Lent Overview

Season's Theme:

Christ in the Desert, the Babylonian Captivity continued from Septuagesima

Season's Color:


Season's Mood:

Season's Symbols: Cross, crown of thorns, three nails, Chalice, Host

Season's Length:

Ash Wednesday to Vespers of Holy Saturday (the day before Easter)

Lent (the word "Lent" comes from the Old English "lencten," meaning "springtime) lasts from Ash Wednesday to the Vespers of Holy Saturday -- 40 days + six Sundays which don't count as "Lent" liturgically. The Latin name for Lent, Quadragesima, means 40 and refers to the 40 days Christ spent in the desert which is the origin of the Season. The last two weeks of Lent are known as "Passiontide," made up of Passion Week and Holy Week. The last 3 days of Holy Week -- Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday -- are known as the "Sacred Triduum."

The focus of this Season is the Cross and penance, penance, penance as we imitate Christ's 40 days in the desert and await the triumph of Easter. We fast (see below), abstain, mortify the flesh, give alms, and think more of charitable works. Awakening each morning with the thought, "How might I make amends for my sins? How can I serve God in a reparative way? How can I serve others today?" is the attitude to have.

We also practice mortifications by "giving up something" that would be a sacrifice to do without. The sacrifice could be anything from desserts to television, and it can entail, too, taking on something unpleasant that we'd normally avoid.

Because of the focus on penance and reparation, it is traditional to make sure we go to Confession at least once during this Season to fulfill the precepts of the Church that we go to Confession at least once a year, and receive the Eucharist at least once a year during Eastertide. A beautiful old custom associated with Lenten Confession is to, before going to see the priest, bow before each member of your household and to any you've sinned against, and say, "In the Name of Christ, forgive me if I've offended you." One responds with "God will forgive you." Done with an extensive examination of conscience and a sincere heart, this practice can be quite healing (also note that confessing sins to a priest is a Sacrament which remits mortal and venial sins; confessing sins to those you've offended is a sacramental which, like all sacramentals one piously takes advantage of, remits venial sins. Both are quite good for the soul!)

As to prayer, praying the beautiful 7 Penitential Psalms (Psalms 6, 31, 37, 50, 101, 129, and 142) is a traditional practice. It is most traditional to pray all of these each day of Lent, but if time is an issue, you can pray them all on just the Fridays of Lent, or, because there are 7 of them, and 7 Fridays in Lent, you might want to consider praying one on each Friday. These Psalms, which include the Psalms "Miserére" and "De Profundis," are perfect expressions of contrition and prayers for mercy. So apt are these Psalms at expressing contrition that, as he lay dying in A.D. 430, St. Augustine asked that a monk write them in large letters near his bed so he could read them.

Also, on all Fridays during Lent, one may gain a plenary indulgence, under the usual conditions, by reciting the En ego, O bone et dulcissime Iesu (Prayer Before a Crucifix) before an image of Christ crucified.

Other Lenten Prayers

Prayer to Jesus, Agonizing on the Mount of Olives

The 15 Secret Tortures and Sufferings of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ

Various Exercises for the Use of Persons devoted to the Passion of our Lord:

The Clock of the Passion

Reading: "The Mystery of Lent" from Dom Gueranger's "The Liturgical Year"

A Lenten Prayer And Pledge by By Fr. Lawrence S. Brey

Why do we do Penance during the days of Lent?

The Reasons for doing Penance are:

  1. To atone for the temporal punishment due to our sins

  2. To increase the value of our prayers, which are far more efficacious when joined with penance

  3. To obtain graces for others Note: Our Lady of Fatima asked the children to pray and sacrifice for sinners

  4. To strengthen our will power, our will is weak , but penance makes us stronger against temptations

  5. To increase merit and earn a higher place in heaven

  6. To elevate our mind to heavenly things (Penance helps us pray and meditate better)

  7. To demonstrate our love for God (True love entails a willingness to suffer for the person loved)

The 7 Penitential Psalms:
Psalms 6, 31, 37, 50, 101, 129 and 142

~ P R A Y E R ~

By order of Pope Innocent III (1198-1216), these prayers are to be prayed during the days of Lent. If they can't be said on each day of the Season, they can at least be prayed on Lenten Fridays (or one could pray one prayer on each of the 7 Fridays of Lent). One kneels when praying these Psalms, begins and ends with a short antiphon, and recites a Gloria in between.



Remember, not O Lord our or our parents' offences: neither take vengeance of our sins.     Ne reminiscaris Domine delicta nostra, vel parentem nostrorum: neque vindictam sumas de peccatis nostris.

Psalm 6

English version:   Latin version:
O Lord, do not reprove me in Thy wrath, nor in Thy anger chastise me.   Domine, ne in furore tuo arguas me, neque in ira tua corripias me.
Have mercy on me, Lord, for I am weak, heal me, Lord, for my body is in torment.   Miserere mei, Domine, quoniam infirmus sum; sana me, Domine, quoniam conturbata sunt ossa mea.
And my soul is greatly troubled, but Thou, O Lord, how long?   Et anima mea turbata est valde, sed tu, Domine, usquequo?
Turn to me, O Lord, and deliver my soul; save me on account of Thy mercy.   Convertere, Domine, et eripe animam meam; salvum me fac propter misericordiam tuam.
For who amongst the dead remembers Thee, who of the dead will tell of Thee?   Quoniam non est in morte, qui memor sit tui, in inferno autem quis confitebitur tibi?
I have suffered and wept, every night have I washed my bed and drenched my blanket with my tears.   Laboravi in gemitu meo, lavabo per singulas noctes lectum meum; lacrimis meis stratum meum rigabo.
My eyes are filled with grief, I have grown feeble in the midst of my enemies.   Turbatus est a furore oculus meus, inveteravi inter omnes inimicos meos.
Leave me, all you who do evil, for the Lord has heard the sound of my weeping.   Discedite a me omnes, qui operamini iniquitatem, quoniam exaudivit Dominus vocem fletus mei.
The Lord has heard my appeal, the Lord has accepted my prayer.     Exaudivit Dominus deprecationem meam, Dominus orationem meam suscepit.
May my enemies be put to shame and come to ruin. May they be turned away and be swiftly put to shame.   Erubescant et conturbentur vehementer omnes inimici mei; convertantur et erubescant valde velociter.


Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. Even as it was in the beginning, and now, and ever: and world without end. Amen. Alleluia.     Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper: et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Alleluia.

