give up its near occasion when it is possible to do so, is not rightly disposed for confession, and he will not be absolved if he makes known to the priest the true state of his conscience.

Q. 774. How many kinds of occasions of sin are there?

A. There are four kinds of occasions of sin:
   1. Near occasions, through which we always fall;
   2. Remote occasions, through which we sometimes fall;
   3. Voluntary occasions or those we can avoid; and 
   4. Involuntary occasions or those we cannot avoid. A person who lives in a near and voluntary occasion of sin need not expect forgiveness while he continues in that state.

Q. 775. What persons, places and things are usually occasions of sin?

A.
   1. The persons who are occasions of sin are all those in whose company we sin, whether they be bad of themselves or bad only while in our company, in which case we also become occasions of sin for them;
   2. The places are usually liquor saloons, low theaters, indecent dances, entertainments, amusements, exhibitions, and all immoral resorts of any kind, whether we sin in them or not;
   3. The things are all bad books, indecent pictures, songs, jokes and the like, even when they are tolerated by public opinion and found in public places.

 Nineteenth Lesson:

On Confession

 

Q. 776. What is Confession?

A. Confession is the telling of our sins to a duly authorized priest, for the purpose of obtaining forgiveness.

Q. 777. Who is a duly authorized priest?

A. A duly authorized priest is one sent to hear confessions by the lawful bishop of the diocese in which we are at the time of our confession.

Q. 778. Is it ever allowed to write our sins and read them to the priest in the confessional or give them to him to read?

A. It is allowed, when necessary, to write our sins and read them to the priest, as persons do who have almost entirely lost their memory. It is also allowed to give the paper to the priest, as persons do who have lost the use of their speech. In such cases the paper must, after the confession, be carefully destroyed either by the priest or the penitent.

Q. 779. What is to be done when persons must make their confession and cannot find a priest who understands their language?

A. Persons who must make their confession and who cannot find a priest who understands their language, must confess as best they can by some signs, showing what sins they wish to confess and how they are sorry for them.

Q. 780. What sins are we bound to confess?

A. We are bound to confess all our mortal sins, but it is well also to confess our venial sins.

Q. 781. Why is it well to confess also the venial sins we remember?

A. It is well to confess also the venial sins we remember: (1) Because it shows our hatred of all sin, and (2) Because it is sometimes difficult to determine just when a sin is venial and when mortal.

Q. 782. What should one do who has only venial sins to confess?

A. One who has only venial sins to confess should tell also some sin already confessed in his past life for which he knows he is truly sorry; because it is not easy to be truly sorry for slight sins and imperfections, and yet we must be sorry for the sins confessed that our confession may be valid -- hence we add some past sin for which we are truly sorry to those for which we may not be sufficiently sorry.

Q. 783. Should a person stay from confession because he thinks he has no sin to confess ?

A. A person should not stay from confession because he thinks he has no sin to confess, for the Sacrament of Penance, besides forgiving sin, gives an increase of sanctifying grace, and of this we have always need, especially to resist temptation. The Saints, who were almost without imperfection, went to confession frequently.

Q. 784. Should a person go to Communion after confession even when the confessor does not bid him go?

A. A person should go to Communion after confession even when the confessor does not bid him go, because the confessor so intends unless he positively forbids his penitent to receive Communion. However, one who has not yet received his first Communion should not go to Communion after confession, even if the confessor by mistake should bid him go.

Q. 785. Which are the chief qualities of a good Confession?

A. The chief qualities of a good Confession are three: it must be humble, sincere, and entire.

Q. 786. When is our Confession humble?

A. Our Confession is humble when we accuse ourselves of our sins, with a deep sense of shame and sorrow for having offended God.

Q. 787. When is our Confession sincere?

A. Our Confession is sincere when we tell our sins honestly and truthfully, neither exaggerating nor excusing them.

Q. 788. Why is it wrong to accuse ourselves of sins we have not committed?

A. It is wrong to accuse ourselves of sins we have not committed, because, by our so doing, the priest cannot know the true state of our souls, as he must do before giving us absolution.

Q. 789. When is our Confession entire?

A. Our Confession is entire when we tell the number and kinds of our sins and the circumstances which change their nature.

Q. 790. What do you mean by the "kinds of sin?"

A. By the "kinds of sin," we mean the particular division or class to which the sins belong; that is, whether they be sins of blasphemy, disobedience, anger, impurity, dishonesty, etc. We can determine the kind of sin by discovering the commandment or precept of the Church we have broken or the virtue against which we have acted.

Q. 791. What do we mean by "circumstances which change the nature of sins?"

A. By "circumstances which change the nature of sins" we mean anything that makes it another kind of sin. Thus to steal is a sin, but to steal from the Church makes our theft sacrilegious. Again, impure actions are sins, but a person must say whether they were committed alone or with others, with relatives or strangers, with persons married or single, etc., because these circumstances change them from one kind of impurity to another.

Q. 792. What should we do if we cannot remember the number of our sins?

A. If we cannot remember the number of our sins, we should tell the number as nearly as possible, and say how often we may have sinned in a day, a week, or a month, and how long the habit or practice has lasted.

Q. 793. Is our Confession worthy if, without our fault, we forget to confess a mortal sin?

A. If without our fault we forget to confess a mortal sin, our Confession is worthy, and the sin is forgiven; but it must be told in Confession if it again comes to our mind.

Q. 794. May a person who has forgotten to tell a mortal sin in confession go to Holy Communion before going again to confession?

A. A person who has forgotten to tell a mortal sin in confession may go to communion before again going to confession, because the forgotten sin was forgiven with those confessed, and the confession was good and worthy.

Q. 795. Is it a grievous offense willfully to conceal a mortal sin in Confession?

A. It is a grievous offense willfully to conceal a mortal sin in Confession, because we thereby tell a lie to the Holy Ghost, and make our Confession worthless.

Q. 796. How is concealing a sin telling a lie to the Holy Ghost?

A. Concealing a sin is telling a lie to the Holy Ghost, because he who conceals the sin declares in confession to God and the priest that he committed no sins but what he has confessed, while the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of Truth, saw him committing the sin he now conceals and still sees it in his soul while he denies it.

Q. 797. Why is it foolish to conceal sins in confession?

A. It is foolish to conceal sins in confession:
   1. Because we thereby make our spiritual condition worse;
   2. We must tell the sin sometime if we ever hope to be saved;
   3. It will be made known on the day of judgment, before the world, whether we conceal it now or confess it.

Q. 798. What must he do who has willfully concealed a mortal sin in Confession?

A. He who has willfully concealed a mortal sin in Confession must not only confess it, but must also repeat all the sins he has committed since his last worthy Confession.

Q. 799. Must one who has willfully concealed a mortal sin in confession do more than repeat the sins committed since his last worthy confession?

A. One who has willfully concealed a mortal sin in confession must, besides repeating all the sins he has committed since his last worthy confession, tell also how often he has unworthily received absolution and Holy Communion during the same time.

Q. 800. Why does the priest give us a penance after Confession?

A. The priest gives us a penance after Confession, that we may satisfy God for the temporal punishment due to our sins.

Q. 801. Why should we have to satisfy for our sins if Christ has fully satisfied for them?

A. Christ has fully satisfied for our sins and after our baptism we were free from all guilt and had no satisfaction to make. But when we willfully sinned after baptism, it is but just that we should be obliged to make some satisfaction.

Q. 802. Is the slight penance the priest gives us sufficient to satisfy for all the sins confessed?

A. The slight penance the priest gives us is not sufficient to satisfy for all the sins confessed:
   1. Because there is no real equality between the slight penance given and the punishment deserved for sin;
   2. Because we are all obliged to do penance for sins committed, and this would not be necessary if the penance given in confession satisfied for all. The penance is given and accepted in confession chiefly to show our willingness to do penance and make amends for our sins.

Q. 803. Does not the Sacrament of Penance remit all punishment due to sin?

A. The Sacrament of Penance remits the eternal punishment due to sin, but it does not always remit the temporal punishment which God requires as satisfaction for our sins.

Q. 804. Why does God require a temporal punishment as a satisfaction for sin?

A. God requires a temporal punishment as a satisfaction for sin to teach us the great evil of sin and to prevent us from falling again.

Q. 805. Which are the chief means by which we satisfy God for the temporal punishment due to sin?

A. The chief means by which we satisfy God for the temporal punishment due to sin are: Prayer, Fasting, Almsgiving; all spiritual and corporal works of mercy, and the patient suffering of the ills of life.

Q. 806. What fasting has the greatest merit?

A. The fasting imposed by the Church on certain days of the year, and particularly during Lent, has the greatest merit.

Q. 807. What is Lent?

A. Lent is the forty days before Easter Sunday, during which we do penance, fast and pray to prepare ourselves for the resurrection of Our Lord; and also to remind us of His own fast of forty days before His Passion.

Q. 808. What do we mean by "almsgiving"?

A. By almsgiving we mean money, goods, or assistance given to the poor or to charitable purposes. The law of God requires all persons to give alms in proportion to their means.

Q. 809. What "ills of life" help to satisfy God for sin?

A. The ills of life that help to satisfy God for sin are sickness, poverty, misfortune, trial, affliction, etc., especially, when we have not brought them upon ourselves by sin.

Q. 810. How did the Christians in the first ages of the Church do Penance?

A. The Christians in the first ages of the Church did public penance, especially for the sins of which they were publicly known to be guilty. Penitents were excluded for a certain time from Mass or the Sacrament, and some were obliged to stand at the door of the Church begging the prayers of those who entered.

Q. 811. What were these severe Penances of the First Ages of the Church called?

A. These severe penances of the first ages of the Church were called canonical penances, because their kind and duration were regulated by the Canons or laws of the Church.

Q. 812. How can we know spiritual from corporal works of mercy?

A. We can know spiritual from corporal works of mercy, for whatever we do for the soul is a spiritual work, and whatever we do for the body is a corporal work.

Q. 813. Which are the chief spiritual works of mercy?

A. The chief spiritual works of mercy are seven: To admonish the sinner, to instruct the ignorant, to counsel the doubtful, to comfort the sorrowful, to bear wrongs patiently, to forgive all injuries, and to pray for the living and the dead.

Q. 814. When are we bound to admonish the sinner?

A. We are bound to admonish the sinner when the following conditions are fulfilled:
   1. When his fault is a mortal sin;
   2. When we have authority or influence over him, and
   3. When there is reason to believe that our warning will not make him worse instead of better.

Q. 815. Who are meant by the "ignorant" we are to instruct, and the "doubtful" we are to counsel?

A. By the ignorant we are to instruct and the doubtful we are to counsel, are meant those particularly who are ignorant of the truths of religion and those who are in doubt about matters of faith. We must aid such persons as far as we can to know and believe the truths necessary for salvation.

Q. 816. Why are we advised to bear wrong patiently and to forgive all injuries?

A. We are advised to bear wrongs patiently and to forgive all injuries, because, being Christians, we should imitate the example of Our Divine Lord, who endured wrongs patiently and who not only pardoned but prayed for those who injured Him.

Q. 817. If, then, it be a Christian virtue to forgive all injuries, why do Christians establish courts and prisons to punish wrongdoers?

A. Christians establish courts and prisons to punish wrongdoers, because the preservation of lawful authority, good order in society, the protection of others, and sometimes even the good of the guilty one himself, require that crimes be justly punished. As God Himself punishes crime and as lawful authority comes from Him, such authority has the right to punish, though individuals should forgive the injuries done to themselves personally.

Q. 818. Why is it a work of mercy to pray for the living and the dead?

A. It is a work of mercy to aid those who are unable to aid themselves. The living are exposed to temptations, and while in mortal sin they are deprived of the merit of their good works and need our prayers. The dead can in no way help themselves and depend on us for assistance.

Q. 819. Which are the chief corporal works of mercy?

A. The chief corporal works of mercy are seven: 1.To feed the hungry, to give drink to the thirsty, to clothe the naked, to ransom the captive, to harbor the harborless, to visit the sick, and to bury the dead.

Q. 820. How may we briefly state the corporal works of mercy?

A. We may briefly state the corporal works of mercy by saying that we are obliged to help the poor in all their forms of want.

Q. 821. How are Christians aided in the performance of works of mercy?

A. Christians are aided in the performance of works of mercy through the establishment of charitable institutions where religious communities of holy men or women perform these duties for us, provided we supply the necessary means by our almsgiving and good works.

Q. 822. Who are religious?

A. Religious are self-sacrificing men and women who, wishing to follow more closely the teachings of Our Lord, dedicate their lives to the service of God and religion. They live together in societies approved by the Church, under a rule and guidance of a superior. They keep the vows of chastity, poverty and obedience, and divide their time between prayer and good works. The houses in which they dwell are called convents or monasteries, and the societies in which they live are called religious orders, communities or congregations.

Q. 823. Are there any religious communities of priests?

A. There are many religious communities of priests, who, besides living according to the general laws of the Church, as all priests do, follow certain rules laid down for their community. Such priests are called the regular clergy, because living by rules to distinguish them from the secular clergy who live in their parishes under no special rule. The chief work of the regular clergy is to teach in colleges and give missions and retreats.

Q. 824. Why are there so many different religious communities?

A. There are many different religious communities:
   1. Because all religious are not fitted for the same work, and
   2. Because they desire to imitate Our Lord's life on earth as perfectly as possible; and when each community takes one of Christ's works and seeks to become perfect in it, the union of all their works continues as perfectly as we can the works He began upon earth.

Twentieth Lesson:

On the Manner of Making a Good Confession

 

Q. 825. What should we do on entering the confessional?

A. On entering the confessional we should kneel, make the sign of the Cross, and say to the priest, "Bless me, father"; then add, "I confess to Almighty God and to you, father, that I have sinned."

Q. 826. Which are the first things we should tell the priest in Confession?

A. The first things we should tell the priest in Confession are the time of our last Confession, and whether we said the penance and went to Holy Communion.

Q. 827. Should we tell anything else in connection with our last confession?

A. In connection with our last confession we should tell also what restrictions -- if any -- were placed upon us with regard to our occasions of sin, and what obligations with regard to the payment of debts, restitution, injuries done to others and the like, we were commanded to fulfill.

Q. 828. After telling the time of our last Confession and Communion what should we do?

A. After telling the time of our last Confession and Communion we should confess all the mortal sins we have since committed, and all the venial sins we may wish to mention.

Q. 829. What is a general confession?

A. A general confession is the telling of the sins of our whole life or a great part of it. It is made in the same manner as an ordinary confession, except that it requires more time and longer preparation.

Q. 830. When should a General Confession be made?

A. A general confession:
   1. Is necessary when we are certain that our past confessions were bad;
   2. It is useful on special occasions in our lives when some change in our way of living is about to take place;
   3. It is hurtful and must not be made when persons are scrupulous.

Q. 831. What are the signs of scruples and the remedy against them?

A. The signs of scruples are chiefly:
   1. To be always dissatisfied with our confessions;
   2. To be self-willed in deciding what is sinful and what is not. The chief remedy against them is to follow exactly the advice of the confessor without questioning the reason or utility of his advice.

Q. 832. What must we do when the confessor asks us questions?

A. When the confessor asks us questions we must answer them truthfully and clearly.

Q. 833. What should we do after telling our sins?

A. After telling our sins we should listen with attention to the advice which the confessor may think proper to give.

Q. 834. What duties does the priest perform in the confessional?

A. In the confessional the priest performs the duties:
   1. Of a judge, by listening to our self-accusations and passing sentence upon our guilt or innocence;
   2. Of a father, by the good advice and encouragement he gives us;
   3. Of a teacher, by his instructions, and
   4. Of a physician, by discovering the afflictions of our soul and giving us the remedies to restore it to spiritual health.

Q. 835. Why is it beneficial to go always if possible to the same confessor?

A. It is beneficial to go always, if possible, to the same confessor, because our continued confessions enable him to see more clearly the true state of our soul and to understand better our occasions of sin.

Q. 836. Should we remain away from confession because we cannot go to our usual confessor?

A. We should not remain away from confession because we cannot go to our usual confessor, for though it is well to confess to the same priest, it is not necessary to do so. One should never become so attached to a confessor that his absence or the great inconvenience of going to him would become an excuse for neglecting the Sacraments.

Q. 837. How should we end our Confession?

A. We should end our Confession by saying, "I also accuse myself of all the sins of my past life," telling, if we choose, one or several of our past sins.

Q. 838. What should we do while the priest is giving us absolution?

A. While the priest is giving us absolution we should from our heart renew the Act of Contrition.

 Twenty-First Lesson:

On Indulgences

 

Q. 839. What is an Indulgence?

A. An Indulgence is the remission in whole or in part of the temporal punishment due to sin.

Q. 840. What does the word "indulgence" mean?

A. The word indulgence means a favor or concession. An indulgence obtains by a very slight penance the remission of penalties that would otherwise be severe.

Q. 841. Is an Indulgence a pardon of sin, or a license to commit sin?

A. An Indulgence is not a pardon of sin, nor a license to commit sin, and one who is in a state of mortal sin cannot gain an Indulgence.

Q. 842. How do good works done in mortal sin profit us?

A. Good works done in mortal sin profit us by obtaining for us the grace to repent and sometimes temporal blessings. Mortal sin deprives us of all our merit, nevertheless God will bestow gifts for every good deed as He will punish every evil deed.

Q. 843. How many kinds of Indulgences are there?

A. There are two kinds of Indulgences -- Plenary and Partial.

Q. 844. What is Plenary Indulgence?

A. A Plenary Indulgence is the full remission of the temporal punishment due to sin.

Q. 845. Is it easy to gain a Plenary Indulgence?

A. It is not easy to gain a Plenary Indulgence, as we may understand from its great privilege. To gain a Plenary Indulgence, we must hate sin, be heartily sorry for even our venial sins, and have no desire for even the slightest sin. Though we may not gain entirely each Plenary Indulgence we seek, we always gain a part of each; that is, a partial indulgence, greater or less in proportion to our good dispositions.

Q. 846. Which are the most important Plenary Indulgences granted by the Church?

A. The most important Plenary Indulgences granted by the Church are:
   1. The Indulgences of a jubilee which the Pope grants every twenty-five years or on great occasions by which he gives special faculties to confessors for the absolution of reserved sins;
   2. The Indulgence granted to the dying in their last agony.

Q. 847. What is a Partial Indulgence?

A. A Partial Indulgence is the remission of part of the temporal punishment due to sin.

Q. 848. How long has the practice of granting Indulgences been in use in the Church, and what was its origin?

A. The practice of granting Indulgences has been in use in the Church since the time of the apostles. It had its origin in the earnest prayers of holy persons, and especially of the martyrs begging the Church for their sake to shorten the severe penances of sinners, or to change them into lighter penances. The request was frequently granted and the penance remitted, shortened or changed, and with the penance remitted the temporal punishment corresponding to it was blotted out.

Q. 849. How do we show that the Church has the power to grant Indulgences?

A. We show that the Church has the power to grant Indulgences, because Christ has given it power to remit all guilt without restriction, and if the Church has power, in the Sacrament of penance, to remit the eternal punishment -- which is the greatest -- it must have power to remit the temporal or lesser punishment, even outside the Sacrament of Penance.

Q. 850. How do we know that these Indulgences have their effect?

A. We know that these Indulgences have their effect, because the Church, through her councils, declares Indulgences useful, and if they have no effect they would be useless, and the Church would teach error in spite of Christ's promise to guide it.

Q. 851. Have there ever existed abuses among the faithful in the manner of using Indulgences?

A. There have existed, in past ages, some abuses among the faithful in the manner of using Indulgences, and the Church has always labored to correct such abuses as soon as possible. In the use of pious practices we must be always guided by our lawful superiors.

Q. 852. How have the enemies of the Church made use of the abuse of Indulgences?

A. The enemies of the Church have made use of the abuse of Indulgences to deny the doctrine of Indulgences, and to break down the teaching and limit the power of the Church. Not to be deceived in matters of faith, we must always distinguish very carefully between the abuses to which a devotion may lead and the truths upon which the devotion rests.

Q. 853. How does the Church by means of Indulgences remit the temporal punishment due to sin?

A. The Church, by means of Indulgences, remits the temporal punishment due to sin by applying to us the merits of Jesus Christ, and the superabundant satisfactions of the Blessed Virgin Mary and of the saints; which merits and satisfactions are its spiritual treasury.

Q. 854. What do we mean by the "superabundant satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints"?

A. By the superabundant satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin and the saints, we mean all the satisfaction over and above what was necessary to satisfy for their own sins. As their good works were many and their sins few -- the Blessed Virgin being sinless -- the satisfaction not needed for themselves is kept by the Church in a spiritual treasury to be used for our benefit.

Q. 855. Does the Church, by granting Indulgences, free us from doing Penance?

A. The Church, by granting Indulgences, does not free us from doing penance, but simply makes our penance lighter that we may more easily satisfy for our sins and escape the punishments they deserve.

Q. 856. Who has the power to grant Indulgences?

A. The Pope alone has the power to grant Indulgences for the whole Church; but the bishops have power to grant partial Indulgences in their own diocese. Cardinals and some others, by the special permission of the Pope, have the right to grant certain Indulgences.

Q. 857. Where shall we find the Indulgences granted by the Church?

A. We shall find the Indulgences granted by the Church in the declarations of the Pope and of the Sacred Congregation of Cardinals. These declarations are usually put into prayer books and books of devotion or instruction.

Q. 858. What must we do to gain an Indulgence?

A. To gain an Indulgence we must be in the state of grace and perform the works enjoined.

Q. 859. Besides being in a state of grace and performing the works enjoined, what else is necessary for the gaining of an Indulgence?

A. Besides being in a state of grace and performing the works enjoined, it is necessary for the gaining of an Indulgence to have at least the general intention of gaining it.

Q. 860. How and why should we make a general intention to gain all possible Indulgences each day?

A. We should make a general intention at our morning prayers to gain all possible Indulgences each day, because several of the prayers we say and good works we perform may have Indulgences attached to them, though we are not aware of it.

Q. 861. What works are generally enjoined for the gaining of Indulgences?

A. The works generally enjoined for the gaining of Indulgences are: The saying of certain prayers, fasting, and the use of certain articles of devotion; visits to Churches or altars, and the giving of alms. For the gaining of Plenary Indulgences it is generally required to go to confession and Holy Communion and pray for the intention of the Pope.

Q. 862. What does praying for a person's intention mean?

A. Praying for a person's intention means praying for whatever he prays for or desires to obtain through prayer -- some spiritual or temporal favors.