Psalm 31

English version:   Latin version:
Blessed is he whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered.   Beati, quorum remissae sunt iniquitates, et quorum tecta sunt peccata.
Blessed is the man to whom the Lord hath not imputed sin, and in whose spirit there is no guile.   Beatus vir, cui non imputavit Dominus peccatum, nec est in spiritu eius dolus.
Because I was silent my bones wasted away, as I cried out all day.   Quoniam tacui, inveteraverunt ossa mea, dum clamarem tota die.
For day and night Thy hand was heavy upon me: I am twisted in my affliction whilst the thorn is fastened upon me.   Quoniam die ac nocte gravata est super me manus tua, conversus sum in aerumna mea, dum configitur spina.
I have acknowledged my sin to Thee, and my guilt I have not concealed.   Delictum meum cognitum tibi feci et iniustitiam meum non abscondi.
I said "I will confess my injustice against myself to the Lord:" and Thou hast forgiven the wickedness of my sin.   Dixi: "Confitebor adversum me iniustitiam meam Domino:" Et tu remisisti impietatem peccati mei.
For this shall every one that is holy pray to Thee in due time.   Pro hac orabit ad te omnis sanctus in tempore opportuno.
Though in a flood of many waters, they shall not reach him.   Verumtamen in diluvio aquarum multarum ad eum non approximabunt.
Thou art my refuge, from the tribulation which surrounds me: my joy, deliver me from those surrounding me.   Tu es refugium meum, a tribulatione quae circumdedit me; exsultatio mea, erue me a circumdantibus me.
I will give thee understanding, and I will instruct thee in the way in which thou shalt walk: I will fix my eyes upon thee.   Intellectum tibi dabo et instruam te in via hac, qua gradieris; firmabo super te oculos meos.
Do not become like the horse and the mule, who have no understanding.   Nolite fieri sicut equus et mulus, quibus non est intellectus;
With bit and bridle bind them fast, else they will not come near to thee.   In camo et freno maxillas eorum constringe, qui non approximant ad te.
Many are the sorrows of the sinner, but mercy shall surround him that hopeth in the Lord.   Multa flagella peccatoris, sperantem autem in Domino misericordia circumdabit.
Be glad in the Lord, and rejoice, ye just, and glory, all ye of righteous heart.   Laetamini in Domino et exsultate, iusti, et gloriamini, omnes recti corde.


Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. Even as it was in the beginning, and now, and ever: and world without end. Amen. Alleluia.     Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper: et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Alleluia.

Psalm 37

English version:   Latin version:
O Lord, rebuke me not in Thy furor; nor chastise me in Thy wrath.   Domine, ne in furore tuo arguas me, neque in ira tua corripias me,
For thy arrows are fastened in me: and Thy hand hath descended upon me.   quoniam sagittae tuae infixae sunt mihi, et confirmasti super me manum tuum.
There is no health in my flesh in the face of Thy wrath: there is no peace for my bones in the face of my sins.   Non est sanitas in carne mea, a facie irae tuae; non est pax ossibus meis a facie peccatorum meorum.
For my iniquities are gone over my head: and are a heavy burden too heavy to bear.   Quoniam iniquitates meae supergressae sunt caput meum et sicut onus grave gravatae sunt super me.
My wounds are putrid and corrupt, in the face of my foolishness.   Putruerunt et corrupti sunt cicatrices mei a facie insipientiae meae.
I am miserable and am bowed down: all the day long I walked in sadness .   Miser factus sum et curvatus sum usque in finem; tota die contristatus ingrediebar.
For my insides are filled with mocking; and there is no health in my flesh.   Quoniam lumbi mei impleti sunt illusionibus, et non est sanitas in carne mea.
Greatly am I afflicted and humbled: I roared with the groaning of my heart.   Afflictus sum et humiliatus sum nimis, rugiebam a gemitu cordis mei.
Lord, before Thee are all my desires, and my groaning is not hidden from Thee.   Domine, ante te omne desiderium meum, et gemitus meus a te non est absconditus.
My heart is troubled, my strength hath left me, and the light of my eyes themselves is not with me.   Cor meum conturbatum est, dereliquit me virtus mea, et lumen oculorum meorum, et ipsum non est mecum.
My friends and my neighbors have drawn near me and stood against me.   Amici mei et proximi mei adversum me appropinquaverunt et steterunt;
And those who were near me stood afar: They laid snares, those who sought my soul.   et qui iuxta me erant, de longe steterunt, et vim faciebant qui quaerebant animam meam.
And they that sought evil for me said wicked things, all day long they planned deceitful things.   Et, qui inquirebant mala mihi, locuti sunt vanitates et dolos tota die meditabantur.
But I, as a deaf man, heard not: and as a dumb man not opening his mouth.   Ego autem tamquam surdus non audiebam et sicut mutus non aperiens os suum;
And I became like one that heareth not: and that hath no reproofs in his mouth.   et factus sum sicut homo non audiens et non habens in ore suo redargutiones.
For in Thee, O Lord, have I hoped: Thou wilt hear me, O Lord my God.   Quoniam in te, Domine, speravi, tu exaudies, Domine Deus meus.
For I said, "May my enemies never rejoice over me: when my feet stumble, they speak great things against me."   Quia dixi: "Nequando supergaudeant mihi inimici mei; et dum commoventur pedes mei, super me magna locuti sunt."
For I am ready for the whip: and my sorrow is continually before me.   Quoniam ego in flagella paratus sum, et dolor meus in conspectu meo semper.
For I will declare my inequity: and I will be sorry for my sin.   Quoniam iniquitatem meam annuntiabo et cogitabo pro peccato meo.
But my enemies live, and are stronger than I, and they that hate me wrongfully multiply.     Inimici autem mei vivunt et confirmati sunt super me, et multiplicati sunt, qui oderunt me inique.
They that render evil for good, have humiliated me, because I followed goodness.   Qui retribuunt mala pro bonis detrahebant mihi quoniam sequebar bonitatem.
Forsake me not, O Lord, my God, depart not from me.   Ne derelinquas me, Domine; Deus meus, ne discesseris a me.
Hasten unto my help, O Lord, God of my salvation.   Intende in adiutorium meum, Domine, Deus salutis meae.


Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. Even as it was in the beginning, and now, and ever: and world without end. Amen. Alleluia.     Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper: et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Alleluia.