Q. 863. What does an Indulgence of forty days mean?

A. An Indulgence of forty days means that for the prayer or work to which an Indulgence of forty days is attached, God remits as much of our temporal punishment as He remitted for forty days' canonical penance. We do not know just how much temporal punishment God remitted for forty days' public penance, but whatever it was, He remits the same now when we gain an Indulgence of forty days. The same rule applies to Indulgences of a year or any length of time.

Q. 864. Why did the Church moderate its severe penances?

A. The Church moderated its severe penances, because when Christians -- terrified by persecution -- grew weaker in their faith, there was danger of some abandoning their religion rather than submit to the penances imposed. The Church, therefore, wishing to save as many as possible, made the sinner's penance as light as possible.

Q. 865. To what things may Indulgences be attached?

A. Plenary or Partial Indulgences may be attached to prayers and solid articles of devotion; to places such as churches, altars, shrines, etc., to be visited; and by a special privilege they are sometimes attached to the good works of certain persons.

Q. 866. When do things lose the Indulgences attached to them?

A. Things lose the Indulgences attached to them:
   1. When they are so changed at once as to be no longer what they were;
   2. When they are sold. Rosaries and other indulgenced articles do not lose their indulgences, when they are loaned or given away, for the indulgence is not personal but attached to the article itself.

Q. 867. Will a weekly Confession suffice to gain during the week all Indulgences to which Confession is enjoined as one of the works?

A Weekly confession will suffice to gain during the week all Indulgences to which confession is enjoined as one of the works, provided we continue in a state of grace, perform the other works enjoined and have the intention of gaining these Indulgences.

Q. 868. How and when may we apply Indulgences for the benefit of the souls in Purgatory?

A. We may apply Indulgences for the benefit of the souls in Purgatory by way of intercession; whenever this application is mentioned and permitted by the Church in granting the Indulgence; that is, when the Church declares that the Indulgence granted is applicable to the souls of the living or the souls in Purgatory; so that we may gain it for the benefit of either.

Twenty-Second Lesson:

On the Holy Eucharist

 

Q. 869. What does the word Eucharist strictly mean?

A. The word Eucharist strictly means pleasing, and this Sacrament is so called because it renders us most pleasing to God by the grace it imparts, and it gives us the best means of thanking Him for all His blessings.

Q. 870. What is the Holy Eucharist?

A. The Holy Eucharist is the Sacrament which contains the body and blood, soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ under the appearances of bread and wine.

Q. 871. What do we mean when we say the Sacrament which contains the Body and Blood?

A. When we say the Sacrament which contains the Body and Blood, we mean the Sacrament which is the Body and Blood, for after the Consecration there is no other substance present in the Eucharist.

Q. 872. When is the Holy Eucharist a Sacrament, and when is it a sacrifice?

A. The Holy Eucharist is a Sacrament when we receive it in Holy Communion and when it remains in the Tabernacle of the Altar. It is a sacrifice when it is offered up at Mass by the separate Consecration of the bread and wine, which signifies the separation of Our Lord's blood from His body when He died on the Cross.

Q. 873. When did Christ institute the Holy Eucharist?

A. Christ instituted the Holy Eucharist at the Last Supper, the night before He died.

Q. 874. Who were present when our Lord instituted the Holy Eucharist?

A. When Our Lord instituted the Holy Eucharist, the twelve Apostles were present.

Q. 875. How did our Lord institute the Holy Eucharist?

A. Our Lord instituted the Holy Eucharist by taking bread, blessing, breaking, and giving to His Apostles, saying: "Take ye and eat. This is my body"; and then, by taking the cup of wine, blessing and giving it, saying to them: "Drink ye all of this. This is my blood which shall be shed for the remission of sins. Do this for a commemoration of me."

Q. 876. What happened when our Lord said, "This is my body; this is my blood"?

A. When Our Lord said, "This is my body," the substance of the bread was changed into the substance of His body; when He said, "This is my blood," the substance of the wine was changed into the substance of His blood.

Q. 877. How do we prove the Real Presence, that is, that Our Lord is really and truly present in the Holy Eucharist?

A. We prove the Real Presence -- that is, that Our Lord is really and truly present in the Holy Eucharist:
   1. By showing that it is possible to change one substance into another;
   2. By showing that Christ did change the substance of bread and wine into the substance of His body and blood;
   3. By showing that He gave this power also to His Apostles and to the priests of His Church.

Q. 878. How do we know that it is possible to change one substance into another?

A. We know that it is possible to change one substance into another, because:
   1. God changed water into blood during the plagues of Egypt.
   2. Christ changed water into wine at the marriage of Cana.
   3. Our own food is daily changed into the substance of our flesh and blood; and what God does gradually, He can also do instantly by an act of His will.

Q. 879. Are these changes exactly the same as the changes that take place in the Holy Eucharist?

A. These changes are not exactly the same as the changes that take place in the Holy Eucharist, for in these changes the appearance also is changed, but in the Holy Eucharist only the substance is changed while the appearance remains the same.

Q. 880. How do we show that Christ did change bread and wine into the substance of His body and blood?

A. We show that Christ did change bread and wine into the substance of His body and blood:
   1. From the words by which He promised the Holy Eucharist;
   2. From the words by which He instituted the Holy Eucharist;
   3. From the constant use of the Holy Eucharist in the Church since the time of the Apostles;
   4. From the impossibility of denying the Real Presence in the Holy Eucharist, without likewise denying all that Christ has taught and done; for we have stronger proofs for the Holy Eucharist than for any other Christian truth.

Q. 881. Is Jesus Christ whole and entire both under the form of bread and under the form of wine?

A. Jesus Christ is whole and entire both under the form of bread and under the form of wine.

Q. 882. How do we know that under the appearance of bread we receive also Christ's blood; and under the appearance of wine we receive also Christ's body?

A. We know that under the appearance of bread we receive also Christ's blood, and under the appearance of wine we receive also Christ's body; because in the Holy Eucharist we receive the living body of Our Lord, and a living body cannot exist without blood, nor can living blood exist without a body.

Q. 883. Is Jesus Christ present whole and entire in the smallest portion of the Holy Eucharist, under the form of either bread or wine?

A. Jesus Christ is present whole and entire in the smallest portion of the Holy Eucharist under the form of either bread or wine; for His body in the Eucharist is in a glorified state, and as it partakes of the character of a spiritual substance, it requires no definite size or shape.

Q. 884. Did anything remain of the bread and wine after their substance had been changed into the substance of the body and blood of our Lord?

A. After the substance of the bread and wine had been changed into the substance of the body and blood of Our Lord, there remained only the appearances of bread and wine.

Q. 885. What do you mean by the appearances of bread and wine?

A. By the appearances of bread and wine I mean the figure, the color, the taste, and whatever appears to the senses.

Q. 886. What is this change of the bread and wine into the body and blood of our Lord called?

A. This change of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Our Lord is called Transubstantiation.

Q. 887. What is the second great miracle in the Holy Eucharist?

A. The second great miracle in the Holy Eucharist is the multiplication of the presence of Our Lord's body in so many places at the same time, while the body itself is not multiplied -- for there is but one body of Christ.

Q. 888. Are there not, then, as many bodies of Christ as there are tabernacles in the world, or as there are Masses being said at the same time?

A. There are not as many bodies of Christ as there are tabernacles in the world, or as there are Masses being said at the same time; but only one body of Christ, which is everywhere present whole and entire in the Holy Eucharist, as God is everywhere present, while He is but one God.

Q. 889. How was the substance of the bread and wine changed into the substance of the body and blood of Christ?

A. The substance of the bread and wine was changed into the substance of the body and blood of Christ by His almighty power.

Q. 890. Does this change of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ continue to be made in the Church?

A. This change of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ continues to be made in the Church by Jesus Christ through the ministry of His priests.

Q. 891. When did Christ give His priests the power to change bread and wine into His body and blood?

A. Christ gave His priests the power to change bread and wine into His body and blood when He said to the Apostles, "Do this in commemoration of Me."

Q. 892. What do the words "Do this in commemoration of Me" mean?

A. The words "Do this in commemoration of Me" mean: Do what I, Christ, am doing at My last supper, namely, changing the substance of bread and wine into the substance of My body and blood; and do it in remembrance of Me.

Q. 893. How do the priests exercise this power of changing bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ?

A. The priests exercise this power of changing bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ through the words of consecration in the Mass, which are words of Christ: "This is my body; this is my blood."

Q. 894. At what part of the Mass does the Consecration take place?

A. The Consecration in the Mass takes place immediately before the elevation of the Host and Chalice, which are raised above the head of the priest that the people may adore Our Lord who has just come to the altar at the words of Consecration.

Twenty-Third Lesson:

On the Ends for which the Holy Eucharist was Instituted

 

Q. 895. Why did Christ institute the Holy Eucharist?

A. Christ instituted the Holy Eucharist:
   1. To unite us to Himself and to nourish our soul with His divine life.
   2. To increase sanctifying grace and all virtues in our soul.
   3. To lessen our evil inclinations.
   4. To be a pledge of everlasting life.
   5. To fit our bodies for a glorious resurrection.
   6. To continue the sacrifice of the Cross in His Church.

Q. 896. Has the Holy Eucharist any other effect?

A. The Holy Eucharist remits venial sins by disposing us to perform acts of love and contrition. It preserves us from mortal sin by exciting us to greater fervor and strengthening us against temptation.

Q. 897. How are we united to Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist?

A. We are united to Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist by means of Holy Communion.

Q. 898. What is Holy Communion?

A. Holy Communion is the receiving of the body and blood of Christ.

Q. 899. Is it not beneath the dignity of Our Lord to enter our bodies under the appearance of ordinary food?

A. It is not beneath the dignity of Our Lord to enter our bodies under the appearance of ordinary food any more than it was beneath His dignity to enter the body of His Blessed Mother and remain there as an ordinary child for nine months. Christ's dignity, being infinite, can never be diminished by any act on His own or on our part.

Q. 900. Why does not the Church give Holy Communion to the people as it does to the priest under the appearance of wine also?

A. The Church does not give Holy Communion to the people as it does to the priest under the appearance of wine also, to avoid the danger of spilling the Precious Blood; to prevent the irreverence some might show if compelled to drink out of a chalice used by all, and lastly, to refute those who denied that Our Lord's blood is present under the appearance of bread also.

Q. 901. What is necessary to make a good Communion?

A. To make a good Communion it is necessary to be in the state of sanctifying grace and to fast according to the laws of the Church.

Q. 902. What should a person do who, through forgetfulness or any other cause, has broken the fast necessary for Holy Communion?

A. A person who through forgetfulness or any other cause has broken the fast necessary for Holy Communion, should again fast and receive Holy Communion the following morning if possible, without returning to confession. It is not a sin to break one's fast, but it would be a mortal sin to receive Holy Communion after knowingly breaking the fast necessary for it.

Q. 903. Does he who receives Communion in mortal sin receive the body and blood of Christ?

A. He who receives Communion in mortal sin receives the body and blood of Christ, but does not receive His grace, and he commits a great sacrilege.

Q. 904. Is it enough to be free from mortal sin to receive plentifully the graces of Holy Communion?

A. To receive plentifully the graces of Holy Communion it is not enough to be free from mortal sin, but we should be free from all affection to venial sin, and should make acts of lively faith, of firm hope, and ardent love.

Q. 905. What is the fast necessary for Holy Communion?

A. The fast necessary for Holy Communion is the abstaining from food, alcoholic drinks and non-alcoholic drinks for one hour before Holy Communion. Water does not break the fast.

Q. 906. Does medicine taken by necessity or food taken by accident break the fast for Holy Communion?

A. Medicine does not break the fast; food taken by accident within one hour before Communion breaks the fast.

Q. 907. Is any one ever allowed to receive Holy Communion when not fasting?

A. To protect the Blessed Sacrament from insult or injury, or when in danger of death, Holy Communion may be received without fasting.

Q. 908. Is the Holy Communion called by any other name when given to one in danger of death?

A. When the Holy Communion is given to one in danger of death, it is called Viaticum, and is given with its own form of prayer. In giving Holy Communion the priest says: "May the body of Our Lord Jesus Christ guard your soul to eternal life." In giving Holy Viaticum he says: "Receive, brother (or sister), the Viaticum of the body of Our Lord Jesus Christ, which will guard you from the wicked enemy and lead you into eternal life."

Q. 909. When are we bound to receive Holy Communion?

A. We are bound to receive Holy Communion, under pain of mortal sin, during the Easter time and when in danger of death.

Q. 910. Is it well to receive Holy Communion often?

A. It is well to receive Holy Communion often, as nothing is a greater aid to a holy life than often to receive the Author of all grace and the Source of all good.

Q. 911. How shall we know how often we should receive Holy Communion?

A. We shall know how often we shall receive Holy Communion only from the advice of our confessor, by whom we must be guided, and whom we must strictly obey in this as well as in all matters concerning the state of our soul.

Q. 912. What is a spiritual Communion?

A. A spiritual communion is an earnest desire to receive Communion in reality, by which desire we make all preparations and thanksgivings that we would make in case we really received the Holy Eucharist. Spiritual Communion is an act of devotion that must be pleasing to God and bring us blessings from Him.

Q. 913. What should we do after Holy Communion?

A. After Holy Communion we should spend some time in adoring Our Lord, in thanking Him for the grace we have received, and in asking Him for the blessings we need.

Q. 914. What length of time should we spend in thanksgiving after Holy Communion?

A. We should spend sufficient time in Thanksgiving after Holy Communion to show due reverence to the Blessed Sacrament; for Our Lord is personally with us as long as the appearance of bread and wine remains.

Q. 915. What should we be particular about when receiving Holy Communion?

A. When receiving Holy Communion we should be particular:
   1. About the respectful manner in which we approach and return from the altar;
   2. About our personal appearance, especially neatness and cleanliness;
   3. About raising our head, opening our mouth and putting forth the tongue in the proper manner;
   4. About swallowing the Sacred Host;
   5. About removing it carefully with the tongue, in case it should stick to the mouth, but never with the finger under any circumstances.

Twenty-Fourth Lesson:

On the Sacrifice of the Mass

 

Q. 916. When and where are the bread and wine changed into the body and blood of Christ?

A. The bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ at the Consecration in the Mass.

Q. 917. What is the Mass?

A. The Mass is the unbloody sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ.

Q. 918. Why is this Sacrifice called the Mass?

A. This Sacrifice is called the "Mass" very probably from the words "Ite Missa est," used by the priest as he tells the people to depart when the Holy Sacrifice is ended.

Q. 919. What is a sacrifice?

A. A sacrifice is the offering of an object by a priest to God alone, and the consuming of it to acknowledge that He is the Creator and Lord of all things.

Q. 920. Is the Mass the same sacrifice as that of the Cross?

A. The Mass is the same sacrifice as that of the Cross.

Q. 921. How is the Mass the same sacrifice as that of the Cross?

A. The Mass is the same sacrifice as that of the Cross because the offering and the priest are the same -- Christ our Blessed Lord; and the ends for which the sacrifice of the Mass is offered are the same as those of the sacrifice of the Cross.

Q. 922. What were the ends for which the sacrifice of the Cross was offered?

A. The ends for which the sacrifice of the Cross was offered were:
   1. To honor and glorify God;
   2. To thank Him for all the graces bestowed on the whole world;
   3. To satisfy God's justice for the sins of men;
   4. To obtain all graces and blessings.

Q. 923. How are the fruits of the Mass distributed?

A. The fruits of the Mass are distributed thus:
   1. The first benefit is bestowed on the priest who says the Mass;
   2. The second on the person for whom the Mass is said, or for the intention for which it is said;
   3. The third on those who are present at the Mass, and particularly on those who serve it, and
   4. The fourth on all the faithful who are in communion with the Church.

Q. 924. Are all Masses of equal value in themselves or do they differ in worth?

A. All Masses are equal in value in themselves and do not differ in worth, but only in the solemnity with which they are celebrated or in the end for which they are offered.

Q. 925. How are Masses distinguished?

A. Masses are distinguished thus:
   1. When the Mass is sung by a bishop, assisted by a deacon and sub-deacon, it is called a Pontifical Mass;
   2. When it is sung by a priest, assisted by a deacon and sub-deacon, it is called a Solemn Mass;
   3. When sung by a priest without deacon and sub-deacon, it is called a Missa Cantata or High Mass;
   4. When the Mass is only read in a low tone it is called a low or private Mass.

Q. 926. For what end or intention may Mass be offered?

A. Mass may be offered for any end or intention that tends to the honor and glory of God, to the good of the Church or the welfare of man; but never for any object that is bad in itself, or in its aims; neither can it be offered publicly for persons who are not members of the true Church.

Q. 927. Explain what is meant by Requiem, Nuptial and Votive Masses.

A. A Requiem Mass is one said in black vestments and with special prayers for the dead. A Nuptial Mass is one said at the marriage of two Catholics, and it has special prayers for their benefit. A Votive Mass is one said in honor of some particular mystery or saint, on a day not set apart by the Church for the honor of that mystery or saint.

Q. 928. From what may we learn that we are to offer up the Holy Sacrifice with the priest?

A. We may learn that we are to offer up the Holy Sacrifice with the priest from the words used in the Mass itself; for the priest, after offering up the bread and wine for the Sacrifice, turns to the people and says: "Orate Fratres," etc., which means: "Pray, brethren, that my sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God the Father Almighty," and the server answers in our name: "May the Lord receive the sacrifice from thy hands to the praise and glory of His own name, and to our benefit and that of all His Holy Church."

Q. 929. From what did the custom of making an offering to the priest for saying Mass arise?

A. The custom of making an offering to the priest for saying Mass arose from the old custom of bringing to the priest the bread and wine necessary for the celebration of Mass.

Q. 930. Is it not simony, or the buying of a sacred thing, to offer the priest money for saying Mass for your intention?

A. It is not simony, or the buying of a sacred thing, to offer the priest money for saying Mass for our intention, because the priest does not take the money for the Mass itself, but for the purpose of supplying the things necessary for Mass and for his own support.

Q. 931. Is there any difference between the sacrifice of the Cross and the sacrifice of the Mass?

A. Yes; the manner in which the sacrifice is offered is different. On the Cross Christ really shed His blood and was really slain; in the Mass there is no real shedding of blood nor real death, because Christ can die no more; but the sacrifice of the Mass, through the separate consecration of the bread and the wine, represents His death on the Cross.

Q. 932. What are the chief parts of the Mass?

A. The chief parts of the Mass are:
   1. The Offertory, at which the priests offers to God the bread and wine to be changed at the Consecration;
   2. The Consecration, at which the substance of the bread and wine are changed into the substance of Christ's body and blood;
   3. The Communion, at which the priest receives into his own body the Holy Eucharist under the appearance of both bread and wine.

Q. 933. At what part of the Mass does the Offertory take place, and what parts of the Mass are said before it?

A. The Offertory takes place immediately after the uncovering of the chalice. The parts of the Mass said before it are: The Introit, Kyrie, Gloria, Prayers, Epistle, Gospel and Creed. The Introit, Prayers, Epistle and Gospel change in each Mass to correspond with the feast celebrated.

Q. 934. What is the part of the Mass called in which the Words of Consecration are found?

A. The part of the Mass in which the words of Consecration are found is called the Canon. This is the most solemn part of the Mass, and is rarely and but slightly changed in any Mass.

Q. 935. What follows the Communion of the Mass?

A. Following the Communion of Mass, there are prayers of thanksgiving, the blessing of the people, and the saying of the last Gospel.

Q. 936. What things are necessary for Mass?

A. The things necessary for Mass are:
   1. An altar with linen covers, candles, crucifix, altar stone and Mass book;
   2. A Chalice with all needed in its use, and bread of flour from wheat and wine from the grape;
   3. Vestments for the priest, and
   4. An acolyte or server.

Q. 937. What is the altar stone, and of what does it remind us?

A. The altar stone is that part of the altar upon which the priest rests the Chalice during Mass. This stone contains some holy relics sealed up in it by the bishop, and if the altar is of wood this stone is inserted just in front of the Tabernacle. The altar stone reminds us of the early history of the Church, when the martyrs' tombs were used for altars by the persecuted Christians.

Q. 938. What lesson do we learn from the practice of using martyrs' tombs for altars?

A. From the practice of using martyrs' tombs for altars we learn the inconvenience, sufferings and dangers the early Christians willingly underwent for the sake of hearing Mass. Since the Mass is the same now as it was then, we should suffer every inconvenience rather than be absent from Mass on Sundays or holy days.

Q. 939. What things are used with the chalice during Mass?

A. The things used with the chalice during Mass are:
   1. The purificator or cloth for wiping the inside;
   2. The paten or small silver plate used in handling the host;
   3. The pall or white card used for covering the chalice at Mass;
   4. The corporal or linen cloth on which the chalice and host rest.

Q. 940. What is the host?

A. The host is the name given to the thin wafer of bread used at Mass. This name is generally applied before and after Consecration to the large particle of bread used by the priest, though the small particles given to the people are also called by the same name.

Q. 941. Are large and small hosts consecrated at every Mass?

A. A large host is consecrated at every Mass, but small hosts are consecrated only at some Masses at which they are to be given to the people or placed in the Tabernacle for the Holy Communion of the faithful.

Q. 942. What vestments does the priest use at Mass and what do they signify?

A. The vestments used by the priest at Mass are:
   1. The Amice, a white cloth around the shoulders to signify resistance to temptation;
   2. The Alb, a long white garment to signify innocence;
   3. The Cincture, a cord about the waist, to signify chastity;
   4. The Maniple or hanging vestment on the left arm, to signify penance;
   5. The Stole or long vestment about the neck, to signify immortality;
   6. The Chasuble or long vestment over all, to signify love and remind the priest, by its cross on front and back, of the Passion of Our Lord.

Q. 943. How many colors of vestments are used, and what do the colors signify?

A. Five colors of vestments are used, namely, white, red, green, violet or purple, and black. White signifies innocence and is used on the feasts of Our Blessed Lord, of the Blessed Virgin, and of some saints. Red signifies love, and is used on the feasts of the Holy Ghost, and of martyrs. Green signifies hope, and is generally used on Sundays from Epiphany to Pentecost. Violet signifies penance, and is used in Lent and Advent. Black signifies sorrow, and is used on Good Friday and at Masses for the dead. Gold is often used for white on great feasts.

Q. 944. What is the Tabernacle and what is the Ciborium?

A. The Tabernacle is the house-shaped part of the altar where the sacred vessels containing the Blessed Sacrament are kept. The Ciborium is the large silver or gold vessel which contains the Blessed Sacrament while in the Tabernacle, and from which the priest gives Holy Communion to the people.