Psalm 50: Miserére

English version:    Latin version:
Have mercy on me, O God, according to Thy great mercy;     Miserére mei, Deus, secúndum magnam misericórdiam tuam;
and according to the multitude of Thy tender mercies: blot out my iniquity.   et secúndum multitúdinem miserationum tuárum: dele iniquitátem meam.
Wash me from my iniquity; and cleanse me of my sin.   Amplius lava me ab iniquitáte mea et a peccáto meo munda me.
For I acknowledge my iniquity, and my sin is always before me.   Quóniam iniquitatem meam ego cognósco, et peccátum meum contra me est semper.
Against Thee alone have I sinned and done evil in Thy sight; that Thou mayest be justified in Thy sentence and mayest overcome when judged.   Tibi, soli peccávi et malum coram te feci; ut iustificéris in sermónibus tuis, et vincas cum iudicaris.
For behold, I was conceived in sin, and in sin my mother conceived me;   Ecce enim in iniquitátibus concéptus sum, et in peccátis concépit me mater mea.
For behold, Thou hast loved truth, and the uncertain and hidden things of Thy wisdom Thou hast shown me.   Ecce enim veritatem dilexisti incerta et occúlta sapiéntiae tuae manifestásti mihi.
Thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop, and I shall be cleansed, Thou shalt wash me, and I shall be made whiter than snow.   Aspérges me hyssópo, et mundábor; lavábis me, et super nivem dealbábor.
Thou shalt make me hear of joy and gladness, and the bones Thou hath crushed shall rejoice.   Auditui meo dabis gáudium et laetitiam, et exultábunt ossa humiliata.
Turn away Thy face from my sins, and blot out all my iniquities.   Averte fáciem tuam a peccátis meis, et omnes iniquitates meas dele.
Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a steadfast spirit within me.   Cor mundum crea in me, Deus, et spíritum rectum innova in visceribus meis.
Cast me not from Thy presence, and take not Thy holy spirit from me.   Ne proiícias me a fácie tua et spiritum sanctum tuum ne áuferas a me.
Restore unto me the joy of Thy salvation, and strengthen me with Thy spirit.   Redde mihi laetitiam salutáris tui et spiritu principáli confirma me.
I will teach the unjust Thy ways, and the wicked shall be converted to Thee.   Docébo iníquos vias tuas, et ímpii ad te converténtur.
Deliver me from blood guilt, O God, the God of my salvation , and my tongue shall extol Thy justice.   Libera me de sanguínibus, Deus, Deus salútis meae, et exsultábit lingua mea iustítiam tuam.
Thou shalt open my lips, O Lord, and my mouth shall declare Thy praise.   Dómine, lábia mea apéries, et os meum annuntiábit laudem tuam.
For if Thou didst desire sacrifice, I would have indeed given it, with a burnt offering Thou art not pleased.   Quóniam si voluísses sacrifícium, dedíssem útique, holocáustis non delectáberis.
A sacrifice to God is an afflicted spirit, a contrite and humbled heart, O God, Thou shalt not despise.   Sacrifícium Deo spíritus contribulátus, cor contrítum et humiliátum, Deus, non despicies.
Deal favorably, O Lord, in Thy good will with Sion that the walls of Jerusalem may be built up.   Benigne fac, Dómine, in bona voluntáte tua Sion, ut aedificéntur muri Ierúsalem.
Then shalt Thou accept the sacrifice of justice, oblations and whole burnt offerings, then shall they lay calves upon Thy altar.   Tunc acceptábis sacrifícium iustítiae, oblationes et holocáusta; tunc impónent super altáre tuum vitulos.


Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. Even as it was in the beginning, and now, and ever: and world without end. Amen. Alleluia.     Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper: et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Alleluia.

Psalm 101

English version:   Latin version:
Hear, O Lord, my prayer: and let my cry come to Thee.   Domine, exaudi orationem meam, et clamor meus ad te veniat.
Hide not Thy face from me: in the day of my distress, incline Thy ear to me.   Non avertas faciem tuam a me; in quacumque die tribulor, inclina ad me aurem tuam.
On the day I call upon Thee, hear me speedily.   In quacumque die invocavero te, velociter exaudi me.
For my days have vanished like smoke, and my bones burn like dry wood in a fire.   Quia defecerunt sicut fumus dies mei, et ossa mea sicut cremium aruerunt.
My heart is dried up and withered like grass: and so I have forgotten to eat my bread.   Percussus sum ut fenum et aruit cor meum, quia oblitus sum comedere panem meum.
Because of my groaning, my bones cleave to my flesh.   A voce gemitus mei adhaesit os meum carni meae.
I am like a pelican in the desert: I am like a night owl among the ruins.   Similis factus sum pellicano solitudinis, factus sum sicut nycticorax in domicilio.
I kept awake, and am like a lone sparrow on the housetop.   Vigilavi et factus sum sicut passer solitarius in tecto.
All day my enemies reviled me: in their rage against me they made a curse of me.   Tota die exprobrabant mihi inimici mei, et qui laudabant me adversum me iurabant.
For I eat ashes like bread, and mingle my drink with tears.   Quia cinerem tamquam panem manducabam et potum meum cum fletu miscebam,
Because of Thy anger and indignation: having lifted me up, Thou hast then cast me down.   a facie irae et indignationis tuae, quia elevans allisisti me.
My days are like a lengthening shadow, and I have withered like grass.   Dies mei sicut umbra declinaverunt, et ego sicut fenum arui.
But thou, O Lord, endurest for ever: and Thy memorial for generations and generations.   Tu autem. Domine, in aeternum permanes, et memoriale tuum in generationem et generationem.
Thou shalt arise and have mercy on Sion, for it is time to be merciful, for the appointed time has come.   Tu exsurgens misereberis Sion, quia tempus miserendi eius, quia venit tempus,
For her stones have pleased Thy servants: and her dust moves them to pity.   quoniam placuerunt servis tuis lapides eius et terrae eius miserebuntur.
All the Gentiles shall fear Thy name, O Lord, and all the kings of the earth Thy glory.   Et timebunt gentes nomen tuum, Domine, et omnes reges terrae gloriam tuam,
For the Lord hath built up Sion: and He shall be seen in His glory.   quia aedificavit Dominus Sion et videbitur in gloria sua.
He hath regarded the prayer of the humble: and he hath not despised their prayer.   Respexit in orationem humilium et non sprevit precem eorum.
Let these things be written for the next generation: and the people that shall be created will praise the Lord:   Scribantur haec in generatione altera, et populus, qui creabitur, laudabit Dominum.
For he hath looked down from his sanctuary on high: from heaven the Lord hath looked upon the earth,   Quia prospexit de excelso sanctuario suo, Dominus de caelo in terram aspexit,
that he might hear the groans of those imprisoned that he might release the children of the dead:   ut audiret gemitus compeditorum, ut solveret filios interemptorum;
That they may declare the name of the Lord in Sion: and His praise in Jerusalem;   ut annuntient in Sion nomen Domini et laudem eius in Ierusalem,
when the people assemble together, and kings, that they may serve the Lord.   in conveniendo populos in unum et reges ut serviant Domino.
He hath broken my strength in the way, He hath cut short my days.   Respondit ei in via virtutis suae, paucitatem dierum meorum nuntia mihi.
I shall say: "My God take me not away in the midst of my days: Thy years are for generations and generations.   Ne revoces me in dimidio dierum meorum; in generationem et generationem sunt anni tui.
In the beginning, O Lord, Thou foundedst the earth: and the heavens are the works of thy hands.   Initio tu, Domine, terram fundasti; et opera manuum tuarum sunt caeli.
They shall perish but Thou shalt remain: and all of them shall grow old like a garment:     Ipsi peribunt, tu autem permanes; et omnes sicut vestimentum veterascent,
And like clothing Thou shalt change them, and they shall be changed.   et sicut opertorium mutabis eos, et mutabuntur.
But Thou art always the same, and Thy years have no end.   Tu autem idem ipse es, et anni tui non deficient.
The children of Thy servants shall abide and their offspring shall be established in Thy presence.   Filii servorum tuorum habitabunt, et semen eorum in saeculum dirigetur.


Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. Even as it was in the beginning, and now, and ever: and world without end. Amen. Alleluia.     Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper: et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Alleluia.

Psalm 129: De Profundis

English version:     Latin version:
Out of the depths have I cried unto Thee, O Lord: Lord hear my voice.   De profúndis clamávi ad te, Dómine: Dómine, exáudi vocem meam.
Let Thine ears be attentive to the voice of my supplication.   Fiant aures tuae intendéntes: in vocem deprecationes meae.
If Thou, Lord, shouldst mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand?   Si iniquitátes observaveris, Dómine: Dómine, quis sustinébit.
But there is forgiveness with Thee: because of Thy law I wait for Thee, O Lord.   Quia apud te propitiátio est: et propter legem tuam sustinui te, Dómine.
My soul waiteth on His word: my soul hopeth in the Lord.   Sustinuit ánima mea in verbo ejus: sperávit ánima mea in Dómino.
From the morning watch even until night let Israel hope in the Lord:   A custodia matutina usque ad noctem: specret Israel in Dómino.
For with the Lord there is mercy, and with Him is plentiful redemption.   Quia apud Dóminum misericordia: et copiósa apud eum redémptio.
And He shall redeem Israel, from all their iniquities.   Et ipse redimet Israel, ex ómnibus iniquitátibus ejus.


Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. Even as it was in the beginning, and now, and ever: and world without end. Amen. Alleluia.     Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper: et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Alleluia.

Psalm 142

English version:   Latin version:
Hear, O Lord, my prayer, give ear to my supplication in Thy truth: hear me in Thy justice.   Domine, Exaudi orationem mean, auribus percipe obsecrationem meam in veritate tua; exaudi me in tua iustitia.
And enter not into judgment with Thy servant: for no one living shall be justified in Thy sight.   Et non intres in iudicium cum servo tuo, quia non iustificabitur in conspectu tuo omnis vivens.
For the enemy hath persecuted my soul: he hath ground my life into the earth.   Quia persecutus est inimicus animam meam, humiliavit in terra vitam meam.
He hath made me dwell in darkness as the dead of old.   Collocavit me in obscuris sicut mortuos saeculi.
And my spirit is in anguish within me: my heart within me is troubled.   Et anxiatus est super me spiritus meus, in me turbatum est cor meum.
I remembered the days of old, I meditated on all Thy works: upon the works of Thy hands I pondered.   Memor fui dierum antiquorum, meditatus sum in omnibus operibus tuis, in factis manuum tuarum meditabar.
I stretched forth my hands to Thee: my soul is as earth without water unto Thee.   Expandi manus meas ad te, anima mea sicut terra sine aqua tibi.
Hear me speedily, O Lord: my spirit hath fainted away.   Velociter exaudi me, Domine; defecit spiritus meus.
Turn not away Thy face from me, lest I be like those that go down into the pit.   Non avertas faciem tuam a me, et similis ero descendentibus in lacum.
Cause me to hear Thy mercy in the morning; for in Thee have I hoped.   Auditam fac mihi mane misericordiam tuam, quia in te speravi.
Make the way known to me, wherein I should walk: for I have lifted up my soul to Thee.   Notam fac mihi viam, in qua ambulem, quia ad te levavi animam meam.
Deliver me from my enemies, O Lord, to Thee have I fled.   Eripe me de inimicis meis, Domine, ad te confugi.
Teach me to do Thy will, for Thou art my God.   Doce me facere voluntatem tuam, quia Deus meus es tu.
Thy good spirit shall lead me into the right land:   Spiritus tuus bonus deducet me in terram rectam;
for Thy name's sake, O Lord, Thou wilt give me life in Thy justice.   propter nomen tuum, Domine, vivificabis me, in aequitate tua.
Thou shalt bring my soul out of trouble.   Educes de tribulatione animam meam,
And in Thy mercy Thou wilt destroy my enemies.   et in misericordia tua disperdes inimicos meos.
And Thou wilt cut off all that afflict my soul: for I am Thy servant.   Et perdes omnes qui tribulant animam meam, Quoniam ego servus tuus sum.


Remember, not O Lord our or our parents' offences: neither take vengeance of our sins.     Ne reminiscaris Domine delicta nostra, vel parentem nostrorum: neque vindictam sumas de peccatis nostris.

Courtesy of Apologia


~ P R A Y E R ~

O Jesus, through the abundance of Thy Love, and in order to overcome our hardheartedness, You poured out torrents of Your graces over those who reflect on Your most sacred Sorrow in the Garden of Gethsemane, and who spread devotion to it. I pray Thee, move my soul and my heart to think often, at least once a day, of the most bitter Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane, in order to communicate with Thee and to be united with Thee as closely as possible.

O blessed Jesus, You carried the immense burden of our sins that night, and atoned for them fully: grant me the most perfect gift of complete repentant love over my numerous sins, for which You did sweat blood.