Q. 945. What is the Ostensorium or Monstrance?

A. The Ostensorium or Monstrance is the beautiful wheel-like vessel in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed and kept during the Benediction.

Q. 946. How should we assist at Mass?

A. We should assist at Mass with great interior recollection and piety and with every outward mark of respect and devotion.

Q. 947. Which is the best manner of hearing Mass?

A. The best manner of hearing Mass is to offer it to God with the priest for the same purpose for which it is said, to meditate on Christ's sufferings and death, and to go to Holy Communion.

Q. 948. What is important for the proper and respectful hearing of Mass?

A. For the proper and respectful hearing of Mass it is important to be in our place before the priest comes to the altar and not to leave it before the priest leaves the altar. Thus we prevent the confusion and distraction caused by late coming and too early leaving. Standing in the doorways, blocking up passages and disputing about places should, out of respect for the Holy Sacrifice, be most carefully avoided.

Q. 949. What is Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, and what vestments are used at it?

A. Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament is an act of divine worship in which the Blessed Sacrament, placed in the ostensorium, is exposed for the adoration of the people and is lifted up to bless them. The vestments used at Benediction are: A cope or large silk cloak and a humeral or shoulder veil.

Q. 950. Why does the priest wear special vestments and use certain ceremonies while performing his sacred duties?

A. The priest wears special vestments and uses certain ceremonies while performing his sacred duties:
   1. To give greater solemnity and to command more attention and respect at divine worship;
   2. To instruct the people in the things that these vestments and ceremonies signify;
   3. To remind the priest himself of the importance and sacred character of the work in which he is the representative of Our Lord Himself. Hence we should learn the meaning of the ceremonies of the Church.

Q. 951. How do we show that the ceremonies of the Church are reasonable and proper?

A. We show that the ceremonies of the Church are reasonable and proper from the fact that all persons in authority, rulers, judges and masters, require certain acts of respect from their subjects, and as we know Our Lord is present on the altar, the Church requires definite acts of reverence and respect at the services held in His honor and in His presence.

Q. 952. Are there other reasons for the use of ceremonies?

A. There are other reasons for the use of ceremonies:
   1. God commanded ceremonies to be used in the old law, and
   2. Blessed Lord Himself made use of ceremonies in performing some of His miracles.

Q. 953. How are the persons who take part in a Solemn Mass or Vespers named?

A. The persons who take part in a Solemn Mass or Vespers are named as follows: The priest who says or celebrates the Mass is called the celebrant; those who assist him as deacon and sub-deacon are called the ministers; those who serve are called acolytes, and the one who directs the ceremonies is called the master of ceremonies. If the celebrant be a bishop, the Mass or Vespers is called Pontifical Mass or Pontifical Vespers.

Q. 954. What is Vespers?

A. Vespers is a portion of the divine office or daily prayer of the Church. It is sung in Churches generally on Sunday afternoon or evening, and is usually followed by Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament.

Q. 955. Can one satisfy for neglecting Mass on Sunday by hearing Vespers on the same day?

A. One cannot satisfy for neglecting Mass on Sunday by hearing Vespers on the same day, because there is no law of the Church obliging us under pain of sin to attend Vespers, while there is a law obliging us under pain of mortal sin to hear Mass.

Twenty-Fifth Lesson:

On Extreme Unction and Holy Orders

 

Q. 956. What is the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?

A. Extreme Unction is the Sacrament which, through the anointing and prayer of the priest, gives health and strength to the soul, and sometimes to the body, when we are in danger of death from sickness.

Q. 957. Why is this Sacrament called Extreme Unction?

A. Extreme means last, and Unction means an anointing or rubbing with oil, and because Catholics are anointed with oil at Baptism, Confirmation and Holy Orders, the last Sacrament in ,which oil is used is called Extreme Unction, or the last Unction or anointing.

Q. 958. Is this Sacrament called Extreme Unction if the person recovers after receiving it?

A. This Sacrament is always called Extreme Unction, even if it must be given several times to the same person, for Extreme Unction is the proper name of the Sacrament, and it may be given as often as a person recovering from one attack of sickness is in danger of death by another. In a lingering illness it may be repeated after a month or six weeks, if the person slightly recovers and again relapses into a dangerous condition.

Q. 959. To whom may Extreme Unction be given?

A. Extreme Unction may be given to all Christians dangerously ill, who have ever been capable of committing sin after baptism and who have the right dispositions for the Sacrament. Hence it is never given to children who have not reached the use of reason, nor to persons who have always been insane.

Q. 960. What are the right dispositions for Extreme Unction?

A. The right dispositions for Extreme Unction are:
   1. Resignation to the Will of God with regard to our recovery;
   2. A state of grace or at least contrition for sins committed, and
   3. A general intention or desire to receive the Sacrament. This Sacrament is never given to heretics in danger of death, because they cannot be supposed to have the intention necessary for receiving it, nor the desire to make use of the Sacrament of Penance in putting themselves in a state of grace.

Q. 961. When and by whom was Extreme Unction instituted?

A. Extreme Unction was instituted at the time of the apostles, for James the Apostle exhorts the sick to receive it. It was instituted by Our Lord Himself -- though we do not know at what particular time -- for He alone can make a visible act a means of grace, and the apostles and their successors could never have believed Extreme Unction a Sacrament and used it as such unless they had Our Lord's authority for so doing.

Q. 962. When should we receive Extreme Unction?

A. We should receive Extreme Unction when we are in danger of death from sickness, or from a wound or accident.

Q. 963. What parts of the body are anointed in Extreme Unction?

A. The parts of the body anointed in Extreme Unction are: The eyes, the ears, the nose or nostrils, the lips, the hands and the feet, because these represent our senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, which are the means through which we have committed most of our sins.

Q. 964. What things should be prepared in the sick-room when the priest is coming to give the last Sacraments?

A. When the priest is coming to give the last Sacraments, the following things should be prepared: a table covered with a white cloth; a crucifix; two lighted candles in candlesticks; holy water in a small vessel, with a small piece of palm for a sprinkler; a glass of clean water; a tablespoon and a napkin or cloth, to be placed under the chin of the one receiving the Viaticum. Besides these, if Extreme Unction also is to be given, there should be some cotton and a small piece of bread or lemon to purify the priest's fingers.

Q. 965. What seems most proper with regard to the things necessary for the last Sacraments?

A. It seems most proper that the things necessary for the last Sacraments should be carefully kept in every Catholic family, and should never, if possible, be used for any other purpose.

Q. 966. What else is to be observed about the preparation for the administration of the last Sacraments?

A. The further preparation for the administration of the last Sacraments requires that out of respect for the Sacraments, and in particular for the presence of Our Lord, everything about the sick-room, the sick person and even the attendants, should be made as neat and clean as possible. Especially should the face, hands and feet of the one to be anointed be thoroughly clean.

Q. 967. Should we wait until we are in extreme danger before we receive Extreme Unction?

A. We should not wait until we are in extreme danger before we receive Extreme Unction, but if possible we should receive it whilst we have the use of our senses.

Q. 968. What should we do in case of serious illness if the sick person will not consent or is afraid to receive the Sacraments, or, at least, wishes to put off their reception?

A. In case of serious illness, if the sick person will not consent, or is afraid to receive the Sacraments, or, at least, wishes to put off their reception, we should send for the priest at once and let him do what he thinks best in the case, and thus we will free ourselves from the responsibility of letting a Catholic die without the last Sacraments.

Q. 969. Which are the effects of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?

A. The effects of Extreme Unction are:
   1. To comfort us in the pains of sickness and to strengthen us against temptations;
   2. To remit venial sins and to cleanse our soul from the remains of sin;
   3. To restore us to health, when God sees fit.

Q. 970. Will Extreme Unction take away mortal sin if the dying person is no longer able to confess?

A. Extreme Unction will take away mortal sin if the dying person is no longer able to confess, provided he has the sorrow for his sins that would bee necessary for the worthy reception of the Sacrament of Penance.

Q. 971. How do we know that this Sacrament, more than any other, was instituted to benefit the body?

A. We know that this Sacrament more than any other was instituted to benefit the body:
   1. From the words of St. James exhorting us to receive it;
   2. It is given when the soul is already purified by the graces of Penance and Holy Viaticum;
   3. One of its chief objects is to restore us to health if it be for our spiritual good, as most of the prayers said in giving this Sacrament indicate.

Q. 972. Since Extreme Unction may restore us to health, should we not be glad to receive it?

A. Since Extreme Unction may restore us to health. we should be glad to receive it, and we should not delay its reception till we are so near death that God could restore us only by a miracle. Again, this Sacrament, like the others, gives sanctifying and sacramental grace, which we should be eager to obtain as soon as our sickness is sufficient to give us the privilege of receiving the last Sacraments.

Q. 973. What do you mean by the remains of sin?

A. By the remains of sin I mean the inclination to evil and the weakness of the will which are the result of our sins, and which remain after our sins have been forgiven.

Q. 974. How should we receive the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?

A. We should receive the Sacrament of Extreme Unction in the state of grace, and with lively faith and resignation to the will of God.

Q. 975. Who is the minister of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?

A. The priest is the minister of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction.

Q. 976. What is the final preparation we should make for the reception of the last Sacraments?

A. The final preparation we should make for the reception of the last Sacraments consists in an earnest effort to be resigned to God's Holy Will, to excite ourselves to true sorrow for our sins, to profit by the graces given us, to keep worldly thoughts from the mind, and to dispose ourselves as best we can for the worthy reception of the Sacraments and the blessings of a good death.

Q. 977. At what time should persons dangerously ill attend to the final arrangement of their temporal or worldly affairs?

A. Persons dangerously ill should attend to the final arrangement of their temporal or worldly affairs at the very beginning of their illness, that these things may not distract them at the hour of death, and that they may give the last hours of their life entirely to the care of their soul.

Q. 978. What is the Sacrament of Holy Orders?

A. Holy Orders is a Sacrament by which bishops, priests, and other ministers of the Church are ordained and receive the power and grace to perform their sacred duties.

Q. 979. Besides bishops and priests, who are the other ministers of the Church?

A. Besides bishops and priests, the other ministers of the Church are deacons and subdeacons, who, while preparing for the priesthood, have received some of the Holy Orders, but who have not been ordained to the full powers of the priest.

Q. 980. Why is this Sacrament called Holy Orders?

A. This Sacrament is called Holy Orders because it is conferred by seven different grades or steps following one another in fixed order by which the sacred powers of the priesthood are gradually given to the one admitted to that holy state.

Q. 981. What are the grades by which one ascends to the priesthood?

A. The grades by which one ascends to the priesthood are:
   1. Tonsure, or the clipping of the hair by the bishop, by which the candidate for priesthood dedicates himself to the service of the altar;
   2. The four minor orders, Porter, Reader, Exorcist, and Acolyte, by which he is permitted to perform certain duties that laymen should not perform;
   3. Sub-deaconship, by which he takes upon himself the obligation of leading a life of perpetual chastity and of saying daily the divine office;
   4. Deaconship, by which be receives power to preach, baptize, and give Holy Communion. The next step, priesthood, gives him power to offer the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and forgive sins. These orders are not all given at once, but at times fixed by the laws of the Church.

Q. 982. Are not the different orders separate Sacraments?

A. These different orders are not separate Sacraments. Taken all together, some are a preparation for the Sacrament and the rest are but the one Sacrament of Holy Orders; as the roots, trunk and branches form but one tree.

Q. 983. What name is given to sub-deaconship, deaconship and priesthood?

A. Sub-deaconship, deaconship and priesthood are called major or greater orders, because those who receive them are bound for life to the service of the altar and they cannot return to the service of the world to live as ordinary laymen.

Q. 984. What double power does the Church possess and confer on her pastors?

A. The Church possesses and confers on her pastor, the power of orders and the power of jurisdiction; that is, the power to administer the Sacraments and sanctify the faithful, and the power to teach and make laws that direct the faithful to their spiritual good. A bishop has the full power of orders and the Pope alone has the full power of jurisdiction.

Q. 985. How do the pastors of the Church rank according to authority?

A. The pastors of the Church rank according to authority as follows:
   1. Priests, who govern parishes or congregations in the name of their bishop;
   2. Bishops, who rule over a number of parishes or a diocese;
   3. Archbishops, who have authority over a number of dioceses or a province;
   4. Primates, who have authority over the ecclesiastical or Church provinces of a nation;
   5. Patriarchs, who have authority over a whole country;
   6. and last and highest, the Pope, who rules the Church throughout the world.

Q. 986. How do the prelates or higher officers of the Church rank in dignity?

A. The prelates or higher officers of the Church rank in dignity as they rank in authority, except that in dignity Cardinals are next to the Pope, and Vicars Apostolic, Monsignor, and others having titles follow bishops. Papal delegates and those specially appointed by the Pope rank according to the powers he has given them.

Q. 987. Who are Cardinals, what are their duties and how are they divided?

A. Cardinals are the members of the Supreme Council or Senate of the Church. Their duties are to advise and aid the Pope in the government of the Church, and to elect a new Pope when the reigning Pope dies. They are divided into committees called sacred congregations, each having, its special work to perform. All these congregations taken together are called the Sacred College of Cardinals, of which the whole number is seventy.

Q. 988. Who is a Monsignor?

A. A Monsignor is a worthy priest upon whom the Pope confers this title as a mark of esteem. It gives certain privileges and the right to wear purple like a bishop.

Q. 989. Who is a Vicar-General?

A. A Vicar-General is one who is appointed by the bishop to aid him in the government of his diocese. He shares the bishop's power and in the bishop's absence he acts for the bishop and with his authority.

Q. 990. Who is an Abbot?

A. An Abbot is one who exercises over a religious community of men authority similar in many things to that exercised by a bishop over his diocese. He has also certain privileges usually granted to bishops.

Q. 991. What is the pallium?

A. The pallium is a white woolen vestment worn by the Pope and sent by him to patriarchs, primates and archbishops. It is the symbol of the fullness of pastoral power, and reminds the wearer of the Good Shepherd, whose example he must follow.

Q. 992. What is necessary to receive Holy Orders worthily?

A. To receive Holy Orders worthily it is necessary to be in the state of grace, to have the necessary knowledge and a divine call to this sacred office.

Q. 993. What name is given to this divine call and how can we discover this call?

A. This divine call is named a vocation to the priestly or religious life. We can discover it in our constant inclination to such a life from the pure and holy motive of serving God better in it, together with our fitness for it, or, at least, our ability to prepare for it, also in our true piety and mastery over our sinful passions and unlawful desires.

Q. 994. How should we finally determine our vocation?

A. We should finally determine our vocation: (1) By leading a holy life that we may be more worthy of it; (2) By praying to the Holy Ghost for light on the subject; (3) By seeking the advice of holy and prudent persons and above all of our confessor.

Q. 995. What should parents and guardians bear in mind with regard to their children's vocations?

A. Parents and guardians should bear in mind with regard to their children's vocations:
   1. That it is their duty to aid their children to discover their vocation;
   2. That it is sinful for them to resist the Will of God by endeavoring to turn their children from their true vocation or to prevent them from following it by placing obstacles in their way, and, worst of all, to urge them to enter a state of life to which they have not been divinely called;
   3. That in giving their advice they should be guided only by the future good and happiness of their children and not by any selfish or worldly motive which may lead to the loss of souls.

Q. 996. How should Christians look upon the priests of the Church?

A. Christians should look upon the priests of the Church as the messengers of God and the dispensers of His mysteries.

Q. 997. How do we know that the priests of the Church are the messengers of God?

A. We know that the priests of the Church are the messengers of God, because Christ said to His apostles, and through them to their successors: "As the Father hath sent Me, I also send you"; that is to say, to preach the true religion, to administer the Sacraments, to offer Sacrifice, and to do all manner of good for the salvation of souls.

Q. 998. When did the priests of the Church receive this threefold power to preach, to forgive sins and to consecrate bread and wine?

A. The priests of the Church received this three-fold power to preach, to forgive sins and to consecrate bread and wine, when Christ said to them, through the apostles: "Go teach all nations"; "Whose sins you shall forgive they are forgiven," and "Do this for a commemoration of Me."

Q. 999. Why should we show great respect to the priests and bishops of the Church?

A. We should show great respect to the priests and bishops of the Church:
   1. Because they are the representatives of Christ upon earth, and
   2. Because they administer the Sacraments without which we cannot be saved. Therefore, we should be most careful in what we do, say or think concerning God's ministers. To show our respect in proportion to their dignity, we address the priest as Reverend, the bishop as Right Reverend, the archbishop as Most Reverend, and the Pope as Holy Father.

Q. 1000. Should we do more than merely respect the ministers of God?

A. We should do more than merely respect the ministers of God. We should earnestly and frequently pray for them, that they may be enabled to perform the difficult and important duties of their holy state in a manner pleasing to God.

Q. 1001. Who can confer the Sacrament of Holy Orders?

A. Bishops can confer the Sacrament of Holy Orders.

Q. 1002. How do we know that there is a true priesthood in the Church?

A. We know that there is a true priesthood in the Church:
   1. Because in the Jewish religion, which was only a figure of the Christian religion, there was a true priesthood established by God;
   2. Because Christ conferred on His apostles and not on all the faithful the power to offer Sacrifice, distribute the Holy Eucharist and forgive sins.

Q. 1003. But is there need of a special Sacrament of Holy Orders to confer these powers?

A. There is need of a special Sacrament of Holy Orders to confer these powers:
   1. Because the priesthood which is to continue the work of the apostles must be visible in the Church, and it must therefore be conferred by some visible ceremony or outward sign;
   2. Because this outward sign called Holy Orders gives not only power but grace and was instituted by Christ, Holy Orders must be a Sacrament.

Q. 1004. Can bishops, priests and other ministers of the Church always exercise the power they have received in Holy Orders?

A. Bishops, priests and other ministers of the Church cannot exercise the power they have received in Holy Orders unless authorized and sent to do so by their lawful superiors. The power can never be taken from them, but the right to use it may be withdrawn for causes laid down in the laws of the Church, or for reasons that seem good to those in authority over them. Any use of sacred power without authority is sinful, and all who take part in such ceremonies are guilty of sin.

Twenty-Sixth Lesson:

On Matrimony

 

Q. 1005. What is the Sacrament of Matrimony?

A. The Sacrament of Matrimony is the Sacrament which unites a Christian man and woman in lawful marriage.

Q. 1006. When are persons lawfully married?

A. Persons are lawfully married when they comply with all the laws of God and of the Church relating to marriage. To marry unlawfully is a mortal sin, and it deprives the souls of the grace of the Sacrament.

Q. 1007. When was marriage first instituted?

A. Marriage was first instituted in the Garden of Eden, when God created Adam and Eve and made them husband and wife, but it was not then a Sacrament, for their union did not confer any special grace.

Q. 1008. When was the contract of marriage raised to the dignity of a Sacrament?

A. The exact time at which the contract of marriages was raised to the dignity of a Sacrament is not known, but the fact that it was thus raised is certain from passages in the New Testament and from the constant teaching of the Church ever since the time of the apostles. Our Lord did not merely add grace to the contract, but He made the very contract a Sacrament, so that Christians cannot make this contract without receiving the Sacrament.

Q. 1009. What is the outward sign in the Sacrament of Matrimony, and in what does the whole essence of the marriage contract consist?

A. The outward sign in the Sacrament of matrimony is the mutual consent of the persons, expressed by words or signs in accordance with the laws of the Church. The whole essence of the marriage contract consists in the surrender by the persons of their bodies to each other and in declaring by word or sign that they make this surrender and take each other for husband and wife now and for life.

Q. 1010. What are the chief ends of the Sacrament of Matrimony?

A. The chief ends of the Sacrament of matrimony are:
   1. To enable the husband and wife to aid each other in securing the salvation of their souls;
   2. To propagate or keep up the existence of the human race by bringing children into the world to serve God;
   3. To prevent sins against the holy virtue of purity by faithfully obeying the laws of the marriage state.

Q. 1011. Can a Christian man and woman be united in lawful marriage in any other way than by the Sacrament of Matrimony?

A. A Christian man and woman cannot be united in lawful marriage in any other way than by the Sacrament of Matrimony, because Christ raised marriage to the dignity of a sacrament.

Q. 1012. Were, then, all marriages before the coming of Christ unlawful and invalid?

A. All marriages before the coming of Christ were not unlawful and invalid. They were both lawful and valid when the persons contracting them followed the dictates of their conscience and the laws of God as they knew them; but such marriages were only contracts. Through their evil inclinations many forgot or neglected the true character of marriage till Our Lord restored it to its former unity and purity.

Q. 1013. What do we mean by impediments to marriage?

A. By impediments to marriage we mean certain restrictions, imposed by the law of God or of the Church, that render the marriage invalid or unlawful when they are violated in entering into it. These restrictions regard age, health, relationship, intention, religion and other matters affecting the good of the Sacrament.

Q. 1014. Can the Church dispense from or remove these impediments to marriage?

A. The Church can dispense from or remove the impediments to marriage that arise from its own laws; but it cannot dispense from impediments that arise from the laws of God and nature. Every lawmaker can change or excuse from the laws made by himself or his equals, but he cannot, of his own authority, change or excuse from laws made by a higher power.

Q. 1015. What is required that the Church may grant, when it is able, dispensations from the impediments to marriage or from other laws?

A. That the Church may grant dispensations from the impediments to marriage or from other laws, there must be a good and urgent reason for granting such dispensations. The Church does not grant dispensations without cause and merely to satisfy the wishes of those who ask for them.

Q. 1016. Why does the Church sometimes require the persons to whom dispensations are granted to pay a tax or fee for the privilege?

A. The Church sometimes requires the persons to whom dispensations are granted to pay a tax or fee for the privilege:
   1. That persons on account of this tax be restrained from asking for dispensations and may comply with the general laws;
   2. That the Church may not have to bear the expense of supporting an office for granting privileges to a few.

Q. 1017. What should persons who are about to get married do?

A. Persons who are about to get married should give their pastor timely notice of their intention, make known to him privately whatever they suspect might be an impediment to the marriage, and make sure of all arrangements before inviting their friends.

Q. 1018. What timely notice of marriage should be given to the priest, and why?

A. At least three weeks notice of marriage should be given to the priest, because, according to the laws of the Church, the names of the persons about to get married must be announced and their intended marriage published at the principal Mass in their parish for three successive Sundays.