O blessed Jesus, for the sake of Your most bitter struggle in the Garden of Gethsemane, grant me final victory over all temptations, especially over those to which I am most subjected.

O suffering Jesus, for the sake of the inscrutable and indescribable agonies, during that night of betrayal, and of Your bitter anguish of mind, enlighten me, so that I may recognize and fulfill Your will: grant that I may ponder continually on Your heart wrenching struggle and on how You did emerge victorious in order to fulfill, not Your will, but the will of Thy Father.

Be Thou blessed, O Jesus, for all Your sighs on that holy night: and for all the tears which You did shed for us.

Be Thou blessed, O sweetest Jesus, for Your sweat of blood and terrible agony, which You did suffer lovingly in coldest abandonment and in inscrutable loneliness.

Be Thou blessed, O sweetest Jesus, filled with immeasurable bitterness, for the prayers which flowed in trembling agony from Your Heart, so truly human and divine.

Eternal Father, I offer You all the past, present, and future Masses together with the blood of Christ shed in the Agony in the Garden of Sorrow at Gethsemane.

Most Holy Trinity, grant that the knowledge, and thereby the love, of agony of Jesus on the Mount of Olives will spread throughout the whole world.

Grant, O Jesus, that all who look lovingly at You on the Cross, will also remember Your immense Suffering on the Mount of Olives, that they will follow Your example, learn to pray devoutly and fight victoriously, so that, one day, they may be able to Glorify You eternally in Heaven. Amen.

Imprimatur: Macario, Bishop.

  Fabiano, 23rd Nov. 1963


"I looked for one that would comfort me, and I found none"

Revealed to the pious, God-loving Sister Mary Magdalen of Sancta Clara Order, Franciscan, who lived, died and was beatified in Rome. Jesus fulfilled the wish of this Sister, who desired to ardently know something about the secret sufferings which He endured the night before His death.

This devotion is approved and recommended by His Holiness Clement II, 1730-1740)

1. They fastened My feet with a rope and dragged Me over the stepping stones of the staircase, down into a filthy, nauseating cellar.

2. They took off My clothing and stung My body with iron joints.

3. They attached a rope around My body and pulled Me on the ground from end to end.

4. They hanged Me on a wooden piece with a slip knot until I slipped out and fell down. Overwhelmed by this torture, I wept bloody tears.

5. They tied Me to a post and pierced My body with various arms.

6. They struck Me with stones and burnt Me with blazing embers and torches.

7. They pierced Me with awls; sharp spears tore My skin, flesh and arteries out of My body.

8. They tied Me to a post and made Me stand barefoot on an incandescent metal sheet.

9. They crowned Me with an iron crown and wrapped My eyes with the dirtiest possible rags.

10. They made Me sit on a chair covered with sharp pointed nails, causing deep wounds in My body.

11. They poured on My wounds liquid lead and resin and, after this torture, they pressed Me on the nailed chair so that the nails went deeper and deeper into My flesh.

12. For shame and affliction, they drove needles into the holes of My uprooted beard. They tied my hands behind My back and led Me walking out of prison with strikes and blows.

13. They threw Me upon a cross and attached Me so tightly that I could hardly breathe anymore.

14. They threw at My head as I lay on the earth, and they stepped on Me, hurting My breast. Then, taking a thorn from My crown, they drove it into My tongue.

15. They poured into My mouth the most immodest excretions, as they uttered the most infamous expressions about Me.

Then, Jesus added,
"My daughter, I desire that you let everybody know the Fifteen Secret Tortures in order that everyone of them be honored."
"Anyone who daily offers Me, with love, one of these sufferings and says with fervor the following prayer, will be rewarded with eternal glory on the day of judgment."

~ P R A Y E R ~

My Lord and My God, it is my unchangeable will to honor you in these Fifteen Secret Torments when You shed Your Precious Blood; as many times as there are grains of sand around the seas, as fruit in the orchards, as leaves on the trees, as flowers in the gardens, as stars in the sky, as angels in Heaven, as creatures on earth. So many thousands of times may you be glorified, praised and honored, O Most love-worthy Lord Jesus Christ - Your Holiest Heart, Your Precious Blood, Your Divine Sacrifice for mankind, the Holiest Sacrament of the altar, the Most Holy Virgin Mary, the nine glorious choirs of Angels and the Blessed Phalanx of the Saints, from myself and everyone, now and forever, and in the eternal ages.

In like manner, I desire, my dear Jesus, to give You thanksgiving, to serve you, to repair and atone for all my ignominies, and to offer You my soul and body as Your possession forever. Likewise, I regret all my sins and beg Your pardon, O my Lord and my God. And I offer You all the merits of Jesus Christ to repair everything, to obtain a happy dying-hour and the deliverance of the souls from Purgatory. This prayer I desire to renew at each hour until my death, O lovable Jesus. Sweet Savior, fortify my resolution and permit not that neither wretched men nor Satan destroy it.




During the Hours of the Passion, say an Our Father, Hail Mary and a Glory Be at each hour in honor of each event

P.M. 5 to 7        Jesus having Taken leave of Mary, celebrates his last supper.

8                        Jesus Washes the feet of the Apostles, and institutes the Most Holy Sacrament.

9                        Discourse of Jesus; he goes to the Garden of Olives.

10                      Prayer of Jesus in the garden

11                      The Agony in the Garden

MIDNIGHT      The sweating of blood.

1                        Jesus is betrayed by Judas, and is bound.

2                        Jesus is led before Annas

3                        Jesus is taken before Caiphas, and receives a blow in the face.

4                        Jesus is blindfolded, struck, and scoffed at.

5                        Jesus is led to the council, and declared guilty of death.

6                        Jesus is taken to Pilate, and accused

7                        Jesus is mocked by Herod.

8                        Jesus is conducted to Pilate, and Baraboas is preferred to him.

9                        Jesus is scourged at the pillar.

10                      Jesus is crowned with thorns, and exhibited to the people.

11                      Jesus is condemned to death, and goes to Calvary.

MIDDAY          Jesus is stripped and crucified.