Q. 1019. Why are the banns of matrimony published in the Church?

A. The banns of matrimony are published in the Church that any person who might know of any impediment to the marriage may have an opportunity to declare it privately to the priest before the marriage takes place and thus prevent an invalid or unlawful marriage. Persons who know of such impediments and fail to declare them in due time are guilty of sin

Q. 1020. What things in particular should persons arranging for their marriage make known to the priest?

A. Persons arranging for their marriage should make known to the priest whether both are Christians and Catholics; whether either has been solemnly engaged to another person; whether they have ever made any vow to God with regard to chastity or the like; whether they are related and in what degree; whether either was ever married to any member of the other's family and whether either was ever godparent in baptism for the other.

Q. 1021. What else must they make known?

A. They must also make known whether either was married before and what proof can be given of the death of the former husband or wife; whether they really intend to get married, and do so of their own will; whether they are of lawful age; whether they are sound in body or suffering from any deformity that might prevent their marriage, and lastly, whether they live in the parish in which they ask to be married, and if so, how long they have lived in it.

Q. 1022. What is particularly necessary that persons may do their duty in the marriage state?

A. That persons may do their duty in the marriage state, it is particularly necessary that they should be well instructed, before entering it, in the truths and duties of their religion for how will they teach their children these things if they are ignorant of them themselves?

Q. 1023. Can the bond of Christian marriage be dissolved by any human power?

A. The bond of Christian marriage cannot be dissolved by any human power.

Q. 1024. Does not a divorce granted by courts of justice break the bond of marriage?

A. Divorce granted by courts of justice or by any human power does not break the bond of marriage, and one who makes use of such a divorce to marry again while the former husband or wife lives commits a sacrilege and lives in the sin of adultery. A civil divorce may give a sufficient reason for the persons to live apart and it may determine their rights with regard to support, the control of the children and other temporal things, but it has no effect whatever upon the bond and spiritual nature of the Sacrament.

Q. 1025. Does not the Church sometimes allow husband and wife to separate and live apart?

A. The Church sometimes, for very good reasons, does allow husband and wife to separate and live apart; but that is not dissolving the bond of marriage, or divorce as it is called, for though separated they are still husband and wife, and neither can marry again till the other dies.

Q. 1026. Has not the Church sometimes allowed Catholics once married to separate and marry again?

A. The Church has never allowed Catholics once really married to separate and marry again, but it has sometimes declared persons apparently married free to marry again, because their first marriage was null; that is, no marriage on account of some impediment not discovered till after the ceremony.

Q. 1027. What evils follow divorce so commonly claimed by those outside the true Church and granted by civil authority?

A. The evils that follow divorce so commonly claimed by those outside the true Church and granted by civil authority are very many; but chiefly:
   1. A disregard for the sacred character of the Sacrament and for the spiritual welfare of the children;
   2. The loss of the true idea of home and family followed by bad morals and sinful living.

Q. 1028. Which are the effects of the Sacrament of Matrimony?

A. The effects of the Sacrament of Matrimony are:
   1. To sanctify the love of husband and wife;
   2. To give them grace to bear with each other's weaknesses;
   3. To enable them to bring up their children in the fear and love of God.

Q. 1029. What do we mean by bearing with each other's weaknesses?

A. By bearing with each other's weaknesses we mean that the husband and wife must be patient with each other's faults, bad habits or dispositions, pardon them easily, and aid each other in overcoming them.

Q. 1030. How are parents specially fitted to bring up their children in the fear and love of God?

A. Parents are specially fitted to bring up their children in the fear and love of God:
   1. By the special grace they receive to advise and direct their children and to warn them against evil;
   2. By the experience they have acquired in passing through life from childhood to the position of parents. Children should, therefore, conscientiously seek and accept the direction of good parents.

Q. 1031. To receive the Sacrament of Matrimony worthily is it necessary to be in the state of grace?

A. To receive the Sacrament of Matrimony worthily it is necessary to be in the state of grace, and it is necessary also to comply with the laws of the Church.

Q. 1032. With what laws of the Church are we bound to comply in receiving the Sacrament of Matrimony?

A. In receiving the Sacrament of matrimony we are bound to comply with whatever laws of the Church concern Matrimony; such as laws forbidding solemn marriage in Lent and Advent; or marriage with relatives or with persons of a different religion, and in general all laws that refer to any impediment to marriage.

Q. 1033. In how many ways may persons be related?

A. Persons may be related in four ways. When they are related by blood their relationship is called consanguinity; when they are related by marriage it is called affinity; when they are related by being god-parents in Baptism or Confirmation, it is called spiritual affinity; when they are related by adoption, it is called legal affinity.

Q. 1034. Who has the right to make laws concerning the Sacrament of marriage?

A. The Church alone has the right to make laws concerning the Sacrament of marriage, though the state also has the right to make laws concerning the civil effects of the marriage contract.

Q. 1035. What do we mean by laws concerning the civil effects of the marriage contract?

A. By laws concerning the civil effects of the marriage contract we mean laws with regard to the property or debts of the husband and wife, the inheritance of their children, or whatever pertains to their temporal affairs. All persons are bound to obey the laws of their country when these laws are not opposed to the laws of God.

Q. 1036. Does the Church forbid the marriage of Catholics with persons who have a different religion or no religion at all?

A. The Church does forbid the marriage of Catholics with persons who have a different religion or no religion at all.

Q. 1037. Why does the Church forbid the marriage of Catholics with persons who have a different religion or no religion at all?

A. The Church forbids the marriage of Catholics with persons who have a different religion, or no religion at all, because such marriages generally lead to indifference, loss of faith, and to the neglect of the religious education of the children.

Q. 1038. What are the marriages of Catholics with persons of a different religion called, and when does the Church permit them by dispensation?

A. The marriages of Catholics with persons of a different religion are called mixed marriages. The Church permits them by dispensation only under certain conditions and for urgent reasons; chiefly to prevent a greater evil.

Q. 1039. What are the conditions upon which the Church will permit a Catholic to marry one who is not a Catholic?

A. The conditions upon which the Church will permit a Catholic to marry one who is not a Catholic are:
   1. That the Catholic be allowed the free exercise of his or her religion;
   2. That the Catholic shall try by teaching and good example to lead the one who is not a Catholic to embrace the true faith;
   3. That all the children born of the marriage shall be brought up in the Catholic religion. The marriage ceremony must not be repeated before a heretical minister. Without these promises, the Church will not consent to a mixed marriage, and if the Church does not consent the marriage is unlawful.

Q. 1040. What penalty does the Church impose on Catholics who marry before a Protestant minister?

A. Catholics who marry before a Protestant minister incur excommunication; that is, a censure of the Church or spiritual penalty which prevents them from receiving the Sacrament of Penance till the priest who hears their confession gets special faculties or permission from the bishop; because by such a marriage they make profession of a false religion in acknowledging as a priest one who has neither sacred power nor authority.

Q. 1041. How does the Church show its displeasure at mixed marriages?

A. The Church shows its displeasure at mixed marriages by the coldness with which it sanctions them, prohibiting all religious ceremony at them by forbidding the priest to use any sacred vestments, holy water or blessing of the ring at such marriages; by prohibiting them also from taking place in the Church or even in the sacristy. On the other hand, the Church shows its joy and approval at a true Catholic marriage by the Nuptial Mass and solemn ceremonies.

Q. 1042. Why should Catholics avoid mixed marriages?

A. Catholics should avoid mixed marriages:
   1. Because they are displeasing to the Church and cannot bring with them the full measure of God's grace and blessing;
   2. Because the children should have the good example of both parents in the practice of their religion;
   3. Because such marriages give rise to frequent disputes on religious questions between husband and wife and between their relatives;
   4. Because the one not a Catholic, disregarding the sacred character of the Sacrament, may claim a divorce and marry again, leaving the Catholic married and abandoned.

Q. 1043. Does the Church seek to make converts by its laws concerning mixed marriages?

A. The Church does not seek to make converts by its laws concerning mixed marriages, but seeks only to keep its children from losing their faith and becoming perverts by constant company with persons not Catholics. The Church does not wish persons to become Catholics merely for the sake of marrying Catholics. Such conversions are, as a rule, not sincere, do no good, but rather make such converts hypocrites and guilty of greater sins, especially sins of sacrilege.

Q. 1044. Why do many marriages prove unhappy?

A. Many marriages prove unhappy because they are entered into hastily and without worthy motives.

Q. 1045. When are marriages entered into hastily?

A. Marriages are entered into hastily when persons do not sufficiently consider and investigate the character, habits and dispositions of the one they intend to marry. It is wise to look for lasting qualities and solid virtues in a life-long companion and not to be carried away with characteristics that please only for a time.

Q. 1046. When are motives for marriage worthy?

A. Motives for marriage are worthy when persons enter it for the sake of doing God's will and fulfilling the end for which He instituted the Sacrament. Whatever is opposed to the true object of the Sacrament and the sanctification of the husband and wife must be an unworthy motive.

Q. 1047. How should Christians prepare for a holy and happy marriage?

A. Christians should prepare for a holy and happy marriage by receiving the Sacraments of Penance and Holy Eucharist; by begging God to grant them a pure intention and to direct their choice; and by seeking the advice of their parents and the blessing of their pastors.

Q. 1048. How may parents be guilty of great injustice to their children in case of marriage?

A. Parents may be guilty of great injustice to their children in case of marriage by seeking the gratification of their own aims and desires, rather than the good of their children, and thus for selfish and unreasonable motives forcing their children to marry persons they dislike or preventing them from marrying the persons chosen by the dictates of their conscience, or compelling them to marry when they have no vocation for such a life or no true knowledge of its obligations.

Q. 1049. May persons receive the Sacrament of Matrimony more than once?

A. Persons may receive the sacrament of Matrimony more than once, provided they are certain of the death of the former husband or wife and comply with the laws of the Church.

Q. 1050. Where and at what time of the day should Catholics be married?

A. Catholics should be married before the altar in the Church. They should be married in the morning, and with a Nuptial Mass if possible.

Q. 1051. What must never be forgotten by those who attend a marriage ceremony in the Church?

A. They who attend a marriage ceremony in the Church must never forget the presence of the Blessed Sacrament, and that all laughing, talking, or irreverence is forbidden then as at other times. Women must never enter into the presence of the Blessed Sacrament with uncovered heads, and their dress must be in keeping with the strict modesty that Our Lord's presence demands, no matter what worldly vanity or social manners may require.

 Twenty-Seventh Lesson:

On the Sacramentals

 

Q. 1052. What is a sacramental?

A. A sacramental is anything set apart or blessed by the Church to excite good thoughts and to increase devotion, and through these movements of the heart to remit venial sin.

Q. 1053. How do the Sacramentals excite good thoughts and increase devotion?

A. The Sacramentals excite good thoughts by recalling to our minds some special reason for doing good and avoiding evil; especially by reminding us of some holy person, event or thing through which blessings have come to us. They increase devotion by fixing our minds on particular virtues and by helping us to understand and desire them.

Q. 1054. Do the Sacramentals of themselves remit venial sins?

A. The Sacramentals of themselves do not remit venial sins, but they move us to truer devotion, to greater love for God and greater sorrow for our sins, and this devotion, love and sorrow bring us grace, and the grace remits venial sins.

Q. 1055. Why does the Church use Sacramentals?

A. The Church uses Sacramentals to teach the faithful of every class the truths of religion, which they may learn as well by their sight as by their hearing; for God wishes us to learn His laws by every possible means, by every power of soul and body.

Q. 1056. Show by an example how Sacramentals aid the ignorant in learning the truths of faith.

A. Sacramentals aid the ignorant in learning the truths of faith as children learn from pictures before they are able to read. Thus one who cannot read the account of Our Lord's passion may learn it from the Stations of the Cross, and one who kneels before a crucifix and looks on the bleeding head, pierced hands and wounded side, is better able to understand Christ's sufferings than one without a crucifix before him.

Q. 1057. What are the Stations or Way of the Cross?

A. The Stations or Way of the Cross is a devotion instituted by the Church to aid us in meditating on Christ's passion and death. Fourteen crosses or stations, each with a picture of some scene in the passion, are arranged at distances apart. By passing from one station to another and praying before each while we meditate upon the scene it represents, we make the Way of the Cross in memory of Christ's painful journey during His passion, and we gain the indulgence granted for this pious exercise.

Q. 1058. Are prayers and ceremonies of the Church also Sacramentals?

A. Prayers and ceremonies of the Church are also Sacramentals because they excite good thoughts and increase devotion. Whatever the Church dedicates to a pious use or devotes to the worship of God may be called a Sacramental.

Q. 1059. On what ground does the Church make use of ceremonies?

A. The Church makes use of ceremonies:
   1. After the example of the Old Law, in which God described and commanded ceremonies;
   2. After the example of Our Lord, who rubbed clay on the eyes of the blind to whom He wished to restore sight, though He might have performed the miracle without any external act;
   3. On the authority of the Church itself, to whom Christ gave power to do whatever was necessary for the instruction of all men;
   4. To add solemnity to religious acts.

Q. 1060. How may persons sin in using Sacramentals?

A. Persons may sin in using Sacramentals by using them in a way or for a purpose prohibited by the Church; also by believing that the use of Sacramentals will save us in spite of our sinful lives. We must remember that Sacramentals can aid us only through the blessing the Church gives them and through the good dispositions they excite in us. They have, therefore, no power in themselves, and to put too much confidence in their use leads to superstition.

Q. 1061. What is the difference between the Sacraments and the Sacramentals?

A. The difference between the Sacraments and the Sacramentals is:
   1. The Sacraments were instituted by Jesus Christ and the Sacramentals were instituted by the Church;
   2. The Sacraments give grace of themselves when we place no obstacle in the way;
   3. The Sacramentals excite in us pious dispositions, by means of which we may obtain grace.

Q. 1062. May the Church increase or diminish the number of Sacraments and Sacramentals?

A. The Church can never increase nor diminish the number of Sacraments, for as Christ Himself instituted them, He alone has power to change their number; but the Church may increase or diminish the number of the Sacramentals as the devotion of its people or the circumstances of the time and place require, for since the Church instituted them they must depend entirely upon its laws.

Q. 1063. Which is the chief sacramental used in the Church?

A. The chief sacramental used in the Church is the sign of the cross.

Q. 1064. How do we make the sign of the cross?

A. We make the sign of the cross by putting the right hand to the forehead, then on the breast, and then to the left and right shoulders, saying, "In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen."

Q. 1065. What is a common fault with many in blessing themselves?

A. A common fault with many in blessing themselves is to make a hurried motion with the hand which is in no way a sign of the cross. They perform this act of devotion without thought or intention, forgetting that the Church grants an indulgence to all who bless themselves properly while they have sorrow for their sins.

Q. 1066. Why do we make the sign of the cross?

A. We make the sign of the cross to show that we are Christians and to profess our belief in the chief mysteries of our religion.

Q. 1067. How is the sign of the cross a profession of faith in the chief mysteries of our religion?

A. The sign of the cross is a profession of faith in the chief mysteries of our religion because it expresses the mysteries of the Unity and Trinity of God and of the Incarnation and death of our Lord.

Q. 1068. How does the sign of the cross express the mystery of the Unity and Trinity of God?

A. The words, "In the name," express the Unity of God; the words that follow, "of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," express the mystery of the Trinity.

Q. 1069. How does the sign of the cross express the mystery of the Incarnation and death of our Lord?

A. The sign of the cross expresses the mystery of the Incarnation by reminding us that the Son of God, having become man, suffered death on the cross.

Q. 1070. What other sacramental is in very frequent use?

A. Another sacramental in very frequent use is holy water.

Q. 1071. What is holy water?

A. Holy water is water blessed by the priest with solemn prayer to beg God's blessing on those who use it, and protection from the powers of darkness.

Q. 1072. How does the water blessed on Holy Saturday, or Easter Water, as it is called, differ from the holy water blessed at other times?

A. The water blessed on Holy Saturday, or Easter Water, as it is called, differs from the holy water blessed at other times in this, that the Easter water is blessed with greater solemnity, the paschal candle, which represents Our Lord risen from the dead, having been dipped into it with a special prayer.

Q. 1073. Is water ever blessed in honor of certain saints?

A. Water is sometimes blessed in honor of certain saints and for special purposes. The form of prayer to be used in such blessings is found in the Roman Ritual -- the book containing prayers and ceremonies for the administration of the Sacraments and of blessings authorized by the Church.

Q. 1074. Are there other Sacramentals besides the sign of the cross and holy water?

A. Beside the sign of the cross and holy water there are many other Sacramentals, such as blessed candles, ashes, palms, crucifixes, images of the Blessed Virgin and of the saints, rosaries, and scapulars.

Q. 1075. When are candles blessed in the Church and why are they used?

A. Candles are blessed in the Church on the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin -- February 2nd. They are used chiefly to illuminate and ornament our altars, as a mark of reverence for the presence of Our Lord and of joy at His coming.

Q. 1076. What praiseworthy custom is now in use in many places?

A. A praiseworthy custom now in use in many places is the offering by the faithful on the feast of the Purification of candles for the use of the altar during the year. It is pleasing to think we have candles burning in our name on the altar of God, and if the Jewish people yearly made offerings to their temple, faithful Christians should not neglect their altars and churches where God Himself dwells.

Q. 1077. When are ashes blessed in the Church and why are they used?

A. Ashes are blessed in the Church on Ash Wednesday. They are used to keep us in mind of our humble origin, and of how the body of Adam, our forefather, was formed out of the slime or clay of the earth; also to remind us of death, when our bodies will return to dust, and of the necessity of doing penance for our sins. These ashes are obtained by burning the blessed palms of the previous year.

Q. 1078. When are palms blessed and of what do they remind us?

A. Palms are blessed on Palm Sunday. They remind us of Our Lord's triumphal entry into Jerusalem, when the people, wishing to honor Him and make Him king, strewed palm branches and even their own garments in His path, singing: Hosanna to the Son of David.

Q. 1079. What is the difference between a cross and a crucifix?

A. A cross has no figure on it and a crucifix has a figure of Our Lord. The word crucifix means fixed or nailed to the cross.

Q. 1080. What is the Rosary?

A. The Rosary is a form of prayer in which we say a certain number of Our Fathers and Hail Mary's, meditating or thinking for a short time before each decade; that is, before each Our Father and ten Hail Marries, on some particular event in the life of Our Lord. These events are called mysteries of the Rosary. The string of beads on which these prayers are said is also called a Rosary. The ordinary beads are of five decades, or one-third of the whole Rosary.

Q. 1081. Who taught the use of the Rosary in its present form?

A. St. Dominic taught the use of the Rosary in its present form. By it he instructed his hearers in the chief truths of our holy religion and converted many to the true faith.

Q. 1082. How do we say the Rosary, or beads?

A. To say the Rosary or beads we bless ourselves with the cross, then say the Apostles' Creed and the Our Father on the first large bead, then the Hail Mary on each of the three small beads, and then Glory be to the Father, etc. Then we mention or think of the first mystery we wish to honor, and say an Our Father on the large bead and a Hail Mary on each small bead of the ten that follow. At the end of every decade, or ten Hail Marries, we say "Glory be to the Father;" etc. Then we mention the next mystery and do as before, and so on to the end.

Q. 1083. How many mysteries of the Rosary are there?

A. There are fifteen mysteries of the Rosary arranged in the order in which these events occurred in the life of Our Lord, and divided into five joyful, five sorrowful, and five glorious mysteries.

Q. 1084. Say the five joyful mysteries of the Rosary.

A. The five joyful mysteries of the Rosary are:
   1. The Annunciation -- the Angel Gabriel telling the Blessed Virgin that she is to be the Mother of God;
   2. The Visitation -- the Blessed Virgin goes to visit her cousin, St. Elizabeth, the mother of St. John the Baptist;
   3. The Nativity, or birth, of Our Lord;
   4. The Presentation of the Child Jesus in the temple -- His parents offered Him to God;
   5. The finding of the Child Jesus in the temple -- His parents had lost Him in Jerusalem for three days.

Q. 1085. Say the five sorrowful mysteries of the Rosary.

A. The five sorrowful mysteries of the Rosary are:
   1. The Agony in the Garden -- Our Lord was in dreadful anguish and bathed in a bloody sweat;
   2. The Scourging at the Pillar -- Christ was stripped of His garments and lashed in a cruel manner;
   3. The Crowning with Thorns -- He was mocked as a king by heartless men;
   4. The Carriage of the Cross -- from the place He was condemned to Calvary, the place of Crucifixion;
   5. The Crucifixion -- He was nailed to the cross amid the jeers and blasphemies of His enemies.

Q. 1086. Say the five glorious mysteries of the Rosary.

A. The five glorious mysteries of the Rosary are:
   1. The Resurrection of Our Lord;
   2. The Ascension of Our Lord;
   3. The Coming of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles;
   4. The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin -- after death she was taken body and soul into heaven;
   5. The Coronation of the Blessed Virgin -- on entering heaven she was made queen of all the Angels and Saints and placed in dignity next to her Divine Son, Our Blessed Lord.

Q. 1087. On what days, according to the pious custom of the faithful, are the different mysteries of the Rosary usually said?

A. According to the pious custom of the faithful, the different mysteries of the Rosary are usually said on the following days, namely: the joyful on Mondays and Thursdays, the sorrowful on Tuesdays and Fridays, and the glorious on Sundays, Wednesdays and Saturdays.

Q. 1088. What do the letters I. N. R. I. over the crucifix mean?

A. The letters I. N. R. I. over the crucifix are the first letters of four Latin words that mean Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. Our Lord did say He was king of the Jews, but He also said that He was not their temporal or earthly king, but their spiritual and heavenly king.

Q. 1089. To what may we attribute the desire of the Jews to put Christ to death?

A. We may attribute the desire of the Jews to put Christ to death to the jealously, hatred and ill-will of their priests and the Pharisees, whose faults He rebuked and whose hypocrisy He exposed. By their slanders and lies they induced the people to follow them in demanding Our Lord's crucifixion.

Q. 1090. With whom did the Blessed Virgin live after the death of Our Lord?

A. After the death of Our Lord the Blessed Virgin lived for about eleven years with the Apostle St. John the Evangelist, called also the Beloved Disciple. He wrote one of the four Gospels, three Epistles, and the Apocalypse, or Book of Revelations -- the last book of the Bible. He lived to the age of a hundred years or more and died last of all the apostles.

Q. 1091. What do we mean by the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, and why do we believe in it?

A. By the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin we mean that her body was taken up into heaven after her death. We believe in it:
   1. Because the Church cannot teach error, and yet from an early age the Church has celebrated the Feast of the Assumption;    2. Because no one ever claimed to have a relic of our Blessed Mother's body, and surely the apostles, who knew and loved her, would have secured some relic had her body remained upon earth.

Q. 1092. What do the letters I. H. S. on an altar or sacred things mean?

A. The letters I. H. S. on an altar or sacred things means the name Jesus; for it is in that way the Holy Name is written in the Greek language when some of the letters are left out.