1                        Jesus prays for his murderers.

2                        Jesus recommends his spirit to his Father.

3                        Jesus dies.

4                        Jesus is pierced with a lance.

5                        Jesus is taken down from the cross, and delivered over to his Mother.

6                        Jesus is buried, and left in the sepulcher.

"The Mystery of Lent"
from Dom Gueranger's "The Liturgical Year"

We may be sure that a season so sacred as this of Lent is rich in mysteries. The Church has made it a time of recollection and penance, in preparation for the greatest of all her feasts; she would, therefore, bring into it everything that could excite the faith of her children, and encourage them to go through the arduous work of atonement for their sins. During Septuagesima, we had the number "seventy", which reminds us of those seventy years of captivity in Babylon, after which God's chosen people, being purified from idolatry, was to return to Jerusalem and celebrate the Pasch. It is the number "forty" that the Church now brings before us: a number, as St. Jerome observes, which denotes punishment and affliction.

Let us remember the forty days and forty nights of the deluge sent by God in His anger, when He repented that He had made man, and destroyed the whole human race with the exception of one family. Let us consider how the Hebrew people, in punishment for their ingratitude, wandered forty years in the desert, before they were permitted to enter the promised land. Let us listen to our God commanding the Prophet Ezechiel to lie forty days on his right side, as a figure of the siege which was to bring destruction on Jerusalem.

There are two persons in the old Testament who represent the two manifestations of God: Moses, who typifies the Law; and Elias, who is the figure of the Prophets. Both of these are permitted to approach God: the first on Sinai, the second on Horeb; but both of them have to prepare for the great favour by an expiatory fast of forty days.

With these mysterious facts before us, we can understand why it is that the Son of God, having become Man for our salvation and wishing to subject Himself to the pain of fasting, chose the number of forty days. The institution of Lent is thus brought before us with everything that can impress the mind with its solemn character, and with its power of appeasing God and purifying our souls. Let us, therefore, look beyond the little world which surrounds us, and see how the whole Christian universe is, at this very time, offering this forty days' penance as a sacrifice of propitiation to the offended Majesty of God; and let us hope that, as in the case of the Ninivites, He will mercifully accept this year's offering of our atonement, and pardon us our sins.

The number of our days of Lent is, then, a holy mystery: let us now learn, from the liturgy, in what light the Church views her children during these forty days. She considers them as an immense army, fighting day and night against their spiritual enemies. We remember how, on Ash Wednesday, she calls Lent a Christian warfare. In order that we may have that newness of life, which will make us worthy to sing once more our "Alleluia", we must conquer our three enemies: the devil, the flesh, and the world. We are fellow combatants with our Jesus, for He, too, submits to the triple temptation, suggested to Him by satan in person. Therefore, we must have on our armour, and watch unceasingly. And whereas it is of the utmost importance that our hearts be spirited and brave, the Church gives us a war-song of heaven's own making, which can fire even cowards with hope of victory and confidence in God's help: it is the ninetieth Psalm. She inserts the whole of it in the Mass of the first Sunday of Lent, and every day introduces several of its verses into the ferial Office.

She there tells us to rely on the protection, wherewith our heavenly Father covers us, as with a shield; to hope under the shelter of His wings; to have confidence in Him; for that He will deliver us from the snare of the hunter, who had robbed us of the holy liberty of the children of God; to rely upon the succour of the holy angels, who are our brothers, to whom our Lord hath given charge that they keep us in all our ways, and who, when Jesus permitted satan to tempt Him, were the adoring witnesses of His combat, and approached Him, after His victory, proffering to Him their service and homage. Let us well absorb these sentiments wherewith the Church would have us to be inspired; and, during our six weeks' campaign, let us often repeat this admirable canticle, which so fully describes what the soldiers of Christ should be and feel in this season of the great spiritual warfare.

But the Church is not satisfied with thus animating us to the contest with our enemies: she would also have our minds engrossed with thoughts of deepest import; and for this end she puts before us three great subjects, which she will gradually enfold to us between this and the great Easter solemnity. Let us be all attention to these soul-stirring and instructive lessons.

And firstly, there is the conspiracy of the Jews against our Redeemer. It will be brought before us in its whole history, from its first formation to its final consummation on the great Friday, when we shall behold the Son of God hanging on the wood of the cross. The infamous workings of the Synagogue will be brought before us so regularly, that we shall be able to follow the plot in all its details. We shall be inflamed with love for the august Victim, whose meekness, wisdom, and dignity bespeak a God. The divine drama, which began in the cave of Bethlehem, is to close on Calvary, we may assist at it, by meditating on the passages of the Gospel read to us by the Church during these days of Lent.

The second of the subjects offered to us, for our instruction, requires that we should remember how the feast of Easter is to be the day of new birth for our catechumens, and how, in the early ages of the Church, Lent was the immediate and solemn preparation given to the candidates for Baptism. The holy liturgy of the present season retains much of the instruction she used to give to the catechumens; and as we listen to her magnificent lessons from both the old and the new Testament, whereby she completed their "initiation", we ought to think with gratitude of how we were not required to wait years before being made children of God, but were mercifully admitted to Baptism even in our infancy. We shall be led to pray for those new catechumens, who this very year, in far distant countries, are receiving instructions from their zealous missioners, and are looking forward, as did the postulants of the primitive Church, to that grand feast of our Saviour's victory over death, when they are to be cleansed in the waters of Baptism and receive from the contact a new being-regeneration.

Thirdly, we must remember how, formerly, the public penitents, who had been separated on Ash Wednesday from the assembly of the faithful, were the object of the Church's maternal solicitude during the whole forty days of Lent, and were to be admitted to reconciliation on Maundy Thursday, if their repentance were such as to merit this public forgiveness. We shall have the admirable course of instructions, which were originally designed for these penitents, and which the liturgy, faithful as it ever is to such traditions, still retains for our sake. As we read these sublime passages of the Scripture, we shall naturally think upon our own sins, and on what easy terms they were pardoned us; whereas, had we lived in other times, we should have probably been put through the ordeal of a public and severe penance. This will excite us to fervour, for we shall remember that, whatever changes the indulgence of the Church may lead her to make in her discipline, the justice of our God is ever the same. We shall find in all this an additional motive for offering to His divine Majesty the sacrifice of a contrite heart and we shall go through our penances with that cheerful eagerness, which the conviction of our deserving much severer ones always brings with it.

In order to keep up the character of mournfulness and austerity which is so well suited to Lent, the Church, for many centuries, admitted very few feasts into this portion of her year, inasmuch as there is always joy where there is even a spiritual feast. In the fourth century, we have the Council of Laodicea forbidding, in its fifty-first canon, the keeping of a feast or commemoration of any saint during Lent, excepting on the Saturdays or Sundays. The Greek Church rigidly maintained this point of lenten discipline; nor was it till many centuries after the Council of Laodicea that she made an exception for March 25, on which day she now keeps the feast of our Lady's Annunciation.