Q. 1093. What is the scapular, and why is it worn?

A. The scapular is a long, broad piece of woolen cloth forming a part of the religious dress of monks, priests and sisters of some religious orders. It is worn over the shoulders and extends from the shoulders to the feet. The small scapular made in imitation of it, and consisting of two small pieces of cloth fastened together by strings, is worn by the faithful as a promise or proof of their willingness to practice some particular devotion, indicated by the kind of scapular they wear.

Q. 1094. How many kinds of scapulars are there in use among the faithful?

A. Among the faithful there are many kinds of scapulars in use, such as the brown scapular or scapular of Mount Carmel worn in honor of Our Lord's passion; the white, in honor of the Holy Trinity; the blue, in honor of the Immaculate Conception; and the black, in honor of the seven dolors of the Blessed Virgin. When these are joined together and worn as one they are called the five scapulars. The brown scapular is best known and entitles its wearer to the greatest privileges and indulgences.

Q. 1095. What are the seven dolors of the Blessed Virgin?

A. The seven dolors of the Blessed Virgin are the chief sorrowful events in the life of Our Blessed Lady. They are:
   1. The circumcision of our Lord -- when she saw his blood shed for the first time;
   2. Her flight into Egypt -- to save the life of the Infant Jesus when Herod sought to kill Him;
   3. The three days she lost her Son in Jerusalem;
   4. When she saw him carrying the cross;
   5. When she saw him die;
   6. When His dead body was taken down from the cross;
   7. When it was laid in the sepulchre or tomb.

Q. 1096. What are the seven dolor beads, and how do we say them?

A. Seven dolor beads are beads constructed with seven medals, each bearing a representation of one of the seven dolors, and seven beads between each medal and the next. At each medal we meditate on the proper dolor and the say a Hail Mary on each of the bead following it.

Q. 1097. What is an Agnus Dei?

A. An Agnus Dei is a small piece of beeswax stamped with the image of a lamb and cross. It is solemnly blessed by the Pope with special prayers for those who carry it about their person in honor of Our Blessed Redeemer, whom we call the Lamb of God, Who taketh away the sins of the world. The wax is usually covered with silk or some fine material.

 Twenty-Eighth Lesson:

On Prayer

 

Q. 1098. Is there any other means of obtaining God's grace than the Sacraments?

A. There is another means of obtaining God's grace, and it is prayer.

Q. 1099. What is prayer?

A. Prayer is the lifting up of our minds and hearts to God, to adore Him, to thank Him for His benefits, to ask His forgiveness, and to beg of Him all the graces we need whether for soul or body.

Q. 1100. How many kinds of prayer are there?

A. There are two kinds of prayer:
   1. Mental prayer, called meditation, in which we spend the time thinking of God or of one or more of the truths He has revealed, that by these thoughts we may be persuaded to lead holier lives;
   2. Vocal prayer, in which we express these pious thoughts in words.

Q. 1101. Why is mental prayer most useful to us?

A. Mental prayer is most useful to us because it compels us, while we are engaged in it, to keep our attention fixed on God and His holy laws and to keep our hearts and minds lifted up to Him.

Q. 1102. How can we make a meditation?

A. We can make a meditation:
   1. By remembering that we are in the presence of God;
   2. By asking the Holy Ghost to give us grace to benefit by the meditation;
   3. By reflecting seriously on some sacred truth regarding our salvation;
   4. By drawing some good resolution from the thoughts we have had; and
   5. By thanking God for the knowledge and grace bestowed on us through the meditation.

Q. 1103. Where may we find subjects or points for meditation?

A. We may find the subjects or points for meditation in the words of the Our Father, Hail Mary or Apostles' Creed; also in the questions and answers of our Catechism, in the Holy Bible, and in books of meditation.

Q. 1104. Is prayer necessary to salvation?

A. Prayer is necessary to salvation, and without it no one having the use of reason can be saved.

Q. 1105. At what particular times should we pray?

A. We should pray particularly on Sundays and holy days, every morning and night, in all dangers, temptations, and afflictions.

Q. 1106. How should we pray?

A. We should pray:
   1. With attention;
   2. With a sense of our own helplessness and dependence upon God;
   3. With a great desire for the graces we beg of God;
   4. With trust in God's goodness;
   5. With perseverance.

Q. 1107. What should our attention at prayer be?

A. Our attention at prayer should be threefold, namely, attention to the words, that we may say them correctly and distinctly; attention to their meaning, if we understand it, and attention to God, to whom the words are addressed.

Q. 1108. What should be the position of the body when we pray?

A. At prayer the most becoming position of the body is kneeling upright, but whether we pray kneeling, standing or sitting, the position of the body should always be one indicating reverence, respect and devotion. We may pray even lying down or walking, for Our Lord Himself says we should pray at all times.

Q. 1109. What should we do that we may pray well?

A. That we may pray well we should make a preparation before prayer:
   1. By calling to mind the dignity of God, to whom we are about to speak, and our own unworthiness to appear in His presence;
   2. By fixing upon the precise grace or blessing for which we intend to ask;
   3. By remembering God's power and willingness to give if we truly need and ,earnestly, humbly and confidently ask.

Q. 1110. Why does God not always grant our prayers?

A. God does not always grant our prayers for these and other reasons:
   1. Because we may not pray in the proper manner;
   2. That we may learn our dependence on Him, prove our confidence in Him, and merit rewards by our patience and perseverance in prayer.

Prudent persons do not grant every request; why, then, should God do so?

Q. 1111. What assurance have we that God always hears and rewards our prayers, though He may not grant what we ask?

A. We have the assurance of Our Lord Himself that God always hears and rewards our prayers, though He may not grant what we ask; for Christ said: "Ask and it shall be given you," and "if you ask the Father anything in My name, He will give it to you."

Q. 1112. Which are the prayers most recommended to us?

A. The prayers most recommended to us are the Lord's Prayer, the Hail Mary, the Apostles' Creed, the Confiteor, and the Acts of Faith, Hope, Love, and Contrition.

Q. 1113. Are prayers said with distractions of any avail?

A. Prayers said with willful distraction are of no avail.

Q. 1114. Why are prayers said with willful distraction of no avail?

A. Prayers said with willful distraction are of no avail because they are mere words, such as a machine might utter, and since there is no lifting up of the mind or heart with them they cannot be prayer.

Q. 1115. Do, then, the distractions which we often have at prayer deprive our prayers of all merit?

A. The distractions which we often have at prayer do not deprive our prayers of all merit, because they are not willful when we try to keep them away, for God rewards our good intentions and the efforts we make to pray well.

Q. 1116. What, then, is a distraction?

A. A distraction is any thought that, during prayer, enters our mind to turn our thoughts and hearts from God and from the sacred duty we are performing.

Q. 1117. What are the fruits of prayer?

A. The fruits of prayer are:
   1. It strengthens our faith,
   2. nourishes our hope,
   3. increases our love for God,
   4. keeps us humble,
   5. merits grace and atones for sin.

Q. 1118. Why should we pray when God knows our needs?

A. We pray not to remind God or tell Him of what we need, but to acknowledge that He is the Supreme Giver, to adore and worship Him by showing our entire dependence upon Him for every gift to soul or body.

Q. 1119. What little prayers may we say even at work?

A. Even at work we may say little aspirations such as "My God, pardon my sins; Blessed be the Holy Name of Jesus; Holy Spirit, enlighten me; Holy Mary, pray for me," etc.

Q. 1120. Did Our Lord Himself pray, and why?

A. Our Lord Himself very frequently prayed, often spending the whole night in prayer. He prayed before every important action, not that He needed to pray, but to set us an example of how and when we should pray.

Q. 1121. Why does the Church conclude most of its prayers with the words "through Jesus Christ Our Lord"?

A. The Church concludes most of its prayers with the words "through Jesus Christ Our Lord" because it is only through His merits that we can obtain grace, and because "there is no other name given to men whereby we must be saved."

Q. 1122. Was any special promise made in favor of the united prayers of two or more persons?

A. A special promise was made in favor of the united prayers of two or more persons when Our Lord said: "Where there are two or three gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them." Therefore, the united prayers of a congregation, sodality or family, and, above all, the public prayers of the whole Church, have great influence with God. We should join in public prayers out of true devotion, and not from habit, or, worse, to display our piety.

Q. 1123. What is the most suitable place for prayer?

A. The most suitable place for prayer is in the Church -- the house of prayer -- made holy by special blessings and, above all, by the Real Presence of Jesus dwelling in the Tabernacle. Still, Our Lord exhorts us to pray also in secret, for His Father, who seeth in secret, will repay us.

Q. 1124. For what should we pray?

A. We should pray:
   1. For ourselves, for the blessings of soul and body that we may be devoted servants of God;
   2. For the Church, for all spiritual and temporal wants, that the true faith may be everywhere known and professed;
   3. For our relatives, friends and benefactors, particularly for those we may in any way have injured;
   4. For all men, for the protection of the good and conversion of the wicked, that virtue may flourish and vice disappear;
   5. For our spiritual rulers, the Pope, our bishops, priests and religious communities, that they may faithfully perform their sacred duties;
   6. For our country and temporal rulers, that they may use their power for the good of their subjects and for the honor and glory of God.

 Twenty-Ninth Lesson:

On the Commandments of God

 

Q. 1125. Is it enough to belong to God's Church in order to be saved?

A. It is not enough to belong to the Church in order to be saved, but we must also keep the Commandments of God and of the Church.

Q. 1126. Are not the commandments of the Church also commandments of God?

A. The commandments of the Church are also commandments of God, for they are made by His authority and under the guidance of the Holy Ghost; nevertheless, the Church can change or abolish its own commandments, while it cannot change or abolish the commandments given directly by God Himself.

Q. 1127. Which are the Commandments that contain the whole law of God?

A. The Commandments which contain the whole law of God are these two: 1st. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart, with thy whole soul, with thy whole strength, and with thy whole mind; 2nd. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.

Q. 1128. Why do these two Commandments of the love of God and of our neighbor contain the whole law of God?

A. These two Commandments of the love of God and of our neighbor contain the whole law of God because all the other Commandments are given either to help us to keep these two, or to direct us how to shun what is opposed to them.

Q. 1129. Explain further how the two commandments of the love of God and of our neighbor contain the teaching of the whole ten commandments.

A. The two commandments of the love of God and of our neighbor contain the teaching of the whole ten commandments because the first three of the ten commandments refer to God and oblige us to worship Him alone, respect His name and serve Him as He wills, and these things we will do if we love Him; secondly, the last seven of the ten commandments refer to our neighbor and forbid us to injure him in body, soul, goods or reputation, and if we love him we will do him no injury in any of these, but, on the contrary, aid him as far as we can.

Q. 1130. Which are the Commandments of God?

A. The Commandments of God are these ten:
    1. I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt not have strange gods before me. Thou shalt not make to thyself a graven thing, nor the likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, nor of those things that are in the waters under the earth. Thou shalt not adore them, nor serve them.
    2. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
    3. Remember thou keep holy the Sabbath day.
    4. Honor thy father and thy mother.
    5. Thou shalt not kill.
    6. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
    7. Thou shalt not steal.
    8. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
    9. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife.
   10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods.

Q. 1131. What does the first commandment mean by a "graven thing" or "the likeness of anything" in heaven, in the earth or in the waters?

A. The first commandment means by a "graven thing" or "the likeness of anything" in heaven, in the earth or in the waters, the statue, picture or image of any creature in heaven or of any animal on land or in water intended for an idol and to be worshipped as a god.

Q. 1132. Who gave the Ten Commandments?

A. God Himself gave the Ten Commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai, and Christ our Lord confirmed them.

Q. 1133. How and when were the Commandments give to Moses?

A. The Commandments, written on two tables of stone, were given to Moses in the midst of fire and smoke, thunder and lightning, from which God spoke to him on the mountain, about fifty days after the Israelites were delivered from the bondage of Egypt and while they were on their journey through the desert to the Promised Land.

Q. 1134. What do we mean when we say Christ confirmed the Commandments?

A. When we say Christ confirmed the Commandments we mean that He strongly approved them, and gave us by His teaching a fuller and clearer knowledge of their meaning and importance.

Q. 1135. Was anyone obliged to keep the Commandments before they were given to Moses?

A. All persons, from the beginning of the world, were obliged to keep the Commandments, for it was always sinful to blaspheme God, murder, steal or violate any of the Commandments, though they were not written till the time of Moses.

Q. 1136. How many kinds of laws had the Jews before the coming of Our Lord?

A. Before the coming of Our Lord the Jews had three kinds of laws:
   1. Civil laws, regulating the affairs of their nation;
   2. Ceremonial laws, governing their worship in the temple;
   3. Moral laws, guiding their religious belief and actions.

Q. 1137. To which of these laws did the Ten Commandments belong?

A. The Ten Commandments belong to the moral law, because they are a compendium or short account of what we must do in order to save our souls; just as the Apostles' Creed is a compendium of what we must believe.

Q. 1138. When did the civil and ceremonial laws of the Jews cease to exist?

A. The civil laws of the Jews ceased to exist when the Jewish people, shortly before the coming of Christ, ceased to be an independent nation. The ceremonial laws ceased to exist when the Jewish religion ceased to be the true religion; that is, when Christ established the Christian religion, of which the Jewish religion was only a figure or promise.

Q. 1139. Why were not also the moral laws of the Jews abolished when the Christian religion was established?

A. The moral laws of the Jews could not be abolished by the establishment of the Christian religion because they regard truth and virtue and have been revealed by God, and whatever God has revealed as true must be always true, and whatever He has condemned as bad in itself must be always bad.

Thirtieth Lesson:

On the First Commandment

 

Q. 1140. What is the first Commandment?

A. The first Commandment is: I am the Lord thy God: thou shalt not have strange gods before me.

Q. 1141. What does the commandment mean by "strange gods"?

A. By strange gods the commandment means idols or false gods, which the Israelites frequently worshipped when, through their sins, they had abandoned the true God.

Q. 1142. How may we, in a sense, worship strange gods?

A. We, in a sense, may worship strange gods by giving up the salvation of our souls for wealth, honors, society, worldly pleasures, etc., so that we would offend God, renounce our faith or give up the practice of our religion for their sake.

Q. 1143. How does the first Commandment help us to keep the great Commandment of the love of God?

A. The first Commandment helps us to keep the great Commandment of the love of God because it commands us to adore God alone.

Q. 1144. How do we adore God?

A. We adore God by faith, hope, and charity, by prayer and sacrifice.

Q. 1145. By what prayers do we adore God?

A. We adore God by all our prayers, but in particular by the public prayers of the Church, and, above all, by the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.

Q. 1146. How may the first Commandment be broken?

A. The first Commandment make be broken by giving to a creature the honor which belongs to God alone; by false worship; and by attributing to a creature a perfection which belongs to God alone.

Q. 1147. What is the honor which belongs to God alone?

A. The honor which belongs to God alone is a divine honor, in which we offer Him sacrifice, incense or prayer, solely for His own sake and for His own glory. To give such honor to any creature, however holy, would be idolatry.

Q. 1148. How do we offer God false worship?

A. We offer God false worship by rejecting the religion He has instituted and following one pleasing to ourselves, with a form of worship He has never authorized, approved or sanctioned.

Q. 1149. Why must we serve God in the form of religion He has instituted and in no other?

A. We must serve God in the form of religion He has instituted and in no other, because heaven is not a right, but a promised reward, a free gift of God, which we must merit in the manner He directs and pleases.

Q. 1150. When do we attribute to a creature a perfection which belongs to God alone?

A. We attribute to a creature a perfection which belongs to God alone when we believe it possesses knowledge or power independently of God, so that it may, without His aid, make known the future or perform miracles.

Q. 1151. Do those who make use of spells and charms, or who believe in dreams, in mediums, spiritists, fortune-tellers, and the like, sin against the first Commandment?

A. Those who make use of spells and charms, or who believe in dreams, in mediums, spiritists, fortune-tellers, and the like, sin against the first Commandment, because they attribute to creatures perfections which belong to God alone.

Q. 1152. What are spells and charms?

A. Spells and charms are certain words, by the saying of which superstitious persons believe they can avert evil, bring good fortune or produce some supernatural or wonderful effect. They may be also objects or articles worn about the body for the same purpose.

Q. 1153. Are not Agnus Deis, medals, scapulars, etc., which we wear about our bodies also charms?

A. Agnus Deis, medals, scapulars, etc., which we wear about our bodies, are not charms, for we do not expect any help from these things themselves, but, through the blessing they have received from the Church, we expect help from God, the Blessed Mother, or the Saint in whose honor we wear them. On the contrary, they who wear charms expect help from the charms themselves, or from some evil spirit.

Q. 1154. What must we carefully guard against in all our devotions and religious practices?

A. In all our devotions and religious practices we must carefully guard against expecting God to perform miracles when natural causes may bring about what we hope for. God will sometimes miraculously help us, but, as a rule, only when all natural means have failed.

Q. 1155. What are dreams and why is it forbidden to believe in them?

A. Dreams are the thoughts we have in sleep, when our will is unable to guide them. It is forbidden to believe in them, because they are often ridiculous, unreasonable, or wicked, and are not governed by either reason or faith.

Q. 1156. Are bad dreams sinful in themselves?

A. Bad dreams are not sinful in themselves, because we cannot prevent them, but we may make them sinful: 1.(1) By taking pleasure in them when we awake, and 2.(2) By bad reading or immodest looks, thoughts, word or actions before going to sleep; for by any of these things we may make ourselves responsible for the bad dreams.

Q. 1157. Did not God frequently in the Old Law make use of dreams as a means of making known His will?

A. God did frequently in the Old Law make use of dreams as a means of making known His Will; but on such occasions He always gave proof that what He made known was not a mere dream, but rather a revelation or inspiration. He no longer makes use of such means, for He now makes known His will through the inspiration of His Church.

Q. 1158. What are mediums and spiritists?

A. Mediums and spiritists are persons who pretend to converse with the dead or with spirits of the other world. They pretend also to give this power to others, that they may know what is going on in heaven, purgatory or hell.

Q. 1159. What other practice is very dangerous to faith and morals?

A. Another practice very dangerous to faith and morals is the use of mesmerism or hypnotism, because it is liable to sinful abuses, for it deprives a person for a time of the control of his reason and will and places his body and mind entirely in the power of another.

Q. 1160. What are fortune tellers?

A. Fortune tellers are imposters who, learning the past, or guessing at it, pretend to know also the future and to be able to reveal it to anyone who pays for the knowledge. They pretend also to know whatever concerns things lost or stolen, and the secret thoughts, actions or intentions of others.

Q. 1161. How do we, by believing in spells, charms, mediums, spiritists and fortune tellers, attribute to creatures the perfections of God?

A. By believing in spells, charms, mediums, spiritists and fortune tellers we attribute to creatures the perfections of God because we expect these creatures to perform miracles, reveal the hidden judgments of God, and make known His designs for the future with regard to His creatures, things that only God Himself may do.

Q. 1162. Is it sinful to consult mediums, spiritists, fortune tellers and the like when we do not believe in them, but through mere curiosity to hear what they may say?

A. It is sinful to consult mediums, spiritists, fortune tellers and the like even when we do not believe in them, but through mere curiosity, to hear what they may say:
   1. Because it is wrong to expose ourselves to the danger of sinning even though we do not sin;
   2. Because we may give scandal to others who are not certain that we go through mere curiosity;
   3. Because by our pretended belief we encourage these impostors to continue their wicked practices.

Q. 1163. Are sins against faith, hope, and charity also sins against the first Commandment?

A. Sins against faith, hope and charity are also sins against the first Commandment.

Q. 1164. How does a person sin against faith?

A. A person sins against faith:
   1. By not trying to know what God has taught;
   2. By refusing to believe all that God has taught;
   3. By neglecting to profess his belief in what God has taught.

Q. 1165. How do we fail to try to know what God has taught?

A. We fail to try to know what God has taught by neglecting to learn the Christian doctrine.

Q. 1166. What means have we of learning the Christian doctrine?

A. We have many means of learning the Christian doctrine: In youth we have Catechism and special instructions suited to our age; later we have sermons, missions, retreats, religious sodalities and societies through which we may learn. At all times, we have books of instruction, and, above all, the priests of the Church, ever ready to teach us. God will not excuse our ignorance if we neglect to learn our religion when He has given us the means.

Q. 1167. Should we learn the Christian doctrine merely for our own sake?

A. We should learn the Christian doctrine not merely for our own sake, but for the sake also of others who may sincerely wish to learn from us the truths of our holy faith.

Q. 1168. How should such instruction be given to those who ask it of us?

A. Such instruction should be given to those who ask it of us in a kind and Christian spirit, without dispute or bitterness. We should never attempt to explain the truths of our religion unless we are certain of what we say. When we are unable to answer what is asked we should send those who inquire to the priest or to others better instructed than ourselves.

Q. 1169. Who are they who do not believe all that God has taught?

A. They who do not believe all that God has taught are the heretics and infidels.

Q. 1170. Name the different classes of unbelievers and tell what they are.

A. The different classes of unbelievers are:
   1. Atheists, who deny there is a God;
   2. Deists, who admit there is a God, but deny that He revealed a religion;
   3. Agnostics, who will neither admit nor deny the existence of God;
   4. Infidels, who have never been baptized, and who, through want of faith, refuse to be baptized;
   5. Heretics, who have been baptized Christians, but do not believe all the articles of faith;
   6. Schismatics, who have been baptized and believe all the articles of faith, but do not submit to the authority of the Pope;
   7. Apostates, who have rejected the true religion, in which they formerly believed, to join a false religion;
   8. Rationalists and Materialists, who believe only in material things.

Q. 1171. Will the denial of only one article of faith make a person a heretic?

A. The denial of only one article of faith will make a person a heretic and guilty of mortal sin, because the Holy Scripture says: "Whosoever shall keep the whole law but offend in one point is become guilty of all."

Q. 1172. What is an article of faith?

A. An article of faith is a revealed truth so important and so certain that no one can deny or doubt it without rejecting the testimony of God. The Church very clearly points out what truths are articles of faith that we may distinguish them from pious beliefs and traditions, so that no one can be guilty of the sin of heresy without knowing it.

Q. 1173. Who are they who neglect to profess their belief in what God has taught?

A. They who neglect to profess their belief in what God has taught are all those who fail to acknowledge the true Church in which they really believe.

Q. 1174. How do persons who are members of the Church neglect to profess their belief?

A. Persons who are members of the Church neglect to profess their belief by living contrary to the teachings of the Church: that is, by neglecting Mass or the Sacraments, doing injury to their neighbor, and disgracing their religion by sinful and scandalous lives.

Q. 1175. What chiefly prevents persons who believe in the Church from becoming members of it?

A. A want of Christian courage chiefly prevents persons who believe in the Church from becoming members of it. They fear too much the opinion or displeasure of others, the loss of position or wealth, and, in general, the trials they may have to suffer for the sake of the true faith.

Q. 1176. What does Our Lord say of those who neglect the true religion for the sake of relatives or friends, or from fear of suffering?

A. Our Lord says of those who neglect the true religion for the sake of relatives or friends, or from fear of suffering: "He that loveth father or mother more than Me, is not worthy of Me; and he that loveth son or daughter more than Me, is not worthy of Me"; also: "And whosoever does not carry his cross and come after Me cannot be My disciple."

Q. 1177. What excuse do some give for neglecting to seek and embrace the true religion?

A. Some give as an excuse for neglecting to seek and embrace the true religion that we should live in the religion in which we were born, and that one religion is as good as another if we believe we are serving God.

Q. 1178. How do we show that such an excuse is false and absurd?

A. We show that such an excuse is false and absurd because: 1.(1) It is false and absurd to say that we should remain in error after we have discovered it; 2.(2) Because if one religion is as good as another, Our Lord would not have abolished the Jewish religion, nor the apostles have preached against heresy.

Q. 1179. Can they who fail to profess their faith in the true Church in which they believe expect to be saved while in that state?

A. They who fail to profess their faith in the true Church in which they believe cannot expect to be saved while in that state, for Christ has said: "Whosoever shall deny me before men, I will also deny him before my Father who is in heaven."

Q. 1180. Are we obliged to make open profession of our faith?

A. We are obliged to make open profession of our faith as often as God's honor, our neighbor's spiritual good or our own requires it. "Whosoever," says Christ, "shall confess me before men, I will also confess him before my Father who is in heaven."

Q. 1181. When does God's honor, our neighbor's spiritual good, or our own good require us to make an open profession of our faith ?

A. God's honor, our neighbor's spiritual good, or our own good requires us to make an open profession of our faith as often as we cannot conceal our religion without violating some law of God or of His Church, or without giving scandal to others or exposing ourselves to the danger of sinning. Pious practices not commanded may often be omitted without any denial of faith.

Q. 1182. Which are the sins against hope?

A. The sins against hope are presumption and despair.

Q. 1183. What is presumption?

A. Presumption is a rash expectation of salvation without making proper use of the necessary means to obtain it.

Q. 1184. How may we be guilty of presumption?

A. We may be guilty of presumption:
   1. By putting off confession when in a state of mortal sin;
   2. By delaying the amendment of our lives and repentance for past sins;
   3. By being indifferent about the number of times we yield to any temptation after we have once yielded and broken our resolution to resist it;
   4. By thinking we can avoid sin without avoiding its near occasion;
   5. By relying too much on ourselves and neglecting to follow the advice of our confessor in regard to the sins we confess.

Q. 1185. What is despair?

A. Despair is the loss of hope in God's mercy.

Q. 1186. How may we be guilty of despair?

A. We may be guilty of despair by believing that we cannot resist certain temptations, overcome certain sins or amend our lives so as to be pleasing to God.

Q. 1187. Are all sins of presumption and despair equally great?

A. All sins of presumption and despair are not equally great. They may be very slight or very great in proportion to the degree in which we deny the justice or mercy of God.

Q. 1188. How do we sin against the love of God?

A. We sin against the love of God by all sin, but particularly by mortal sin.

 Thirty-First Lesson:

The First Commandment - On the Honor and Invocation of the Saints

 

Q. 1189. Does the first Commandment forbid the honoring of the saints?

A. The first Commandment does not forbid the honoring of the saints, but rather approves of it; because by honoring the saints, who are the chosen friends of God, we honor God Himself.

Q. 1190. What does "invocation" mean?

A. Invocation means calling upon another for help or protection, particularly when we are in need or danger. It is used specially with regard to calling upon God or the saints, and hence it means prayer.

Q. 1191. How do we show that by honoring the Saints we honor God Himself?

A. We honor the Saints because they honor God. Therefore, it is for His sake that we honor them, and hence by honoring them we honor Him.

Q. 1192. Give another reason why we honor God by honoring the Saints.

A. Another reason why we honor God by honoring the Saints is this: As we honor our country by honoring its heroes, so do we honor our religion by honoring its Saints. By honoring our religion we honor God, who taught it. Therefore, by honoring the Saints we honor God, for love of whom they became religious heroes in their faith.

Q. 1193. Does the first Commandment forbid us to pray to the saints?

A. The first Commandment does not forbid us to pray to the saints.

Q. 1194. Why does the first commandment not forbid us to pray to the Saints?

A. The first commandment does not forbid us to pray to the Saints, because if we are allowed to ask the prayers of our fellow-creatures upon earth we should be allowed also to ask the prayers of our fellow-creatures in heaven. Moreover, the Saints must have an interest in our welfare, because whatever tends to make us good, tends also to the glory of God.

Q. 1195. What do we mean by praying to the saints?

A. By praying to the saints we mean the asking of their help and prayers.

Q. 1196. Do we not slight God Himself by addressing our prayers to saints?

A. We do not slight God Himself by addressing our prayers to saints, but, on the contrary, show a greater respect for His majesty and sanctity, acknowledging, by our prayers to the saints, that we are unworthy to address Him for ourselves, and that we, therefore, ask His holy friends to obtain for us what we ourselves are not worthy to ask.

Q. 1197. How do we know that the saints hear us?

A. We know that the saints hear us, because they are with God, who makes our prayers known to them.

Q. 1198. Why do we believe that the saints will help us?

A. We believe that the saints will help us because both they and we are members of the same Church, and they love us as their brethren.

Q. 1199. How are the saints and we members of the same Church?

A. The saints and we are members of the same Church, because the Church in heaven and the Church on earth are one and the same Church, and all its members are in communion with one another.

Q. 1200. What is the communion of the members of the Church called?

A. The Communion of the members of the Church is called the Communion of Saints.

Q. 1201. What does the communion of saints mean?

A. The communion of saints means the union which exists between the members of the Church on earth with one another, and with the blessed in Heaven, and with the suffering souls in Purgatory.

Q. 1202. What benefits are derived from the communion of saints?

A. The following benefits are derived from the communion of saints: the faithful on earth assist one another by their prayers and good works, and they are aided by the intercession of the saints in Heaven, while both the saints in Heaven and the faithful on earth help the souls in Purgatory.

Q. 1203. How can we best honor the Saints, and where shall we learn their virtues?

A. We can best honor the saints by imitating their virtues, and we shall learn their virtues from the written accounts of their lives. Among the Saints we shall find models for every age, condition or state of life.

Q. 1204. Does the first Commandment forbid us to honor relics?

A. The first Commandment does not forbid us to honor relics, because relics are the bodies of the saints or objects directly connected with them or with our Lord.

Q. 1205. How many kinds or classes of relics are there?

A. There are three kinds or classes of relics:
   1. The body or part of the body of a saint;
   2. Articles, such as clothing or books, used by the saint;
   3. Articles that have touched a relic of the body or other relic.

Q. 1206. What is there special about a relic of the true cross on which Our Lord Died, and also about the instruments of His Passion?

A. The relics of the true Cross and relics of the thorns, nails, etc., used in the Passion are entitled to a very special veneration, and they have certain privileges with regard to their use and the manner of keeping them that other relics have not. A relic of the true Cross is never kept or carried with other relics.

Q. 1207. What veneration does the Church permit us to give to relics?

A. The Church permits us to give relics a veneration similar to that we give images. We do not venerate the relics for their own sake, but for the sake of the persons they represent. The souls of canonized saints are certainly in heaven, and we are certain that their bodies also will be there. Therefore, we may honor their bodies because they are to be glorified in heaven and were sanctified upon earth.

Q. 1208. What care does the Church take in the examination and distribution of relics?

A. The Church takes the greatest care in the examination and distribution of relics.
   1. The canonization or beatification of the person whose relic we receive must be certain.
   2. The relics are sent in sealed packets, that must be opened only by the bishop of the diocese to which the relics are sent, and each relic or packet must be accompanied by a document or written paper proving its genuineness.
   3. The relics cannot be exposed for public veneration until the bishop examines them and pronounces them authentic; that is, that they are what they are claimed to be.

Q. 1209. What should we be certain of before using any relic or giving it to another?

A. Before using any relic or giving it to another we should be certain that all the requirements of the Church concerning it have been fulfilled, and that the relic really is, as far as it is possible for any one to know, what we believe it to be.

Q. 1210. Has God Himself honored relics?

A. God Himself has frequently honored relics by permitting miracles to be wrought through them. There is an example given in the Bible, in the IV Book of Kings, where it is related that a dead man was restored to life when his body touched the bones, that is, the relics of the holy prophet Eliseus.

Q. 1211. Does the first Commandment forbid the making of images?

A. The first Commandment does forbid the making of images if they are made to be adored as gods, but it does not forbid the making of them to put us in mind of Jesus Christ, His Blessed Mother, and the saints.

Q. 1212 How do we show that it is only the worship and not the making of images that is forbidden by the first commandment?

A. We show that it is only the worship and not the making of images that is forbidden by the first commandment:
   1. Because no one thinks it sinful to carve statues or make photographs or paintings of relatives or friends;
   2. Because God Himself commanded the making of images for the temple after He had given the first commandment, and God never contradicts Himself.

Q. 1213. Is it right to show respect to the pictures and images of Christ and His saints?

A. It is right to show respect to the pictures and images of Christ and His saints, because they are the representations and memorials of them.

Q. 1214. Have we in this country any civil custom similar to that of honoring the pictures and images of saints?

A. We have, in this country, a civil custom similar to that of honoring pictures and images of saints, for, on Decoration or Memorial Day, patriotic citizens place flowers, flags, or emblems about the statues of our deceased civil heroes, to honor the persons these statues represent; for just as we can dishonor a man by abusing his image, so we can honor him by treating it with respect and reverence.

Q. 1215. Is it allowed to pray to the crucifix or to the images and relics of the saints?

A. It is not allowed to pray to the crucifix or images and relics of the saints, for they have no life, nor power to help us, nor sense to hear us.

Q. 1216. Why do we pray before the crucifix and the images and relics of the saints?

A. We pray before the crucifix and the images and relics of the saints because they enliven our devotion by exciting pious affections and desires, and by reminding us of Christ and of the saints, that we may imitate their virtues.

Thirty-Second Lesson:

From the Second to the Fourth Commandment

 

Q. 1217. What is the second Commandment?

A. The second Commandment is: Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.

Q. 1218. What do you mean by taking God's name in vain?

A. By taking God's name in vain I mean taking it without reverence, as in cursing or using in a light and careless manner, as in exclamation.

Q. 1219. What are we commanded by the second Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the second Commandment to speak with reverence of God and of the saints, and of all holy things, and to keep our lawful oaths and vows.

Q. 1220. Is it sinful to use the words of Holy Scripture in a bad or worldly sense?

A. It is sinful to use the words of Holy Scripture in a bad or worldly sense, to joke in them or ridicule their sacred meaning, or in general to give them any meaning but the one we believe God has intended them to convey.

Q. 1221. What is an oath?

A. An oath is the calling upon God to witness the truth of what we say.

Q. 1222. How is an oath usually taken?

A. An oath is usually taken by laying the hand on the Bible or by lifting the hand towards heaven as a sign that we call God to witness that what we are saying is under oath and to the best of our knowledge really true.

Q. 1223. What is perjury?

A. Perjury is the sin one commits who knowingly takes a false oath; that is, swears to the truth of what he knows to be false. Perjury is a crime against the law of our country and a mortal sin before God.

Q. 1224. Who have the right to make us take an oath?

A. All persons to whom the law of our country has given such authority have the right to make us take an oath. They are chiefly judges, magistrates and public officials, whose duty it is to enforce the laws. In religious matters bishops and others to whom authority is given have also the right to make us take an oath.

Q. 1225. When may we take an oath?

A. We may take an oath when it is ordered by lawful authority or required for God's honor or for our own or our neighbor's good.

Q. 1226. When may an oath be required for God's honor or for our own or our neighbor's good?

A. An oath may be required for God's honor or for our own or our neighbor's good when we are called upon to defend our religion against false charges; or to protect our own or our neighbor's property or good name; or when we are required to give testimony that will enable the lawful authorities to discover the guilt or innocence of a person accused.

Q. 1227. Is it ever allowed to promise under oath, in secret societies or elsewhere, to obey another in whatever good or evil he commands?

A. It is never allowed to promise under oath, in secret societies or elsewhere, to obey another in whatever good or evil he commands, for by such an oath we would declare ourselves ready and willing to commit sin, if ordered to do so, while God commands us to avoid even the danger of sinning. Hence the Church forbids us to join any society in which such oaths are taken by its members.

Q. 1228. What societies in general are we forbidden to join?

A. In general we are forbidden to join:
   1. All societies condemned by the Church;
   2. All societies of which the object is unlawful and the means used sinful;
   3. Societies in which the rights and freedom of our conscience are violated by rash or dangerous oaths;
   4. Societies in which any false religious ceremony or form of worship is used.

Q. 1229. Are trades unions and benefit societies forbidden?

A. Trades unions and benefit societies are not in themselves forbidden because they have lawful ends, which they can secure by lawful means. The Church encourages every society that lawfully aids its members spiritually or temporally, and censures or disowns every society that uses sinful or unlawful means to secure even a good end; for the Church can never permit anyone to do evil that good may come of it.

Q. 1230. Is it lawful to vow or promise strict obedience to a religious superior?

A. It is lawful to vow or promise strict obedience to a religious superior, because such superior can exact obedience only in things that have the sanction of God or of His Church.

Q. 1231. What is necessary to make an oath lawful?

A. To make an oath lawful it is necessary that what we swear to be true, and that there be a sufficient cause for taking an oath.

Q. 1232. What is a vow?

A. A vow is a deliberate promise made to God to do something that is pleasing to Him.

Q. 1233. Which are the vows most frequently made?

A. The vows most frequently made are the three vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, taken by persons living in religious communities or consecrated to God. Persons living in the world are sometimes permitted to make such vows privately, but this should never be done without the advice and consent of their confessor.

Q. 1234. What do the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience require?

A. The vows of poverty, chastity and obedience require that those who make them shall not possess or keep any property or goods for themselves alone; that they shall not marry or be guilty of any immodest acts, and that they shall strictly obey their lawful superiors.

Q. 1235. Has it always been a custom with pious Christians to make vows and promises to God?

A. It has always been a custom with pious Christians to make vows and promises to God; to beg His help for some special end, or to thank Him for some benefit received. They have promised pilgrimages, good works or alms and they have vowed to erect churches, convents, hospitals or schools.

Q. 1236. What is a pilgrimage?

A. A pilgrimage is a journey to a holy place made in a religious manner and for a religious purpose.

Q. 1237. Is it a sin not to fulfill our vows?

A. Not to fulfill our vows is a sin, mortal or venial, according to the nature of the vow and the intention we had in making it.

Q. 1238. Are we bound to keep an unlawful oath or vow?

A. We are not bound, but, on the contrary, positively forbidden to keep an unlawful oath or vow. We are guilty of sin in taking such an oath or making such a vow, and we would be guilty of still greater sin by keeping them.

Q. 1239. What is forbidden by the second Commandment?

A. The second Commandment forbids all false, rash, unjust, and unnecessary oaths, blasphemy, cursing, and profane words.

Q. 1240. When is an oath rash, unjust or unnecessary?

A. An oath is rash when we are not sure of the truth of what we swear; it is unjust when it injures another unlawfully; and it is unnecessary when there is no good reason for taking it.

Q. 1241. What is blasphemy, and what are profane words?

A. Blasphemy is any word or action intended as an insult to God. To say He is cruel or find fault with His works is blasphemy. It is a much greater sin than cursing or taking God's name in vain. Profane words mean here bad, irreverent or irreligious words.

Q. 1242. What is the third Commandment?

A. The third Commandment is: Remember thou keep holy the Sabbath day.

Q. 1243. What are we commanded by the third Commandment?

A. By the third Commandment we are commanded to keep holy the Lord's day and the holydays of obligation, on which we are to give our time to the service and worship of God.

Q. 1244. What are holydays of obligation?

A. Holydays of obligation are special feasts of the Church on which we are bound, under pain of mortal sin, to hear Mass and to keep from servile or bodily labors when it can be done without great loss or inconvenience. Whoever, on account of their circumstances, cannot give up work on holydays of obligation should make every effort to hear Mass and should also explain in confession the necessity of working on holydays.

Q. 1245. How are we to worship God on Sundays and holydays of obligation?

A. We are to worship God on Sundays and holydays of obligation by hearing Mass, by prayer, and by other good works.

Q. 1246. Name some of the good works recommended for Sunday.

A. Some of the good works recommended for Sunday are: The reading of religious books or papers, teaching Catechism, bringing relief to the poor or sick, visiting the Blessed Sacrament, attending Vespers, Rosary or other devotions in the Church; also attending the meetings of religious sodalities or societies. It is not necessary to spend the whole Sunday in such good works, but we should give some time to them, that for the love of God we may do a little more than what is strictly commanded.

Q. 1247. Is it forbidden, then, to seek any pleasure or enjoyment on Sunday?

A. It is not forbidden to seek lawful pleasure or enjoyment on Sunday, especially to those who are occupied during the week, for God did not intend the keeping of the Sunday to be a punishment, but a benefit to us. Therefore, after hearing Mass we may take such recreation as is necessary or useful for us; but we should avoid any vulgar, noisy or disgraceful amusements that turn the day of rest and prayer into a day of scandal and sin.

Q. 1248. Are the Sabbath day and the Sunday the same?

A. The Sabbath day and the Sunday are not the same. The Sabbath is the seventh day of the week, and is the day which was kept holy in the old law; the Sunday is the first day of the week, and is the day which is kept holy in the new law.

Q. 1249. What is meant by the Old and New Law?

A. The Old Law means the law or religion given to the Jews; the New Law means the law or religion given to Christians.

Q. 1250. Why does the Church command us to keep the Sunday holy instead of the Sabbath?

A. The Church commands us to keep the Sunday holy instead of the Sabbath because on Sunday Christ rose from the dead, and on Sunday He sent the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles.

Q. 1251. Do we keep Sunday instead of Saturday holy for any other reason?

A. We keep Sunday instead of Saturday holy also to teach that the Old Law is not now binding upon us, but that we must keep the New Law, which takes its place.

Q. 1252. What is forbidden by the third Commandment?

A. The third Commandment forbids all unnecessary servile work and whatever else may hinder the due observance of the Lord's day.

Q. 1253. What are servile works?

A. Servile works are those which require labor rather of body than of mind.

Q. 1254. From what do servile works derive their name?

A. Servile works derive their name from the fact that such works were formerly done by slaves. Therefore, reading, writing, studying and, in general, all works that slaves did not perform are not considered servile works.

Q. 1255. Are servile works on Sunday ever lawful?

A. Servile works are lawful on Sundays when the honor of God, the good of our neighbor, or necessity requires them.

Q. 1256. Give some examples of when the honor of God, the good of our neighbor or necessity may require servile works on Sunday.

A. The honor of God, the good of our neighbor or necessity may require servile works on Sunday, in such cases as the preparation of a place for Holy Mass, the saving of property in storms or accidents, the cooking of meals and similar works.

Thirty-Third Lesson:

From the Fourth to the Seventh Commandment

 

Q. 1257. What is the fourth Commandment?

A. The fourth Commandment is: Honor thy father and thy mother.

Q. 1258. What does the word "honor" in this commandment include?

A. The word "honor" in this commandment includes the doing of everything necessary for our parents' spiritual and temporal welfare, the showing of proper respect, and the fulfillment of all our duties to them.

Q. 1259. What are we commanded by the fourth Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the fourth Commandment to honor, love and obey our parents in all that is not sin.

Q. 1260. Why should we refuse to obey parents or superiors who command us to sin?

A. We should refuse to obey parents or superiors who command us to sin because they are not then acting with God's authority, but contrary to it and in violation of His laws.

Q. 1261. Are we bound to honor and obey others than our parents?

A. We are also bound to honor and obey our bishops, pastors, magistrates, teachers, and other lawful superiors.

Q. 1262. Who are meant by magistrates?

A. By magistrates are meant all officials of whatever rank who have a lawful right to rule over us and our temporal possessions or affairs.

Q. 1263. Who are meant by lawful superiors?

A. By lawful superiors are meant all persons to whom we are in any way subject, such as employers or others under whose authority we live or work.

Q. 1264. What is the duty of servants or workmen to their employers?

A. The duty of servants or workmen to their employers is to serve them faithfully and honestly, according to their agreement, and to guard against injuring their property or reputation.

Q. 1265. Have parents and superiors any duties toward those who are under their charge?

A. It is the duty of parents and superiors to take good care of all under their charge and give them proper direction and example.

Q. 1266. If parents or superiors neglect their duty or abuse their authority in any particular, should we follow their direction and example in that particular?

A. If parents or superiors neglect their duty or abuse their authority in any particular we should not follow their direction or example in that particular, but follow the dictates of our conscience in the performance of our duty.

Q. 1267. What is the duty of employers to their servants or workmen?

A. The duty of employers to their servants or workmen is to see that they are kindly and fairly treated and provided for, according to their agreement, and that they are justly paid their wages at the proper time.

Q. 1268. What is forbidden by the fourth Commandment?

A. The fourth Commandment forbids all disobedience, contempt, and stubbornness towards our parents or lawful superiors.

Q. 1269. What is meant by contempt and stubbornness?

A. By contempt is meant willful disrespect for lawful authority, and by stubbornness is meant willful determination not to yield to lawful authority.

Q. 1270. What is the fifth Commandment?

A. The fifth Commandment is: Thou shalt not kill.

Q. 1271. What killing does this commandment forbid?

A. This commandment forbids the killing only of human beings.

Q. 1272. How do we know that this commandment forbids the killing only of human beings?

A. We know that this commandment forbids the killing only of human beings because, after giving this commandment, God commanded that animals be killed for sacrifice in the temple of Jerusalem, and God never contradicts Himself.

Q. 1273. What are we commanded by the fifth Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the fifth Commandment to live in peace and union with our neighbor, to respect his rights, to seek his spiritual and bodily welfare, and to take proper care of our own life and health.

Q. 1274. What sin is it to destroy one's own life, or commit suicide, as this act is called?

A. It is a mortal sin to destroy one's own life or commit suicide, as this act is called, and persons who willfully and knowingly commit such an act die in a state of mortal sin and are deprived of Christian burial. It is also wrong to expose one's self unnecessarily to the danger of death by rash or foolhardy feats of daring.