The Church of Rome maintained this same discipline, at least in principle; but she admitted the feast of the Annunciation at a very early period, and somewhat later, the feast of the apostle St. Mathias, on February 24. During the last few centuries, she has admitted several other feasts into that portion of her general calendar which coincides with Lent; still, she observes a certain restriction, out of respect for the ancient practice.

The reason why the Church of Rome is less severe on this point of excluding the saints' feasts during Lent, is that the Christians of the west have never looked upon the celebration of a feast as incompatible with fasting; the Greeks, on the contrary, believe that the two are irreconcilable, and as a consequence of this principle, never observe Saturday as a fasting-day, because they always keep it as a solemnity, though they make Holy Saturday an exception, and fast upon it. For the same reason, they do not fast upon the Annunciation.

This strange idea gave rise, in or about the seventh century, to a custom which is peculiar to the Greek Church. It is called the "Mass of the Presanctified", that is to say, consecrated in a previous Sacrifice. On each Sunday of Lent, the priest consecrates six Hosts, one of which he receives in that Mass; but the remaining five are reserved for a simple Communion, which is made on each of the five following days, without the holy Sacrifice being offered. The Latin Church practices this rite only once in the year, that is, on Good Friday, and this in commemoration of a sublime mystery, which we will explain in its proper place.

This custom of the Greek Church was evidently suggested by the forty-ninth canon of the Council of Laodicea, which forbids the offering of bread for the Sacrifice during Lent, excepting on the Saturdays and Sundays. The Greeks, some centuries later on, concluded from this canon that the celebration of the holy Sacrifice was incompatible with fasting; and we learn from the controversy they had, in the ninth century, with the legate Humbert, that the "Mass of the Presanctified" (which has no other authority to rest on save a canon of the famous Council in "Trullo", held in 692) was justified by the Greeks on this absurd plea, that the Communion of the Body and Blood of our Lord broke the lenten fast.

The Greeks celebrate this rite in the evening, after Vespers, and the priest alone communicates, as is done now in the Roman liturgy on Good Friday. But for many centuries they have made an exception for the Annunciation; they interrupt the lenten fast on this feast, they celebrate Mass, and the faithful are allowed to receive holy Communion.

The canon of the Council of Laodicea was probably never received in the western Church. If the suspension of the holy Sacrifice during Lent was ever practiced in Rome, it was only on the Thursdays; and even that custom was abandoned in the eighth century, as we learn from Anastasius the Librarian, who tells us that Pope St. Gregory II., desiring to complete the Roman sacramentary, added Masses for the Thursdays of the first five weeks of Lent. It is difficult to assign the reason of this interruption of the Mass on Thursdays in the Roman Church, or of the like custom observed by the Church of Milan on the Fridays of Lent. The explanations we have found in different authors are not satisfactory. As far as Milan is concerned, we are inclined to think that, not satisfied with the mere adoption of the Roman usage of not celebrating Mass on Good Friday, the Ambrosian Church extended the rite to all the Fridays of Lent.

After thus briefly alluding to these details, we must close our present chapter by a few words on the holy rites which are now observed, during Lent, in our western Churches. We have explained several of these in our 'Septuagesima.' The suspension of the "Alleluia"; the purple vestments; the laying aside of the deacon's dalmatic, and the subdeacon's tunic; the omission of the two joyful canticles "Gloria in excelsis" and "Te Deum"; the substitution of the mournful "Tract" for the Alleluia-verse in the Mass; the "Benedicamus Domino" instead of the "Ite Missa est"; the additional prayer said over the people after the Postcommunions on ferial days; the celebration of the Vesper Office before midday, excepting on the Sundays: all these are familiar to our readers. We have now only to mention, in addition, the genuflections prescribed for the conclusion of all the Hours of the Divine Office on ferias, and the rubric which bids the choir to kneel, on those same days, during the Canon of the Mass.

There were other ceremonies peculiar to the season of Lent, which were observed in the Churches of the west, but which have now, for many centuries, fallen into general disuse; we say general, because they are still partially kept up in some places. Of these rites, the most imposing was that of putting up a large veil between the choir and the altar, so that neither clergy nor people could look upon the holy mysteries celebrated within the sanctuary. This veil-which was called "the Curtain", and, generally speaking, was of a purple colour-was a symbol of the penance to which the sinner ought to subject himself, in order to merit the sight of that divine Majesty, before whose face he had committed so many outrages. It signified, moreover, the humiliations endured by our Redeemer, who was a stumbling-block to the proud Synagogue. But as a veil that is suddenly drawn aside, these humiliations were to give way, and be changed into the glories of the Resurrection. Among other places where this rite is still observed, we may mention the metropolitan church of Paris, "Notre Dame."

It was the custom also, in many churches, to veil the crucifix and the statues of the saints as soon as Lent began; in order to excite the faithful to a livelier sense of penance, they were deprived of the consolation which the sight of these holy images always brings to the soul. But this custom, which is still retained in some places, was less general than the more expressive one used in the Roman Church, which we will explain in our next volume-the veiling of the crucifix and statues only in Passiontide.

We learn from the ceremonials of the middle ages that, during Lent, and particularly on the Wednesdays and Fridays, processions used frequently to be made from one church to another. In monasteries, these processions were made in the cloister, and barefooted. This custom was suggested by the practice of Rome, where there is a "Station" for every day of Lent which, for many centuries, began by a procession to the stational church.

Lastly, the Church has always been in the habit of adding to her prayers during the season of Lent. Her discipline was, until recently, that, on ferias, in cathedral and collegiate churches which were not exempted by a custom to the contrary, the following additions were made to the canonical Hours: on Monday, the Office of the Dead; on Wednesday, the Gradual Psalms; and on Friday, the Penitential Psalms. In some churches, during the middle ages, the whole Psalter was added each week of Lent to the usual Office.


By Fr. Lawrence S. Brey


O Lord Jesus, my Divine Redeemer, Who didst fast forty days and forty nights in the desert for my sake and the glory of Thy Eternal Father, help me observe this Lent more perfectly than ever in the past!  Following Thy example, and with Thy assistance, may I persevere in penance, fastings, prayers and good works as befits my state of life and abilities.  Help me thereby atone for my past sins, gain merit and future glory, and make reparation for the sins and outrages and apostasy of our times.  May this Lent be for me an occasion of greater purification, the rooting out of my faults, and my more perfect formation into Thy image.  Allow me not to yield to modern abandonment of traditional penances, but rather adhere to them with greater vigor, humility, and purity of purpose.  In this Lent may I redouble my prayers and efforts for my own personal sanctification and the triumph of Thy Kingdom over the rising forces of evil and world disorder: and so to prepare myself not only for the holy days of Easter, but the ultimate triumph of Thy Sacred Heart and our Immaculate Queen over the Kingdom of Satan and Anti-christ. Amen.