Q. 1275. Is it ever lawful for any cause to deliberately and intentionally take away the life of an innocent person?

A. It is never lawful for any cause to deliberately and intentionally take away the life of an innocent person. Such deeds are always murder, and can never be excused for any reason, however important or necessary.

Q. 1276. Under what circumstances may human life be lawfully taken?

A. Human life may be lawfully taken:
   1. In self-defense, when we are unjustly attacked and have no other means of saving our own lives;
   2. In a just war, when the safety or rights of the nation require it;
   3. By the lawful execution of a criminal, fairly tried and found guilty of a crime punishable by death when the preservation of law and order and the good of the community require such execution.

Q. 1277. What is forbidden by the fifth Commandment?

A. The fifth Commandment forbids all willful murder, fighting, anger, hatred, revenge, and bad example.

Q. 1278. Can the fifth commandment be broken by giving scandal or bad example and by inducing others to sin?

A. The fifth commandment can be broken by giving scandal or bad example and inducing others to sin, because such acts may destroy the life of the soul by leading it into mortal sin.

Q. 1279. What is scandal?

A. Scandal is any sinful word, deed or omission that disposes others to sin, or lessens their respect for God and holy religion.

Q. 1280. Why are fighting, anger, hatred and revenge forbidden by the fifth commandment?

A. Fighting, anger, hatred and revenge are forbidden by the fifth commandment because they are sinful in themselves and may lead to murder. The commandments forbid not only whatever violates them, but also whatever may lead to their violation.

Q. 1281. What is the sixth Commandment?

A. The sixth Commandment is: Thou shalt not commit adultery.

Q. 1282. What are we commanded by the sixth Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the sixth Commandment to be pure in thought and modest in all our looks, words, and actions.

Q. 1283. It is a sin to listen to immodest conversation, songs or jokes?

A. It is a sin to listen to immodest conversation, songs or jokes when we can avoid it, or to show in any way that we take pleasure in such things.

Q. 1284. What is forbidden by the sixth Commandment?

A. The sixth Commandment forbids all unchaste freedom with another's wife or husband; also all immodesty with ourselves or others in looks, dress, words, and actions.

Q. 1285. Why are sins of impurity the most dangerous?

A. Sins of impurity are the most dangerous:
   1. Because they have the most numerous temptations;
   2. Because, if deliberate, they are always mortal, and
   3. Because, more than other sins, they lead to the loss of faith.

Q. 1286. Does the sixth Commandment forbid the reading of bad and immodest books and newspapers?

A. The sixth Commandment does forbid the reading of bad and immodest books and newspapers.

Q. 1287. What should be done with immodest book and newspapers?

A. Immodest books and newspapers should be destroyed as soon as possible, and if we cannot destroy them ourselves we should induce their owners to do so.

Q. 1288. What books does the Church consider bad?

A. The Church considers bad all books containing teaching contrary to faith or morals, or that willfully misrepresent Catholic doctrine and practice.

Q. 1289. What places are dangerous to the virtue of purity?

A. Indecent theaters and similar places of amusement are dangerous to the virtue of purity, because their entertainments are frequently intended to suggest immodest things.

Thirty-Fourth Lesson:

From the Seventh to the Tenth Commandment

 

Q. 1290. What is the seventh Commandment?

A. The seventh Commandment is: Thou shalt not steal.

Q. 1291. What sin is it to steal?

A. To steal is a mortal or venial sin, according to the amount stolen either at once or at different times. Circumstances may make the sin greater or less, and they should be explained in confession.

Q. 1292. Is stealing ever a sacrilege?

A. Stealing is a sacrilege when the thing stolen belongs to the Church and when the stealing takes place in the Church.

Q. 1293. What sins are equivalent to stealing?

A. All sins of cheating, defrauding or wronging others of their property; also all sins of borrowing or buying with the intention of never repaying are equivalent to stealing.

Q. 1294. In what other ways may persons sin against honesty?

A. Persons may sin against honesty also by knowingly receiving, buying or sharing in stolen goods; likewise by giving or taking bribes for dishonest purposes.

Q. 1295. What are we commanded by the seventh Commandment?

A. By the seventh Commandment we are commanded to give to all men what belongs to them and to respect their property.

Q. 1296. How may persons working for others be guilty of dishonesty?

A. Persons working for others may be guilty of dishonesty by idling the time for which they are paid; also by doing bad work or supplying bad material without their employer's knowledge.

Q. 1297. In what other way may a person be guilty of dishonesty?

A. A person may be guilty of dishonesty in getting money or goods by false pretenses and by using either for purposes for which they were not given.

Q. 1298. What is forbidden by the seventh Commandment?

A. The seventh Commandment forbids all unjust taking or keeping what belongs to another.

Q. 1299. What must we do with things found?

A. We must return things found to their lawful owners as soon as possible, and we must also use reasonable means to find the owners if they are unknown to us.

Q. 1300. What must we do if we discover we have bought stolen goods?

A. If we discover we have bought stolen goods and know their lawful owners we must return the goods to them as soon as possible without demanding compensation from the owner for what we paid for the goods.

Q. 1301. Are we bound to restore ill-gotten goods?

A. We are bound to restore ill-gotten goods, or the value of them, as far as we are able; otherwise we cannot be forgiven.

Q. 1302. What must we do if we cannot restore all we owe, or if the person to whom we should restore be dead?

A. If we cannot restore all we owe, we must restore as much as we can, and if the person to whom we should restore be dead we must restore to his children or heirs, and if these cannot be found we may give alms to the poor.

Q. 1303. What must one do who cannot pay his debts and yet wishes to receive the Sacraments?

A. One who cannot pay his debts and yet wishes to receive the Sacraments must sincerely promise and intend to pay them as soon as possible, and must without delay make every effort to do so.

Q. 1304. Are we obliged to repair the damage we have unjustly caused?

A. We are bound to repair the damage we have unjustly caused.

Q. 1305. What is the eighth Commandment?

A. The eighth Commandment is: Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.

Q. 1306. What are we commanded by the eighth Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the eighth Commandment to speak the truth in all things, and to be careful of the honor and reputation of every one.

Q. 1307. What is a lie?

A. A lie is a sin committed by knowingly saying what is untrue with the intention of deceiving. To swear to a lie makes the sin greater, and such swearing is called perjury. Pretense, hypocrisy, false praise, boasting, etc., are similar to lies.

Q. 1308. How can we know the degree of sinfulness in a lie?

A. We can know the degree of sinfulness in a lie by the amount of harm it does and from the intention we had in telling it.

Q. 1309. Will a good reason for telling a lie excuse it?

A. No reason, however good, will excuse the telling of a lie, because a lie is always bad in itself. It is never allowed, even for a good intention to do a thing that is bad in itself.

Q. 1310. What is forbidden by the eighth Commandment?

A. The eighth Commandment forbids all rash judgments, backbiting, slanders, and lies.

Q. 1311. What are rash judgment, backbiting, slander and detraction?

A. Rash judgment is believing a person guilty of sin without a sufficient cause. Backbiting is saying evil things of another in his absence. Slander is telling lies about another with the intention of injuring him. Detraction is revealing the sins of another without necessity.

Q. 1312. Is it ever allowed to tell the faults of another?

A. It is allowed to tell the faults of another when it is necessary to make them known to his parents or superiors, that the faults may be corrected and the wrong doer prevented from greater sin.

Q. 1313. What is tale-bearing, and why is it wrong?

A. Tale-bearing is the act of telling persons what others have said about them, especially if the things said be evil. It is wrong, because it gives rise to anger, hatred and ill-will, and is often the cause of greater sins.

Q. 1314. What must they do who have lied about their neighbor and seriously injured his character?

A. They who have lied about their neighbor and seriously injured his character must repair the injury done as far as they are able, otherwise they will not be forgiven.

Q. 1315. What is the ninth Commandment?

A. The ninth Commandment is: Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife.

Q. 1316. What are we commanded by the ninth Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the ninth Commandment to keep ourselves pure in thought and desire.

Q. 1317. What is forbidden by the ninth Commandment?

A. The ninth Commandment forbids unchaste thoughts, desires of another's wife or husband, and all other unlawful impure thoughts and desires.

Q. 1318. Are impure thoughts and desires always sins?

A. Impure thoughts and desires are always sins, unless they displease us and we try to banish them.

Q. 1319. What is the tenth Commandment?

A. The tenth Commandment is: Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods.

Q. 1320. What does covet mean?

A. Covet means to wish to get wrongfully what another possesses or to begrudge his own to him.

Q. 1321. What are we commanded by the tenth Commandment?

A. By the tenth Commandment we are commanded to be content with what we have, and to rejoice in our neighbor's welfare.

Q. 1322. Should we not, then, try to improve our position in the world?

A. We should try to improve our position in the world, provided we can do so honestly and without exposing ourselves to greater temptation or sin.

Q. 1323. What is forbidden by the tenth Commandment?

A. The tenth Commandment forbids all desires to take or keep wrongfully what belongs to another.

Q. 1324. In what does the sixth commandment differ from the ninth, and the seventh differ from the tenth?

A. The sixth commandment differs from the ninth in this, that the sixth refers chiefly to external acts of impurity, while the ninth refers more to sins of thought against purity. The seventh commandment refers chiefly to external acts of dishonesty, while the tenth refers more to thoughts against honesty.

  Thirty-Fifth Lesson:

On the First and Second Commandments of the Church

 

Q. 1325. Are not the commandments of the Church also commandments of God?

A. The commandments of the Church are also commandments of God, because they are made by His authority, and we are bound under pain of sin to observe them.

Q. 1326. What is the difference between the commandments of God and the Commandments of the Church?

A. The commandments of God were given by God Himself to Moses on Mount Sinai; the commandments of the Church were given on different occasions by the lawful authorities of the Church. The Commandments given by God Himself cannot be changed by the Church; but the commandments made by the Church itself may be changed by its authority as necessity requires.

Q. 1327. Which are the chief commandments of the Church?

A. The chief commandments of the Church are six:
   1. To hear Mass on Sundays and holydays of obligation.
   2. To fast and abstain on the days appointed.
   3. To confess at least once a year.
   4. To receive the Holy Eucharist during the Easter time.
   5. To contribute to the support of our pastors.
   6. Not to marry persons who are not Catholics, or who are related to us within the third degree of kindred, nor privately without witnesses, nor to solemnize marriage at forbidden times.

Q. 1328. Why has the Church made commandments?

A. The Church has made commandments to teach the faithful how to worship God and to guard them from the neglect of their religious duties.

Q. 1329. Is it a mortal sin not to hear Mass on a Sunday or a holyday of obligation?

A. It is a mortal sin not to hear Mass on a Sunday or a holyday of obligation, unless we are excused for a serious reason. They also commit a mortal sin who, having others under their charge, hinder them from hearing Mass, without a sufficient reason.

Q. 1330. What is a "serious reason" excusing one from the obligation of hearing Mass?

A A "serious reason" excusing one from the obligation of hearing Mass is any reason that makes it impossible or very difficult to attend Mass, such as severe illness, great distance from the Church, or the need of certain works that cannot be neglected or postponed.

Q. 1331. Are children obliged, under pain of mortal sin, the same as grown persons, to hear Mass on Sundays and holydays of obligation?

A. Children who have reached the use of reason are obliged under pain of mortal sin, the same as grown persons, to hear Mass on Sundays and holydays of obligation; but if they are prevented from so doing by parents, or others, then the sin falls on those who prevent them.

Q. 1332. Why were holydays instituted by the church?

A. Holydays were instituted by the Church to recall to our minds the great mysteries of religion and the virtues and rewards of the saints.

Q. 1333. How many holydays of obligation are there in this country?

A. In this country there are six holydays of obligation, namely:
   1. Feast of the Immaculate Conception (Dec. 8th);
   2. Christmas (Dec. 25th);
   3. Feast of the Circumcision of Our Lord (Jan. 1st);
   4. Feast of the Ascension of Our Lord (forty days after Easter);
   5. Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (Aug. 15th); and
   6. Feast of All Saints (Nov. 1st).

Q. 1334. How should we keep the holydays of obligation?

A. We should keep the holydays of obligation as we should keep the Sunday.

Q. 1335. Why are certain holydays called holydays of obligation?

A. Certain holydays are called holydays of obligation because on such days we are obliged under pain of mortal sin to hear Mass and keep from servile works as we do on Sundays.

Q. 1336. What should one do who is obliged to work on a holyday of obligation?

A. One who is obliged to work on a holyday of obligation should, if possible, hear Mass before going to work, and should also explain this necessity in confession, so as to obtain the confessor's advice on the subject.

Q. 1337. What do you mean by fast-days?

A. By fast-days I mean days on which we are allowed but one full meal.

Q. 1338. Is it permitted on fast days to take any food besides the one full meal?

A. It is permitted on fast days, besides the one full meal, to take two other meatless meals, to maintain strength, according to each one's needs. But together these two meatless meals should not equal another full meal.

Q. 1339. Who are obliged to fast?

A. All persons over 21 and under 59 years of age, and whose health and occupation will permit them to fast.

Q. 1340. Does the Church excuse any classes of persons from the obligation of fasting?

A. The Church does excuse certain classes of persons from the obligation of fasting on account of their age, the condition of their health, the nature of their work, or the circumstances in which they live. These things are explained in the Regulations for Lent, read publicly in the Churches each year.

Q. 1341. What should one do who doubts whether or not he is obliged to fast?

A. In doubt concerning fast, a parish priest or confessor should be consulted.

Q. 1342. When do fast days chiefly occur in the year?

A. Fast days chiefly occur in the year during Lent and Advent, on the Ember days and on the vigils or eves of some great feasts. A vigil falling on a Sunday is not observed.

Q. 1343. What do you mean by Lent, Advent, Ember days and the vigils of great feasts?

A. Lent is the seven weeks of penance preceding Easter. Advent is the four weeks of preparation preceding Christmas. Ember days are three days set apart in each of the four seasons of the year as special days of prayer and thanksgiving. Vigils are the days immediately preceding great feasts and spent in spiritual preparation for them.

Q. 1344. What do you mean by days of abstinence?

A. By days of abstinence I mean days on which no meat at all may be taken (complete abstinence) or on which meat may be taken only once a day (partial abstinence). This is explained in the regulations for Lent. All the Fridays of the year are days of abstinence except when a Holyday of obligation falls on a Friday outside of Lent.

Q. 1345. Are children and persons unable to fast bound to abstain on days of abstinence?

A. Children, from the age of seven years, and persons who are unable to fast are bound to abstain on days of abstinence, unless they are excused for sufficient reason.

Q. 1346. Why does the Church command us to fast and abstain?

A. The Church commands us to fast and abstain, in order that we may mortify our passions and satisfy for our sins.

Q. 1347. What is meant by our passions and what by mortifying them?

A. By our passions are meant our sinful desires and inclinations. Mortifying them means restraining them and overcoming them so that they have less power to lead us into sin.

Q. 1348. Why does the Church command us to abstain from flesh-meat on Fridays?

A. The Church commands us to abstain from flesh-meat on Fridays in honor of the day on which our Savior died.

Thirty-Sixth Lesson:

On the Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Commandments of the Church

 

Q. 1349. What is meant by the command of confessing at least once a year?

A. By the command of confessing at least once a year is meant that we are obliged, under pain of mortal sin, to go to confession within the year.

Q. 1350. Should we confess only once a year?

A. We should confess frequently, if we wish to lead a good life.

Q. 1351. Should we go to confession at our usual time even if we think we have not committed sin since our last confession?

A. We should go to confession at our usual time even if we think we have not committed sin since our last confession, because the Sacrament of Penance has for its object not only to forgive sins, but also to bestow grace and strengthen the soul against temptation.

Q. 1352. Should children go to confession?

A. Children should go to confession when they are old enough to commit sin, which is commonly about the age of seven years.

Q. 1353. What sin does he commit who neglects to receive Communion during the Easter time?

A. He who neglects to receive Communion during the Easter time commits a mortal sin.

Q. 1354. What is the Easter time?

A. The Easter time is, in this country, the time between the first Sunday of Lent and Trinity Sunday.

Q. 1355. When is Trinity Sunday?

A. Trinity Sunday is the Sunday after Pentecost, or eight weeks after Easter Sunday; so that there are fourteen weeks in which one may comply with the command of the Church to receive Holy Communion between the first Sunday of Lent and Trinity Sunday.

Q. 1356. Are we obliged to contribute to the support of our pastors?

A. We are obliged to contribute to the support of our pastors, and to bear our share in the expense of the Church and school.

Q. 1357. Where did the duty of contributing to the support of the Church and clergy originate?

A. The duty of contributing to the support of the Church and clergy originated in the Old Law, when God commanded all the people to contribute to the support of the temple and of its priests.

Q. 1358. What does the obligation of supporting the Church and school imply?

A. The obligation of supporting the Church and school implies the duty of making use of the Church and school by attending religious worship in the one and by giving Catholic education in the other; because if the Church and school were not necessary for our spiritual welfare we would not be commanded to support them.

Q. 1359. Does the fifth commandment of the Church include the support only of our pastors and the Church and school?

A. The fifth commandment of the Church includes the support also of our holy father, the Pope, bishops, priests, missions, religious institutions and religion in general.

Q. 1360. What is the meaning of the commandment not to marry within the third degree of kindred?

A. The meaning of the commandment not to marry within the third degree of kindred is that no one is allowed to marry another within the third degree of blood relationship.

Q. 1361. Who are in the third degree of blood relationship?

A. Second cousins are in the third degree of blood relationship, and persons whose relationship is nearer than second cousins are in closer degrees of kindred. It is unlawful for persons thus related to marry without a dispensation or special permission of the Church.

Q. 1362. Are there other relationships besides blood relationship that render marriage unlawful without a dispensation?

A. There are other relationships besides blood relationship that render marriage unlawful without a dispensation, namely, the relationships contracted by marriage, which are called degrees of affinity, and the relationship contracted by being sponsors at Baptism, which is called spiritual affinity.

Q. 1363. What should persons about to marry do, if they suspect they are related to each other?

A. Persons about to marry, if they suspect they are related to each other, should make known the facts to the priest, that he may examine the degree of relationship and procure a dispensation if necessary.

Q. 1364. What is the meaning of the command not to marry privately?

A. The command not to marry privately means that none should marry without the blessing of God's priests or without witnesses.

Q. 1365. What sin is it for Catholics to be married before the minister of another religion?

A. It is a mortal sin for Catholics to be married before the minister of another religion, and they who attempt to do so incur excommunication, and absolution from their sin is reserved to the bishop.

Q. 1366. What is the meaning of the precept not to solemnize marriage at forbidden times?

A. The meaning of the precept not to solemnize marriage at forbidden times is that during Lent and Advent the marriage ceremony should not be performed with pomp or a nuptial Mass.

Q. 1367. What is the nuptial Mass?

A. The nuptial Mass is a Mass appointed by the Church to invoke a special blessing upon the married couple.

Q. 1368. Should Catholics be married at a nuptial Mass?

A. Catholics should be married at a nuptial Mass, because they thereby show greater reverence for the holy Sacrament and bring richer blessings upon their wedded life.

Q. 1369. What restrictions does the Church place on the ceremonies of marriage when one of the persons is not a Catholic?

A. The Church places several restrictions on the ceremonies of marriage when one of the persons is not a Catholic. The marriage cannot take place in the church; the priest cannot wear his sacred vestments nor use holy water nor bless the ring nor the marriage itself. The Church places these restrictions to show her dislike for such marriages, commonly called mixed marriages.

Q. 1370. Why does the Church dislike mixed marriages?

A. The Church dislikes mixed marriages because such marriages are frequently unhappy, give rise to many disputes, endanger the faith of the Catholic member of the family, and prevent the religious education of the children

Thirty-Seventh Lesson:

On the Last Judgment and Resurrection, Hell, Purgatory and Heaven

 

Q. 1371. When will Christ judge us?

A. Christ will judge us immediately after our death, and on the last day.

Q. 1372. What is the judgment called which we have to undergo immediately after death?

A. The judgment we have to undergo immediately after death is called the Particular Judgment.

Q. 1373. Where will the particular judgment be held?

A. The particular judgment will be held in the place where each person dies, and the soul will go immediately to its reward or punishment.

Q. 1374. What is the judgment called which all men have to undergo on the last day?

A. The judgment which all men have to undergo on the last day is called the General Judgment.

Q. 1375. Will the sentence given at the particular judgment be changed at the general judgment?

A. The sentence given at the particular judgment will not be changed at the general judgment, but it will be repeated and made public to all.

Q. 1376. Why does Christ judge men immediately after death?

A. Christ judges men immediately after death to reward or punish them according to their deeds.

Q. 1377. How may we daily prepare for our judgment?

A. We may daily prepare for our judgment by a good examination of conscience, in which we will discover our sins and learn to fear the punishment they deserve.

Q. 1378. What are the rewards or punishments appointed for men's souls after the Particular Judgment?

A. The rewards or punishments appointed for men's souls after the Particular Judgment are Heaven, Purgatory, and Hell.

Q. 1379. What is Hell?

A. Hell is a state to which the wicked are condemned, and in which they are deprived of the sight of God for all eternity, and are in dreadful torments.

Q. 1380. Will the damned suffer in both mind and body?

A. The damned will suffer in both mind and body, because both mind and body had a share in their sins. The mind suffers the "pain of loss" in which it is tortured by the thought of having lost God forever, and the body suffers the "pain of sense" by which it is tortured in all its members and senses.

Q. 1381. What is Purgatory?

A. Purgatory is the state in which those suffer for a time who die guilty of venial sins, or without having satisfied for the punishment due to their sins.

Q. 1382. Why is this state called Purgatory?

A. This state is called Purgatory because in it the souls are purged or purified from all their stains; and it is not, therefore, a permanent or lasting state for the soul.

Q. 1383. Are the souls in Purgatory sure of their salvation?

A. The souls in Purgatory are sure of their salvation, and they will enter heaven as soon as they are completely purified and made worthy to enjoy that presence of God which is called the Beatific Vision.

Q. 1384. Do we know what souls are in Purgatory, and how long they have to remain there?

A. We do not know what souls are in Purgatory nor how long they have to remain there; hence we continue to pray for all persons who have died apparently in the true faith and free from mortal sin. They are called the faithful departed.

Q. 1385. Can the faithful on earth help the souls in Purgatory?

A. The faithful on earth can help the souls in Purgatory by their prayers, fasts, alms, deeds; by indulgences, and by having Masses said for them.

Q. 1386. Since God loves the souls in Purgatory, why does He punish them?

A. Though God loves the souls in Purgatory, He punishes them because His holiness requires that nothing defiled may enter heaven and His justice requires that everyone be punished or rewarded according to what he deserves.

Q. 1387. If every one is judged immediately after death, what need is there of a general judgment?

A. There is need of a general judgment, though every one is judged immediately after death, that the providence of God, which, on earth, often permits the good to suffer and the wicked to prosper, may in the end appear just before all men.

Q. 1388. What is meant by "the Providence of God"?

A. By "the Providence of God" is meant the manner in which He preserves, provides for, rules and governs the world and directs all things by His infinite Will.

Q. 1389. Are there other reasons for the general judgment?

A. There are other reasons for the general judgment, and especially that Christ Our Lord may receive from the whole world the honor denied Him at His first coming, and that all may be forced to acknowledge Him their God and Redeemer.

Q. 1390. Will our bodies share in the reward or punishment of our souls?

A. Our bodies will share in the reward or punishment of our souls, because through the resurrection they will again be united to them.

Q. 1391. When will the general resurrection or rising of all the dead take place?

A. The general resurrection or rising of all the dead will take place at the general judgment, when the same bodies in which we lived on earth will come forth from the grave and be united to our souls and remain united with them forever either in heaven or in hell.

Q. 1392. In what state will the bodies of the just rise?

A. The bodies of the just will rise glorious and immortal.

Q. 1393. Will the bodies of the damned also rise?

A. The bodies of the damned will also rise, but they will be condemned to eternal punishment.

Q. 1394. Why do we show respect for the bodies of the dead?

A. We show respect for the bodies of the dead because they were the dwelling-place of the soul, the medium through which it received the Sacraments, and because they were created to occupy a place in heaven.

Q. 1395. What is Heaven?

A. Heaven is the state of everlasting life in which we see God face to face, are made like unto Him in glory, and enjoy eternal happiness.

Q. 1396. In what does the happiness in heaven consist?

A. The happiness in heaven consists in seeing the beauty of God, in knowing Him as He is, and in having every desire fully satisfied.

Q. 1397. What does St. Paul say of heaven?

A. St. Paul says of heaven, "That eye hath not seen. nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man what things God hath prepared for them that love Him." (I. Cor. ii., 9.)

Q. 1398. Are the rewards in heaven and the punishments in hell the same for all who enter into either of these states?

A. The rewards of heaven and the punishments in hell are not the same for all who enter into either of these states, because each one's reward or punishment is in proportion to the amount of good or evil he has done in this world. But as heaven and hell are everlasting, each one will enjoy his reward or suffer his punishment forever.

Q. 1399. What words should we bear always in mind?

A. We should bear always in mind these words of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ: "What doth it profit a man if he gain the whole world and suffer the loss of his own soul, or what exchange shall a man give for his soul? For the Son of man shall come in the glory of His Father with His angels; and then will He render to every man according to his works."

Q. 1400. Name some of the more essential religious truths we must know and believe.

A. Some of the more essential religious truths we must know and believe are:
   1. That there is but one God, and He will reward the good and punish the wicked.
   2. That in God there are three Divine Persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and these Divine Persons are called the Blessed Trinity.
   3. That Jesus Christ, the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity, became man and died for our redemption.
   4. That the grace of God is necessary for our salvation.
   5. That the human soul is immortal.

 

 Baltimore Catechism #2

For Younger Students
 

 

bullet

Lesson 1 - On the end of Man

bulletLesson 2 - On God and His Perfections
bulletLesson 3 - On the Unity and Trinity of God
bulletLesson 4 - On Creation
bulletLesson 5 - On Our First Parents and the Fall
bulletLesson 6 - On Sin and Its Kinds
bulletLesson 7 - On the Incarnation and Redemption
bulletLesson 8 - On Our Lord's Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension
bulletLesson 9 - On the Holy Ghost and His Descent Upon the Apostles
bullet Lesson 10 - On the Effects of the Redemption
bullet Lesson 11 - On the Church
bullet Lesson 12 - On the Attributes and Marks of the Church
bullet Lesson 13 - On the Sacraments in General
bullet Lesson 14 - On Baptism
bullet Lesson 15 - On Confirmation
bullet Lesson 16 - On the Gifts and Fruits of the Holy Ghost
bullet Lesson 17 - On the Sacrament of Penance
bullet Lesson 18 - On Contrition
bullet Lesson 19 - On Confession
bullet Lesson 20 - On the Manner of Making a Good Confession
bullet Lesson 21 - On Indulgences
bullet Lesson 22 - On the Holy Eucharist
bullet Lesson 23 - On the Ends for which the Holy Eucharist was Instituted
bullet Lesson 24 - On the Sacrifice of the Mass
bullet Lesson 25 - On Extreme Unction and Holy Orders
bullet Lesson 26 - On Matrimony
bullet Lesson 27 - On the Sacramentals
bullet Lesson 28 - On Prayer
bullet Lesson 29 - On the Commandments of God
bullet Lesson 30 - On the First Commandment
bullet Lesson 31 - The First Commandment -- On the Honor and Invocation of the Saints
bullet Lesson 32 - From the Second to the Fourth Commandment
bullet Lesson 33 - From the Fourth to the Seventh Commandment
bullet Lesson 34 - From the Seventh to the Tenth Commandment
bullet Lesson 35 - On the First and Second Commandments of the Church
bullet Lesson 36 - On the Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Commandments of the Church
bullet Lesson 37 - On the Last Judgment and Resurrection, Hell, Purgatory and Heaven

 

LESSON FIRST: ON THE END OF MAN

1. Q. Who made the world?

A. God made the world.

2. Q. Who is God?

A. God is the Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things.

3. Q. What is man?

A. Man is a creature composed of body and soul, and made to the image and likeness of God.

4. Q. Is this likeness in the body or in the soul?

A. This likeness is chiefly in the soul.

5. Q. How is the soul like to God?

A. The soul is like God because it is a spirit that will never die, and has understanding and free will.

6. Q. Why did God make you?

A. God made me to know Him, to love Him, and to serve Him in this world, and to be happy with Him forever in the next.

7. Q. Of which must we take more care, our soul or our body?

A. We must take more care of our soul than of our body.

8. Q. Why must we take more care of our soul than of our body?

A. We must take more care of our soul than of our body, because in losing our soul we lose God and everlasting happiness.

9. Q. What must we do to save our souls?

A. To save our souls we must worship God by faith, hope, and charity; that is, we must believe in Him, hope in Him, and love Him with all our heart.

10. Q. How shall we know the things which we are to believe?

A. We shall know the things which we are to believe from the Catholic Church, through which God speaks to us.

11. Q. Where shall we find the chief truths which the Church teaches?

A. We shall find the chief truths which the Church teaches in the Apostles' Creed.

12. Q. Say the Apostles' Creed.

A. I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified; died, and was buried. He descended into hell: the third day He arose again from the dead: He ascended into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.

LESSON SECOND: ON GOD AND HIS PERFECTIONS

13. Q. What is God?

A. God is a spirit infinitely perfect.

14. Q. Had God a beginning

A. God had no beginning; He always was and He always will be.

15. Q. Where is God?

A. God is everywhere.

16. Q. If God is everywhere, why do we not see Him?

A. We do not see God, because He is a pure spirit and cannot be seen with bodily eyes.

17. Q. Does God see us?

A. God sees us and watches over us.

18. Q. Does God know all things?

A. God knows all things, even our most secret thoughts, words, and actions.

19. Q. Can God do all things?

A. God can do all things, and nothing is hard or impossible to Him.

20. Q. Is God just, holy, and merciful?

A. God is all just, all holy, all merciful, as He is infinitely perfect.

LESSON THIRD: ON THE UNITY AND TRINITY OF GOD

21. Q. Is there but one God?

A. Yes; there is but one God.

22. Q. Why can there be but one God?

A. There can be but one God, because God, being supreme and infinite, cannot have an equal.

23. Q. How many Persons are there in God?

A. In God there are three Divine Persons, really distinct, and equal in all things-the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.

24. Q. Is the Father God?

A. The Father is God and the first Person of the Blessed Trinity.

25. Q. Is the Son God?

A. The Son is God and the second Person of the Blessed Trinity.

26. Q. Is the Holy Ghost God?

A. The Holy Ghost is God and the third Person of the Blessed Trinity.

27. Q. What do you mean by the Blessed Trinity?

A. By the Blessed Trinity I mean one God in three Divine Persons.

28. Q. Are the three Divine Persons equal in all things?

A. The three Divine Persons are equal in all things.

29. Q. Are the three Divine Persons one and the same God?

A. The three Divine Persons are one and the same God, having one and the same Divine nature and substance.

30. Q. Can we fully understand how the three Divine Persons are one and the same God?

A. We cannot fully understand how the three Divine Persons are one and the same God, because this is a mystery.

31. Q. What is a mystery?

A. A mystery is a truth which we cannot fully understand.

LESSON FOURTH: ON CREATION

32. Q. Who created heaven and earth, and all things?

A. God created heaven and earth, and all things.

33. Q. How did God create heaven and earth?

A. God created heaven and earth from nothing by His word only; that is, by a single act of His all-powerful will.

34. Q. Which are the chief creatures of God?

A. The chief creatures of God are angels and men.

33. Q. What are angels?

A. Angels are pure spirits without a body, created to adore and enjoy God in heaven.

36. Q. Were the angels created for any other purpose?

A. The angels were also created to assist before the throne of God and to minister unto Him; they have often been sent as messengers from God to man; and are also appointed our guardians.

37. Q. Were the angels, as God created them, good and happy?

A. The angels, as God created them, were good and happy.

38. Q. Did all the angels remain good and happy?

A. All the angels did not remain good and happy; many of them sinned and were cast into hell, and these are called devils or bad angels.

LESSON FIFTH: ON OUR FIRST PARENTS AND THE FALL

39. Q. Who were the first man and woman?

A. The first man and woman were Adam and Eve.

40. Q. Were Adam and Eve innocent and holy when they came from the hand of God?

A. Adam and Eve were innocent and holy when they came from the hand of God.

41. Q. Did God give any command to Adam and Eve?

A. To try their obedience God commanded Adam and Eve not to eat of a certain fruit which grew in the garden of Paradise.

42. Q. Which were the chief blessings intended for Adam and Eve had they remained faithful to God?

A. The chief blessings intended for Adam and Eve, had they remained faithful to God, were a constant state of happiness in this life and everlasting glory in the next.

43. Q. Did Adam and Eve remain faithful to God?

A. Adam and Eve did not remain faithful to God; but broke His command by eating the forbidden fruit.

44. Q. What befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin?

A. Adam and Eve, on account of their sin, lost innocence and holiness, and were doomed to sickness and death.

45. Q. What evil befell us on account of the disobedience of our first parents?

A. On account of the disobedience of our first parents, we all share in their sin and punishment, as we should have shared in their happiness if they had remained faithful.

46. Q. What other effects followed from the sin of our first parents?

A. Our nature was corrupted by the sin of our first parents, which darkened our understanding, weakened our will, and left in us a strong inclination to evil.

47. Q. What is the sin called which we inherit from our first parents?

A. The sin which we inherit from our first parents is called original sin.

48. Q. Why is this sin called original?

A. This sin is called original because it comes down to us from our first parents, and we are brought into the world with its guilt on our soul.

49. Q. Does this corruption of our nature remain in us after original sin is forgiven?

A. This corruption of our nature and other punishments remain in us after original sin is forgiven.

50. Q. Was any one ever preserved from original sin?

A. The Blessed Virgin Mary, through the merits of her Divine Son, was preserved free from the guilt of original sin, and this privilege is called her Immaculate Conception.

LESSON SIXTH: ON SIN AND ITS KINDS

51. Q. Is original sin the only kind of sin?

A. Original sin is not the only kind of sin; there is another kind of sin, which we commit ourselves, called actual sin.

52. Q. What is actual sin?

A. Actual sin is any willful thought, word, deed, or omission contrary to the law of God.

53. Q. How many kinds of actual sin are there?

A. There are two kinds of actual sin-mortal and venial.

54. Q. What is mortal sin?

A. Mortal sin is a grievous offense against the law of God.

55. Q. Why is this sin called mortal?

A. This sin is called mortal because it deprives us of spiritual life, which is sanctifying grace, and brings everlasting death and damnation on the soul.

56. Q. How many things are necessary to make a sin mortal?

A. To make a sin mortal three things are necessary: a grievous matter, sufficient reflection, and full consent of the will.

57. Q. What is venial sin?

A. Venial sin is a slight offense against the law of God in matters of less importance, or in matters of great importance it is an offense committed without sufficient reflection or full consent of the will.

58. Q. Which are the effects of venial sin?

A. The effects of venial sin are the lessening of the love of God in our heart, the making us less worthy of His help, and the weakening of the power to resist mortal sin.

59. Q. Which are the chief sources of sin?

A. The chief sources of sin are seven: Pride, Covetousness, Lust, Anger, Gluttony, Envy, and Sloth; and they are commonly called capital sins.

LESSON SEVENTH: ON THE INCARNATION AND REDEMPTION

60. Q. Did God abandon man after he fell into sin?

A. God did not abandon man after he fell into sin, but promised him a Redeemer, who was to satisfy for man's sin and reopen to him the gates of heaven.

61. Q. Who is the Redeemer?

A. Our Blessed Lord and Savior Jesus Christ is the Redeemer of mankind.

62. Q. What do you believe of Jesus Christ?

A. I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the second Person of the Blessed Trinity, true God and true man.

63. Q. Why is Jesus Christ true God?

A. Jesus Christ is true God because He is the true and only Son of God the Father.

64. Q. Why is Jesus Christ true man?

A. Jesus Christ is true man because He is the Son of the Blessed Virgin Mary and has a body and soul like ours.

65. Q. How many natures are there in Jesus Christ?

A. In Jesus Christ there are two natures, the nature of God and the nature of man.

66. Q. Is Jesus Christ more than one person?

A. No, Jesus Christ is but one Divine Person.

67. Q. Was Jesus Christ always God?

A. Jesus Christ was always God, as He is the second Person of the Blessed Trinity, equal to His Father from all eternity.

68. Q. Was Jesus Christ always man?

A. Jesus Christ was not always man, but became man at the time of His Incarnation.

69. Q. What do you mean by the Incarnation?

A. By the Incarnation I mean that the Son of God was made man.

70. Q. How was the Son of God made man?

A. The Son of God was conceived and made man by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

71. Q. Is the Blessed Virgin Mary truly the Mother of God?

A. The Blessed Virgin Mary is truly the Mother of God, because the same Divine Person who is the Son of God is also the Son of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

72. Q. Did the Son of God become man immediately after the sin of our first parents?

A. The Son of God did not become man immediately after the sin of our first parents, but was promised to them as a Redeemer.

73. Q. How could they be saved who lived before the Son of God became man?

A. They who lived before the Son of God became man could be saved by believing in a Redeemer to come, and by keeping the commandments.

74. Q. On what day was the Son of God conceived and made man?

A. The Son of God was conceived and made man on Annunciation day-the day on which the Angel Gabriel announced to the Blessed Virgin Mary that she was to be the Mother of God.

75. Q. On what day was Christ born?

A. Christ was born on Christmas day in a stable at Bethlehem, over nineteen hundred years ago.

76. Q. How long did Christ live on earth?

A. Christ lived on earth about thirty-three years, and led a most holy life in poverty and suffering.

77. Q. Why did Christ live so long on earth?

A. Christ lived so long on earth to show us the way to heaven by His teachings and example.

LESSON EIGHTH: ON OUR LORD'S PASSION, DEATH, RESURRECTION, AND ASCENSION

78. Q. What did Jesus Christ suffer?

A. Jesus Christ suffered a bloody sweat, a cruel scourging, was crowned with thorns, and was crucified.

79. Q. On what day did Christ die?

A. Christ died on Good Friday.

80. Q. Why do you call that day "good" on which Christ died so sorrowful a death?

A. We call that day "good" on which Christ died because by His death He showed His great love for man, and purchased for him every blessing.

81. Q. Where did Christ die?

A. Christ died on Mount Calvary.

82. Q. How did Christ die?

A. Christ was nailed to the Cross and died on it between two thieves.

83. Q. Why did Christ suffer and die?

A. Christ suffered and died for our sins.

84. Q. What lessons do we learn from the sufferings and death of Christ?

A. From the sufferings and death of Christ we learn the great evil of sin, the hatred God bears to it, and the necessity of satisfying for it.

85. Q. Where did Christ's soul go after His death?

A. After Christ's death His soul descended into hell.

86. Q. Did Christ's soul descend into the hell of the damned?

A. The hell into which Christ's soul descended was not the hell of the damned, but a place or state of rest called Limbo, where the souls of the just were waiting for Him.

87. Q. Why did Christ descend into Limbo?

A. Christ descended into Limbo to preach to the souls who were in prison-that is, to announce to them the joyful tidings of their redemption.

88. Q. Where was Christ's body while His soul was in Limbo?

A. While Christ's soul was in Limbo His body was in the holy sepulchre.

89. Q. On what day did Christ rise from the dead?

A. Christ rose from the dead, glorious and immortal, on Easter Sunday, the third day after His death.

90. Q. How long did Christ stay on earth after His resurrection?

A. Christ stayed on earth forty days after His resurrection to show that He was truly risen from the dead, and to instruct His Apostles.

91. Q. After Christ had remained forty days on earth whither did He go?

A. After forty days Christ ascended into heaven, and the day on which He ascended into heaven is called Ascension day.

92. Q. Where is Christ in heaven?

A. In heaven Christ sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty.

93. Q. What do you mean by saying that Christ sits at the right hand Of God?

A. When I say that Christ sits at the right hand of God I mean that Christ as God is equal to His Father in all things, and that as man He is in the highest place in heaven next to God.

LESSON NINTH: ON THE HOLY GHOST AND HIS DESCENT UPON THE APOSTLES

94. Q. Who is the Holy Ghost?

A. The Holy Ghost is the third Person of the Blessed Trinity.

95. Q. From whom does the Holy Ghost proceed?

A. The Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son.

96. Q. Is the Holy Ghost equal to the Father and the Son?

A. The Holy Ghost is equal to the Father and the Son, being the same Lord and God as They are.

97. Q. On what day did the Holy Ghost come down upon the Apostles?

A. The Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles ten days after the Ascension of our Lord; and the day on which He came down upon the Apostles is called Whitsunday, or Pentecost.

98. Q. How did the Holy Ghost come down upon the Apostles?

A. The Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles in the form of tongues of fire.

99. Q. Who sent the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles?

A. Our Lord Jesus Christ sent the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles.

100. Q. Why did Christ send the Holy Ghost?

A. Christ sent the Holy Ghost to sanctify His Church, to enlighten and strengthen the Apostles, and to enable them to preach the Gospel.

101. Q. Will the Holy Ghost abide with the Church forever?

A. The Holy Ghost will abide with the Church forever, and guide it in the way of holiness and truth.

LESSON TENTH: ON THE EFFECTS OF THE REDEMPTION

102. Q. Which are the chief effects of the Redemption?

A. The chief effects of the Redemption are two: The satisfaction of God's ' justice by Christ's sufferings and death, and the gaining of grace for men.

103. Q. What do you mean by grace?

A. By grace I mean a supernatural gift of God bestowed on us, through the merits of Jesus Christ, for our salvation.

104. Q. How many kinds of grace are there?

A. There are two kinds of grace, sanctifying grace and actual grace.

105. Q. What is sanctifying grace?

A. Sanctifying grace is that grace which makes the soul holy and pleasing to God.

106. Q. What do you call those graces or gifts of God by which we believe in Him, hope in Him, and love Him?

A. Those graces or gifts of God by which we believe in Him, and hope in Him, and love Him, are called the Divine virtues of Faith, Hope, and Charity.

107. Q. What is Faith?

A. Faith is a Divine virtue by which we firmly believe the truths which God has revealed.

108. Q. What is Hope?

A. Hope is a Divine virtue by which we firmly trust that God will give us eternal life and the means to obtain it.

109. Q. What is Charity?

A. Charity is a Divine virtue by which we love God above all things for His own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God.

110. Q. What is actual grace?

A. Actual grace is that help of God which enlightens our mind and moves our will to shun evil and do good.

111. Q. Is grace necessary to salvation?

A. Grace is necessary to salvation, because without grace we can do nothing to merit heaven.

112. Q. Can we resist the grace of God?

A. We can and unfortunately often do resist the grace of God.

113. Q. What is the grace of perseverance?

A. The grace of perseverance is a particular gift of God which enables us to continue in the state of grace till death.

LESSON ELEVENTH: ON THE CHURCH

114. Q. Which are the means instituted by our Lord to enable men at all times to share in the fruits of the Redemption?

A. The means instituted by our Lord to enable men at all times to share in the fruits of His Redemption are the Church and the Sacraments.

115. Q. What is the Church?

A. The Church is the congregation of all those who profess the faith of Christ, partake of the same Sacraments, and are governed by their lawful pastors under one visible head.

116. Q. Who is the invisible Head of the Church?

A. Jesus Christ is the invisible Head of the Church.

117. Q. Who is the visible Head of the Church?

A. Our Holy Father the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is the Vicar of Christ on earth and the visible Head of the Church.

118. Q. Why is the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, the visible Head of the Church?

A. The Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is the visible Head of the Church because lie is the successor of St. Peter, whom Christ made the chief of the Apostles and the visible Head of the Church.

119. Q. Who are the successors of the other Apostles?

A. The successors of the other Apostles are the bishops of the Holy Catholic Church.

120. Q. Why did Christ found the Church?

A. Christ founded the Church to teach, govern, sanctify, and save all men.

121. Q. Are all bound to belong to the Church?

A. All are bound to belong to the Church, and he who knows the Church to be the true Church and remains out of it cannot be saved.

LESSON TWELFTH: ON THE ATTRIBUTES AND MARKS OF THE CHURCH

122. Q. Which are the attributes of the Church?

A. The attributes of the Church are three: authority infallibility, and indefectibility.

123. Q. What do you mean by the authority of the Church?

A. By the authority of the Church I mean the right and power which the Pope and the bishops, as the successors of the Apostles, have to teach and to govern the faithful.

124. Q. What do you mean by the infallibility of the Church?

A. By the infallibility of the Church I mean that the Church cannot err when it teaches a doctrine of faith or morals.

125. Q. When does the Church teach infallibly?

A. The Church teaches infallibly when it speaks through the Pope and the bishops, united in general council, or through the Pope alone when he proclaims to all the faithful a doctrine of faith or morals.