My crucified Jesus, my God and Savior, help me make a good Lent, root out my sins, and live in union with Thee.  With Thy help, I pledge and resolve the following Lenten efforts:


1.  I will do penance for my sins, and make special sacrifices for Thee.


2.  I will pray more often, more attentively, more humbly.


3.  I will bend my will to Thine, by obeying Thy commandments and my superiors.


4.  I will give up certain things I like, to better strengthen my will against evil allurements.


5.  I will more strictly avoid occasions of sin.


6.  I will control and discipline my eyes, my imagination, and my curiosity.


7.  I will regard Lent as a time of war against my sins and weaknesses; a time to root out bad habits and self-love.


8.  I will also use Lent as a time to grow in virtue, in Thy Love, in peace.


9.  I will often think of Thee crucified for my sins, and try to have true contrition and purpose of amendment.


10.  I will be cheerful amidst my penances and efforts, without becoming a cross or burden to others.


By Fr. Lawrence S. Brey

Types of Christ in the Old Testament


Adam is the father of all men according to the flesh; Jesus Christ is the spiritual Father of the faithful, for through Him alone do they receive life. Through Adam, sin and death came to all men; through Jesus Christ, we have received grace and eternal life. Sin and misery came into the world by Adam’s disobedience; but our redemption has been wrought by Jesus Christ, who became obedient even unto the death of the Cross.


Job, suffering the most profound grief of soul, seeing nothing but a miserable death before him and robbed of all human consolation, fell down on the ground, praying and humbly resigning himself to God’s will.  In this he is a type of our Lord in the Garden of Gethsemane


Noah was the only just man in a sinful world; Jesus Christ is alone, and of and by Himself, most just, most holy. Noah built the ark for the saving of the human race; Jesus Christ founded the Church in order that in her men might find salvation. Noah preached penance and foretold the Deluge; our Lord preached penance and foretold the Last Judgment.

The Paschal Lamb, a Type of Jesus Christ:

The paschal lamb was a sacrifice, for it is expressly said (Ex. 12,27) that it was “the victim of the passage of the Lord.”  The paschal lamb was to be without blemish: Jesus Christ is the Most Pure, the Most Holy, “a lamb unspotted and undefiled” (1 Petr. 1,19).  The paschal lamb was killed, and its blood spilt; Jesus Christ was slain for us on the altar of the Cross, and shed all His Blood for us.  Of the paschal lamb “no bone was to be broken”; contrary to the usual custom with those crucified, not one of our Lord’s bones was broken. 


Melchisedech’s name signifies the king of justice, and he was king of Salem, which name means peace:  Jesus Christ is in a far higher sense King of justice, and the Prince of peace who bought for us everlasting peace.  Melchisedech was not only a king, but also a priest; Jesus Christ is our sovereign king and priest.  Melchisedech offered bread and wine to God as an unbloody sacrifice; Jesus  Christ offered Himself to His Eternal Father at the Last Supper, under the form of bread and wine, and continues to do so in the Holy Mass.


He was this, in as much as he led the Israelites into the Land of Promise, and triumphantly conquered it.  Jesus Christ, by His Death and Resurrection, has overcome sin, Satan and death, and has opened to us the kingdom of heaven.  He leads us there by His doctrine, His example and His grace, and especially by holy Baptism. 


The birth of Isaac was promised repeatedly; so was the coming of Jesus Christ.  Isaac was the only and dearly beloved son of his father; Jesus Christ is the only-begotten and beloved Son of God, in whom His Father is well pleased.  Isaac was obedient to his father, and was willing, out of obedience, to give up his life, letting himself be bound, and waiting patiently for his death-stroke; Jesus Christ was obedient to His Heavenly Father, unto death, even unto the death of the Cross.  “As a sheep He was led to the slaughter, and like a lamb without a voice before his shearer, so opened He not His mouth.”  Isaac himself carried up the mountain the wood on which he was to be slaughtered; Jesus Christ carried up to Calvary the Cross on which He was to die.


Gedeon, as savior of his people, is a type of Jesus Christ, the Savior of the whole world.  Like Gedeon, our Lord during His early years led a humble, hidden life.  As Gedeon overcame his numerous enemies with a few soldiers, so did our Lord overcome the pagan world by His few apostles and disciples, whose only weapons were the trumpet (preaching) of the Gospel and the torches (the light) of good works. 


Joseph, the beloved, obedient, and innocent son of his father, was envied by his brethren, ill-treated by them, sold, and given over to the Gentiles; so also Jesus.  Joseph was falsely accused and unjustly condemned; Jesus suffered patiently and resignedly between two malefactors.  Joseph was set free from prison, and made ruler over the whole land; Jesus was raised from the prison of the tomb, and sitteth at the right hand of His Father.  Joseph was called the savior of the world, because he saved the Egyptians from famine; Jesus is indeed the Savior of the world, because He has redeemed the whole world from sin and hell.  As Joseph forgave and excused his brethren, so did our Lord, hanging on the Cross, forgive His enemies, and pray for them: “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do!” 


David not only foretold the sufferings and glory of the Redeemer, but was himself a type of Him.  He was born at Bethlehem; he led a hidden life during his youth, and conquered Goliath with a contemptible weapon (Jesus overcame Satan by means of the despised Cross).  He was persecuted by Saul, to whom he had done nothing but good; he was patient and full of love towards his enemies.  He was both prophet and king; he ascended the Mount of Olives, crossing the brook Cedron, bowed down with grief; and returned triumphantly to Jerusalem (the type of the Ascension), having gained the victory over his enemies (“sitteth at the right hand of God”).

The Twelve Sons of Jacob, a Type of the Twelve Apostles:

As from Jacob’s twelve sons sprang the whole chosen people of the Old Testament, even so, in a spiritual way, have the chosen people of the New Testament, the faithful, sprung from the twelve Apostles, who converted both Jews and Gentiles, receiving them into the Church of Christ. 


As Jonas was in the belly of the whale for three days and three nights, so was the Son of God in the tomb before His glorious Resurrection.